REPORT OF THE ASIA-PACIFIC EXPERT GROUP MEETING ON TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGIES AMONG SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES APCTT, New Delhi, India 22-24 January 1996 Overview 1. Substantial evidence has emerged in recent years of the benefits of the use of ESTs in production processes. These benefits are, for example, reduced cost of raw materials and resources as well as waste disposal, less wastage, reduced risk and future liabilities, improved working conditions, product quality improvement and securing of present markets and opening up of new increasingly environment concerned and globalized ones. 2. There are many barriers, however, hindering the transfer of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs) to small and medium enterprises (SMEs). A major barrier to SME technology transfer is the lack of appropriate resources to obtain information and to explore the opportunities for technology cooperation. Not many SMEs employ highly qualified scientists, engineers and professionals to address the complex issues involved. In addition, SMEs rarely have highly developed management structures and support mechanisms. Other barriers for SME technology transfer include the short term focus on production, restricted cash flow, relative immaturity and high birth and death rates. In addition, SMEs are not always fully aware of the value of technology transfer as a strategic business tool. 3. The Expert Group Meeting (EGM) on Transfer of ESTs Among SMEs was organized in New Delhi, India, from 22-24 January 1996, by the Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology (APCTT) in order to study the mechanisms for ESTs transfer among SMEs in Asia and the Pacific and the barriers hindering transfer, to analyze the role of different organizations in this process, and to prepare recommendations for improvement of the environment for commercial EST transfer in developing countries. The meeting, it was planned, would contribute inputs to the fourth session of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) concerning Chapter 34 on "Environmentally Sound Technology Transfer, Cooperation and Capacity- Building". The meeting was attended by 37 participants representing 16 countries and 9 international organizations. 4. The EGM was held to coincide with En-Techmart '96 where about 500 business meetings were pre-arranged between technology sellers and potential buyers from around 20 countries. The lists of sponsors and participants as well as the agenda of the meeting, are attached as annexes to this report. 5. At the global level, only around 15% of environmental technology sales occur in developing countries. Typical SMEs do not have the capital to invest in expensive pollution control equipment or clean production technologies. The environmental authorities in developing countries face a serious dilemma because, while SMEs contribute to a disproportionate amount of pollution, they provide large scale employment opportunities and are a good source for foreign exchange earnings, and consequently, too important to be overlooked or closed down. 6. The most important impediments inhibiting the application of ESTs in the developing world would include: - weak or distorted demand for EST due to lack of awareness on the part of SMEs and little or no environmental regulation enforcement capability; - low technical capability - lack of knowledge, resources and linkages - to access ESTs; - very little accessible information about technological alternatives; - misallocation of financial resources in favor of larger projects or end-of-pipe solutions; - end-of-pipe approaches; - missing connections between potential partners; - technology transfer mindset that technology is equated with hardware, seen as a single, point-in-time transaction. 7. From the other side, EST suppliers face several obstacles and usually lack both the resources and expertise to surmount them. The first set of obstacles include the lack of financial resources and know-how to find and evaluate prospective business collaborations and opportunities and to navigate through both local and foreign technical, legal and financial requirements necessary to develop the transaction or linkage. 8. The second set of obstacles revolve around the difficulty in securing funds, authorizations and commitments to adequately demonstrate how and whether given ESTs function under various operating conditions in foreign countries. 9. The EGM discussed innovative schemes of EST transfer developed by various organizations and explored the opportunities for establishing mutually beneficial partnerships among them to improve the environment for EST transfer among SMEs in the region. The EST transfer process was studied, taking into consideration its complexity and the necessity for cooperation between various institutions that are active in different parts of the process. The topics discussed by the experts included: - Policy development and awareness creation with regard to ESTs transfer among SMEs; - EST Information systems and networks; - Matching of prospective EST transfer partners: role of technology transfer intermediaries and networks; - Financing of EST transfer; - Support services to SMEs; - EST Transfer promotion activities of bilateral and international development organizations; - Practical experience in transfer of selected ESTs; - Development of an integrated EST transfer service portfolio for industries by intermediaries; - Innovative mechanisms and partnerships in promotion of EST transfer among SMEs. Conclusions and Recommendations The Expert Group Meeting adopted the following recommendations in relation to the perceived need for action. 1) Clarifying the concept and approach to ESTs: The life cycle approach should be promoted instead of pollution control or prevention alone. ESTs should be demonstrated to show that they are more than mere physical facilities or technologies, but that they involve human capabilities, know-hows, documented facts and organizational frameworks. Through information and demonstration, enhance the understanding of ESTs' economic viability. 2) Creation of awareness by SMEs as well as by governments for the value of ESTs, potential threats and opportunities created by them, and options available: Awareness promotion workshops should be held and demonstration projects on ESTs should be set up both for SMEs, for policy makers and for multiplier agencies including consultants. Demonstration/model projects should be developed and promoted, particularly for identified marketable and affordable ESTs. Involve media and advertising industry in awareness creation campaign. 3) Development of enabling policy framework for encouraging the use of ESTs by SMEs; Promotion of market-based instruments (MBIs) based on the balanced application of command & control regulations, as well as incentives: Policies should be formulated on the consultative basis among stakeholders including industries, technology transfer intermediaries and NGOs. Enforcement and adjustments of regulations are necessary through monitoring and assessment of the impacts of policies. Case studies and policy research studies should be conducted on stimulating policy mechanisms that have been implemented in different countries. 4) Technical and managerial capacity-building in SMEs, and among technology transfer intermediaries. Consideration should be given to gaps in needs and capabilities between small enterprises and medium enterprises: Training of trainers should be provided as well as back-up expert support in technical and managerial capacity-building, such as on technology assessment or risk assessment. Institution-building might be the focus in some cases. Exchange of visits and study tours should be organized. For intermediaries, sharing of experiences and pooling or exchanging expertise would be useful. Large firms could assist SMEs in capacity-building efforts. Case studies on different experiences should be conducted. 5) Information on ESTs and on their sources that is digestible by SMEs, by policy makers and by intermediaries: Strengthen the role of EST centres with regard to SMEs as information broker among other functions. Identify and strengthen information brokers at the national level who have access to regional and international information network systems. Survey should be conducted of ESTs and their application in the region. Technology evaluation should be made part of information to be made available on ESTs. Strengthen mechanism for exchange of technology information (METI) and international network for transfer of environmentally sound technologies (INTET). Information market/meeting should be organized by APCTT on a regular basis. Common format for information on ESTs should be developed to facilitate information exchange and analysis. Database should be developed on waste management and minimization. 6) Access to financing and other resources: Tap big companies to assist as mentors to SMEs. Finance syndication for EST transfer to SMEs should be provided by appropriate financial institutions or through investment promotion. Special financial window and mechanism need to be developed for SMEs, including the provision of soft loan. Financial support is also needed for strengthening and conducting activities of intermediaries. 7) Support structures and the role of intermediaries need to be strengthened, as well as linkages between them and SMEs: Promote innovative partnerships among technology transfer facilitators so that they would be complementary. Partnership between SMEs and intermediaries should be strengthened. More assistance should be given to establish or strengthen EST support structures which include technical advisory consultancy services, marketing support, legal advice, R&D and laboratory facilities and services, assistance in project formulation, negotiation, technology sourcing and matchmaking, etc. These services need to be provided in an integrated manner. A national institution should be identified and strengthened with the function to coordinate and integrate various support services provided by different intermediaries. Technical consultancy development promotion assistance programme (TCDPAP) should be developed and promoted. 8) Enhance cooperation and networking among SMEs on issues related to ESTs: Formulation of consortium and networks among SMEs on a sectoral or issue basis to promote communication and cooperation, as well as to facilitate receiving funding and support services. 9) Meeting international standards and requirements in order for SMEs to gain international competitiveness (e.g. ISO 9000 and ISO 14000): A series of education and re-education activities to change the mindset of SME managers and policy makers needed. A transitional period is necessary for SMEs to gradually change their production processes. Environmental management infrastructure needs to be strengthened to support SME efforts. 10) Cooperation among national and development assistance institutions needs to be enhanced in order to avoid overlapping and to optimize resources: More focused, goal-oriented and prioritized approaches should be taken in investment of resources, in selection of technologies and in pursuing project ideas. Priorities are to be decided among stakeholders. Monitoring should be conducted on a regular basis. Policy Development and Awareness Creation 10. A key issue and challenge for small and medium scale enterprises in developing countries is whether they can adopt the more sophisticated level of environmental management without going through the end-of-pipe phase of mere compliance to environmental regulations. It was stressed that both regulatory mechanisms and incentives are equally important to get SMEs to adopt ESTs on a wider scale. Policy analysis focused on fiscal incentives and environmental regulations need to be undertaken with an objective to accelerate the use of appropriate cutting edge technology for environmental protection. 11. Developing or disseminating technology alone is not the answer. SMEs often do not know what kinds of technologies they need. There is a need for awareness creation to change the way of thinking towards environmentally sound approaches and thus create a market for ESTs. The awareness campaigns on advantages of ESTs should be designed, keeping in view the basic needs for SMEs such as cost reduction, export promotion, and access to financing. Public agencies, NGOs, consultants, EST transfer intermediaries and media should paly an important role in this area. 12. It was agreed that illustrators on success stories of SMEs adopting ESTs and failures of polluters should be developed and widely disseminated among industries. The experts also stressed that many more demonstration projects including changes in the industrial process to induce resource efficiency improvement and development of commercially viable prototypes are required in the region so that entrepreneurs could see the advantages of cleaner production in reality. EST Information Systems and Networks 13. The main functions of information systems and networks on ESTs include: identification and sourcing of technologies; information on how to develop technology as well as on technology assessment; provision of bargaining tips; and sometimes assistance in problem-solving. The benefits of networking consists of creating closer interactions between different members of a network for exchange of information, and providing easier access to territories served by other network members. 14. There are different types of EST information: new processes, statistics, regulations, and technology/business opportunities. Similarly, there are different types of users of EST information: government, R&D sector, NGOs, consultants and entrepreneurs. 15. The experts agreed that information sources targeting SMEs should contain digestible, reliable and business oriented information tailored to the needs of individual SMEs. Specialist intermediaries and consultants, with technology transfer being their daily business, can usually process and package more sophisticated information for their SME clientele. 16. Stronger links should be established between EST information centres and SMEs through technology transfer intermediaries and business consultants who could provide a multiplier effect to these information services. At the same time, as these intermediaries are mostly private and profit oriented ones, they would be interested in reliable updated information which could give them business, directly or indirectly. Matching of Prospective Technology Partners: Role of Intermediaries and Technology Transfer Networks 17. For SMEs, the intermediaries play an important role in providing support services to facilitate technology accession, transfer and adoption. Unlike large corporations, SMEs often lack in-house capacity for research, information collection and analysis, technical and managerial know-how, financing and marketing. 18. The need for EST intermediaries is justified by the following reasons: - lack of transparency in the technology transfer market: potential suppliers are not readily identifiable because they are not active sellers; - national differences in language, business culture and legal provisions; - negotiating and drafting sound agreements, pricing and evaluating technologies is difficult for SMEs. 19. Intermediaries can provide solutions to the above problems as they are skilled in identifying potential partners, whether technology buyers or sellers, and negotiating with them on behalf of their clients. An important part of their stock-in-trade is wide-ranging contact in research and industry, generally accumulated over many years of professional experience. This allows them to search out potential partners quickly and efficiently. Intermediaries can also facilitate negotiations and provide necessary support services to their clients. 20. Two main types of technology transfer intermediaries are commercial technology brokers and development organizations with different competence, skill and motivation. Commercial technology brokers are particularly equipped to help firms in the crucial stages of partner identification/evaluation and in negotiating the cooperation deal. Development organizations, for their part, can play a distinct role in mobilizing and sensitizing SMEs to the advantages of EST transfer. This is something that only publicly funded players can do in a systematic way because of the high and generally irrecoverable cost involved. 21. Fees for the services paid by SMEs to intermediaries reflect demand for and value of such services. Both upfront and success fees may be charged at different stages of technology transfer (preparation of a feasibility/market study, introduction of potential partners, signing a contract, commissioning and royalties). Intermediaries often form partnerships to access new territories. In this case, they usually cooperate on a success fee sharing basis. 22. Capacities and range of services that can be provided by intermediaries vary. Some are specifically targeted to SMEs while others have a broader clientele. Some provide a comprehensive package of services but the services of others may be focused to selective kinds. In case of the latter, the horizontal networking among different intermediaries becomes important in developing innovative partnerships to complement the services that are provided to SMEs, to launch joint ventures or to exchange information and experiences. 23. The number of EST transfer intermediaries that exist in the region is too small for the demand or the requirement for the kinds of services they can provide to SMEs. There is, thus, a need to identify additional institutions, particularly at the local and national levels, that could become intermediaries and develop necessary capacities. 24. As technology transfer is a very long and complicated process where partners should match by many parameters, technology transfer intermediation is a very risky business and requires high level of qualification of the intermediaries. Besides, as most intermediaries work on a success fee basis which is time consuming since the negotiation process often takes between 18 and 36 months, intermediaries require some startup funds to establish themselves on the market and continue their services to SMEs on a long term basis. Governments and development organizations should support such intermediaries by enhancing their professional skills and providing financial incentives to facilitate networking and partnerships among them. Financing of EST Transfer 25. Finance syndication for EST transfer for SMEs is quite a difficult task, especially in developing countries. Most SMEs have too small a profit margin to finance their own investment to any great extent. While many financial institutions provide some incentives for environmentally sound projects, SMEs are often not aware of them. Besides, SMEs usually cannot prepare a high quality investment proposal for investors by themselves, and are often reluctant to pay to professional consultants for this service. 26. Some SMEs may have funds available to invest in cleaner production techniques giving fast returns but they need to be convinced of the value of ESTs and to be encouraged to do so. SMEs especially those in least developing countries are often reluctant to take the risk of investing in unproven technologies, without seeing the demonstrated benefits of ESTs, including economic viability. 27. While cleaner technologies usually provide economically attractive solutions, especially in the long run, SMEs often complain that the banks attach too much importance to guarantees instead of granting loans on the basis of business potential and profitability of the projects. Besides, banks in many countries do not offer SMEs long term financing on attractive terms. 28. Banks remain the preferred financial partners for SMEs. Many development/commercial banks and finance corporations have schemes for providing loans for environmentally sound projects to SMEs on preferential terms. Despite this, SMEs face several problems in their access to bank loans. Commercial banks usually prefer to finance large projects due to the high cost of funds transfer as well as lower risk of dealing with large enterprises and higher level of investment proposals prepared by them. From the banks' point of view, their relations with SMEs involve greater risk, their dossiers cost more to administer, and they have to make proper use of the savings their customers entrust to them. The banks claim that the macro-economic policies of governments and conditions on the financial market restrict what they can do for SMEs, particularly when it comes to long-term loans. There is a shortage of valid and transparent investment schemes for SMEs. 29. Many governments and development organizations offer financial incentives for EST transfer among SMEs. Syndication of such incentives from various sources for a project is often possible, but has to be done by specialist intermediaries due to the lack of transparency. These financial intermediaries on their part usually prefer to work for large projects, however, as they charge their fees as a percentage on the investment arranged as a compensation for their efforts and would also like to reduce risks. 30. Many positive changes were seen in EST transfer financing recently. Many governments and development banks have introduced new incentives for environmentally sound projects which could be considered by them. Venture capital, mutual funds and other financing schemes are playing increasingly an important role in the region. Innovative intermediaries specializing in finance syndication for environmentally sound and energy efficient projects in developing countries are being established. 31. The experts indicated that the quest for solutions to key problems which have been identified must involve all the players concerned. the main responsibility lies with financial institutions and the SMEs themselves, who have to strive for more efficient partnerships. National authorities and international organizations, and all those offering services to the business community, must also be involved in working towards this aim, so that they can help in mobilizing forces and complement the efforts made. 32. The communication between banks and SMEs should be improved. SMEs should undertake to ensure greater transparency to banks, both as regards trends in their financial situation and other areas such as company management, activities and business prospects. They must also be better informed about what the banks expect and offer. Training for businessmen in financial matters would improve their managerial skills. The banks could also offer training, combined with information on banking products for their SME clients. 33. Training of the banking staff would also improve communication between SMEs and the banks. Managerial staff is often inadequately informed about the realities of SMEs and it would clearly be useful to conduct practical courses in the firms for young managerial and professional staff from the banking sector. Better understanding of the realities of SMEs should also enable the banks to adapt their financial products (factoring, credit insurance, leasing, mutual guarantees, etc.) to the practical needs of the firms and offer them better advice. In particular, SMEs have to be encouraged to concentrate on long-term investment financing which is required for EST transfer. It is also in the banks' interest to offer tailor-made financial products, since it can help reduce both their costs and risks. 34. As SMEs and banks often "speak in different languages", financial intermediaries play an important role in facilitating communication between them as well as in finance syndication for SMEs from different sources. Taking into consideration the importance of such intermediaries, countries could also promote financial instruments such as factoring and credit insurance by, for example, making soft loans to financial intermediaries and setting up a guarantee fund to bring down the cost and risk of such services to SMEs. Support Services to SMEs 35. The experts stressed that technology transfer is a complex process where SMEs require various support services which could be provided by both private consultants and public business development organizations. Support services required by SMEs in EST transfer include identification of technological needs of SMEs, identification of a suitable technology and technology supplier, evaluation of the technology, adaptation of a technology which would cover social, political, economic and cultural needs, preparation of a market study, business plan, feasibility study, environmental impact assessment and impact management plan formulation. 36. Further, setting up a project based on an imported technology is not a complete job by itself. It requires continuous upgrading, modification or augmentation. These functions can be implemented most effectively by a support service organization which takes into consideration various socio-economic, political and technological factors. 37. At the same time, experts noted that some support services, such as environmental impact assessment, are often too expensive to be done for an SME. In this regard, such studies could be done for clusters of industries operating in the same region or industrial sector. Preparation and implementation of such large scale studies benefitting hundreds of SMEs would require coordination of activities of various government, financial, industrial and business organizations. Examples of such studies should be promoted in the region to introduce this innovative approach in new areas. 38. Innovative mechanisms should also be developed for provision of some support services such as preparation of business plans, market studies and feasibility studies at a lesser cost to SMEs. While public business development organizations could subsidize some part of the cost of such studies, computer aided methods of their preparation should be widely promoted to reduce the cost of this work. EST Transfer Promotion Activities of Bilateral and International Development Organizations 39. The experts stressed that bilateral and international development organizations keep playing an important role in promoting EST transfer in developing countries by introducing innovative mechanisms in this area. Examples of such activities implemented by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the UN/ESCAP Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology (APCTT) are listed below: USAID Trade in Environmental Services and Technologies (TEST) Programme 40. The objectives of the TEST programme are to improve environmental protection and productivity of the Indian industry on a sustainable basis, through linkages between Indian and US firms in selected priority areas. The TEST programme supports projects involving concept evaluation, pre-offer feasibility studies and specifically, commercialization. The TEST programme provides concessional finance in the form of loans, conditional grants and technical assistance. The programme encourages joint ventures between Indian and US firms in the manufacturing and service sectors and is also open for joint financing with other institutions/banks. 41. The TEST programme was launched by USAID in cooperation with the Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India Limited (ICICI) in 1994. ICICI is the coordinating agency for implementation of the programme in India. USAID has provided a grant of US$25 million to the Government of India to finance the activities under the TEST programme. 42. In the past 18 months, the project has directly contributed to the successful conclusion of more than a dozen environmental business deals between the U.S. and Indian firms, including joint ventures for industrial air filter and air pollution control equipment manufacturing, technical licensing agreements for fluidized bed boilers and vapor recovery technology, and distribution agreements for biological treatment products and wastewater treatment equipment. TEST is currently working on an active pipeline of about 20 other potential deals. Services and Networks by APCTT: International Network for Transfer of ESTs (INTET) and the Asia-Pacific Mechanism for Exchange of Technology Information 43. One of the objectives of APCTT is to promote transfer of ESTs among SMEs in Asia and the Pacific. To achieve this objective, APCTT develops and tests self-sustainable models and service portfolio and promotes these models in other countries in the region through strengthening national capabilities and integrating them into the regional network. 44. At present, APCTT facilitates more than 250 EST transfer negotiations among SMEs every month, making it one of the most active international agencies operating in this field internationally. These services by APCTT are financed by SMEs themselves. At the same time, taking into consideration the large number of SMEs in the region, APCTT is implementing various projects aimed at strengthening EST transfer intermediaries in the region to achieve a multiplier effect in getting a large number of SMEs to adopt ESTs. 45. In 1994, APCTT established a self-sustainable International Network for Transfer of ESTs (INTET) among SMEs. Members of INTET are innovative SMEs and EST transfer intermediaries, both public and private. The targeted number of INTET members is currently 100 which will be gradually expanded to 300 within the next two years. INTET is a prime mechanism of APCTT for EST transfer among SMEs. A number of transactions have already been successfully concluded through INTET, while many others are in the pipeline. 46. International practice shows that smaller technology transfer networks are more efficient than larger ones. The reason being is that technology transfer is a very complex and long process. In this regard, good personal communication among network members is critical for effectiveness. In this regard, APCTT does not plan to expand INTET to reach all technology-based SMEs in the region. Instead, the Centre is assisting its member countries in Asia and the Pacific in establishing similar self-sustainable networks and to interlink them under the project entitled Mechanism for Exchange of Technology Information (METI) which is funded by UNDP and implemented by APCTT. The countries participating in the METI project include Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Kazakstan, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam. 47. Many other bilateral and international development organizations carry out specific activities to facilitate EST transfer among SMEs in the region. Coordination of activities between these projects is often possible though quite difficult due to various considerations. Selection of partners and working out of cooperation principles and mechanisms in this area should be done very carefully, always taking into consideration objectives and limitations of individual organizations. When such cooperation is established, it often allows to achieve a synergic effect for all partners and their target beneficiaries. Better transparency of EST transfer activities carried out by various development organizations as well as interest to cooperate with other organizations would facilitate such partnerships. Development of an Integrated EST Transfer Service Portfolio for Industries by Intermediaries 48. The experts stressed that as SMEs are managed in an entrepreneurial way and usually do not have developed support structures, they would prefer to receive an integrated EST transfer services from an intermediary which would include needs evaluation, search for technology partner, support services, finance syndication and marketing assistance. However, development of such a complete package is quite a difficult task, however, as it requires establishment of consortiums of intermediaries providing different types of services listed above and often located in different geographical areas. However, when such an integrated EST transfer service is offered to SMEs, they are ready to take up new ESTs offered by such consortiums and to pay to the intermediaries substantial amounts to make these services self-sustainable and even profitable. 49. The experts noted that though some examples of such consortiums exist in the region, e.g. services offered under the TEST programme and by APCTT described above, the demand for such services in the region far exceeds the offer. The experts emphasized that establishment of such self-sustainable EST transfer service centres and their networking would boost the adoption of ESTs by SMEs in the region. The low investment self-sustainable model developed by APCTT was proposed for further promotion in Asia and the Pacific beyond the boundaries of the current METI project. 50. The experts recommended that governments and development organizations should provide seed capital to assist establishment of such EST transfer one-stop-shops for SMEs. Partnerships between public and private agencies providing these services should be encouraged. Development of Innovative Partnerships for EST Transfer 51. The experts noted that various public and private agencies provide EST transfer related services to SMEs in Asia and the Pacific, which would include match-making, training, financing, export promotion, etc. At the same time, governments and development organizations provide various incentives for environmentally sound projects such as tax exemption, soft loans, grants, free or subsidized services. 52. There are also many examples of cooperation between various agencies offering the same type of services, i.e. among banks, information centres, and technology brokers. At the same type, cooperation between organizations offering complimentary services should be widely promoted. 53. The Technology Bureau for Small Enterprises (TBSE), a joint venture between the Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology (APCTT) and the Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) is an example of such an innovative partnership between an organization offering match-making and support services on the one side and a bank financing technology transfer projects on the other. TBSE promotes transborder technology cooperation of Indian small-scale industries. It is planned to promote this model to other countries in the region. 54. At the policy level, consultations between government, financial institutions and industrial associations in developing environmental law should be encouraged. Existing examples of such cooperation should be widely promoted in the region. 55. At the implementation level, innovative partnerships between development organizations, financial organizations, industrial associations and chambers of commerce, training institutions, public and private technology brokers and consultants and trade organizations should be encouraged to achieve the following objectives: - create better awareness among SMEs of the short-medium- and long- term economic advantages of ESTs, - to improve the quality, reduce the cost and speed up the technology partner matching process, - provide more cost-effective support services, - develop most cost effective solutions for SMEs in EST transfer by improving access to finance and syndication of financial incentives available from different sources. 56. Finally, it was recommended by the experts attending the EGM that the CSD should support efforts to promote more widely successful models existing in the region and encourage development of more advanced ones. This process should involve consultations with all the stakeholders concerned. Annex II ASIA-PACIFIC EXPERT GROUP MEETING ON TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGIES (ESTs) AMONG SMEs 22-24 January 1996, APCTT, New Delhi, India List of Participants Mr. S. P. Agarwal, Officer-on-Special Duty, Consultancy Development Centre, India Habitat Centre, Zone IV, East Court, 2nd Floor, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110 013, India (Tel: 91-11-4602602) Mr. Salahuddin Ahmad, Senior Program Manager, Technology and Business Information (TBI) of Bangladesh, Advisory Services Center, House 91, Road 12A Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1209, Bangladesh (Tel: 880-2-812467, 810693; Fax: 880-2-813305) Mr. Utpal Bajpai, Chief, Technology Bureau for Small Enterprises (TBSE), APCTT Building, Adj. Technology Bhavan, PO Box 4575, New Delhi 110 016, India (Tel: 91-11-6864501, 6856276; Fax: 91-11-6856274) Mr. Brendan Barrett, Programme Officer, United Nations Environment Programme/International Environmental Technology Centre, 1091 Oroshima-cho, Kusatsu City, Shiga Prefecture 525, Japan (Tel: 81-775-684585; Fax: 81-775-684587) Mr. Manab Chakraborty, Assistant Resident Representative (Energy and Environment) 55 Lodhi Estate, New Delhi 110 003, India (Tel: 91-11-4628877; Fax: 91-11-4627612) Mr. S. P. Chandak, Director, National Cleaner Production Centre, c/o National Productivity Council, 5-6 Institutional Area, Lodi Road, New Delhi 110 003, India (Tel: 91-11-4611243; Fax: 91-11-4615002) Mrs. Corazon PB. Claudio, President, Philippine Environmental Industry Association, Inc., No. 30 Macapuno Street, Valle Verde I, Pasig City, Philippines (Tel: 632-6713266, 6715846, 6713217, 6713189; Fax: 632-6717055) Mr. Adrian Court, Delphi International Ltd., 36 Great Queen Street, London WC2B 5AA, United Kingdom (Tel: 44-171-4042963; Fax: 44-171-4040326) Mrs. Rukasih Dardjat, Head, Technology Information Service Division, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), JI, Cisitu/Sangkuriang, Bandung 40135, Indonesia (Tel: 62-22-2502832, 2504265; Fax: 62-22-2504755) Dr. John F. Elliott, Director, Industry and Technology Division, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), No. 1, Rajadamnern Avenue, The UN Building, Bangkok 10200, Thailand (Tel: 662-2881234; Fax: 662-2800814) Mr. Ahmad Farobi, PT. Parama Aneka Cipta, Industrial Development Center (IDC), JI. Tubogus Ismail XII, No. 8, Bandung, Indonesia (Tel: 62-22-2502833; Fax: 62-22-2502833, 2501768) Mr. Gopal K. Handa, Industrial Specialist, Advisor Engineering, International Finance Corporation (IFC), No. 1 Panchsheel Marg, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110 021, India (Tel: 91-11-3011306; Fax: 91-11-3011281, 3011278) Mr. Peter Handke, EMF Feldstr 3, 31582 Nienburg/Weser, Germany (Tel: 49-5021-60280; Fax: 49-5021-16236) Mr. S. K. Husain, Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology, P.O. Box 4575, Adj. Technology Bhawan, Off. New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi, 110 067, India (Tel: 91-11-6856276; Fax: 91-11-6856274) Mr. Jorg Janischewski, Associate Expert, Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology, P.O. Box 4575, Adj. Technology Bhawan, Off. New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110 067, India (Tel: 91-11-6856276; Fax: 91-11-6856274) Mrs. Lu Jiahui, Secretary General, Technology Market Association of China, A-15, Fuxing Road, P.O. Box 199-9, Beijing, China (Tel: 86-10-8515015, 8575511; Fax: 86-10-8515015) Mr. Jae-Bok Kim, Director, Technology Transaction Information Center, Korea Institute of Industry and Technology Information, P.O. Box 205, Cheongryang, Seoul, Republic of Korea (Tel: 82-22-9626211/8; Fax: 82-22-9627198, 9624702) Dr. Vadim Y. Kotelnikov, Adviser, Technology Information, Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology, P.O. Box 4575, Adj. Technology Bhawan, Off. New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi 110 067, India (Tel: 91-11-6856276; Fax: 91-11-6856274) Mr. Arun Kumar, SPAO, HUDCO, Hudco Bhawan, India Habitat Centre, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110 003, India (Tel: 91-11-4617696, 4615343; Fax: 91-11-4620216) Dr. B. P. Lamba, Chanakya Consultants Ltd., D-10G, DDA Rockview Appts., Munirka, New Delhi 110 067, India (Tel: 91-11-6850412, 6866199; Fax: 91-11-6862358) Mr. Valentin Makarov, Centre for Entrepreneurship Development, Per. Antonenko, 6A, 190 003 St. Petersburg, Russia (Tel: 7-812-2722547, 3106485) Mr. L. A. Mandalia, Programme Specialist in Water Sciences, UNESCO, 8 Poorvi Marg, Vasant Vihar, New Delhi 110 067, India (Tel. 91-11-677310, 676308, 676285; Fax: 91-11-6873351) Mr. Felipe P. Manteiga, US Agency for International Development (USAID), B-28 Institutional Area, Qutab Hotel Road, New Delhi 110 016, India (Tel: 91-11-6865301; Fax: 91-11-6868594) Mr. Gilbert J. Marrou, Engineering Advisor, South Asia Regional Mission, International Finance Corporation, No. 1 Panchsheel Marg, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110 021, India (Tel: 91-11-3011306; Fax: 91-11-3011278, 3011281) Dr. N. B. Mazumdar, Deputy Chief (Waste Management), HUDCO, Hudco Bhawan, India Habitat Centre, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110 003, India (Tel: 91-11-4617696, 4615343; Fax: 91-11-4620216) Dr. Christoph Menke, Indo-German Industrial Energy Efficiency Improvement Project for Karnataka, Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI), Post Box 154, 50/7 Palace Road, Bangalore 560 052, India (Tel: 91-80-2268296; Fax: 91-80-2255760) Ms. Hiroko Morita-Lou, Sustainable Development Officer, United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development, Room DC2-2242, New York, NY 10017, USA (Tel: 1-212-9638792; Fax: 1-212-9631267) Mr. Wilfred S. Nanayakkara, Country Director, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, 55 Lodi Estate, Post Box No. 3059, New Delhi 110 003, India (Tel. 91-11-4628877; Fax: 91-11-4620913) Dr. Tatyana Pilat, President, EIKOS Company, 16 Vyborgskaya str., 125212 Moscow, Russia (Tel: 7-095-1509925; Fax: 7-095-1509705) Dr. David Owen, Senior Consultant, Delphi International, 36 Great Queen Street, London WC2B 5AA, United Kingdom (Tel: 44-171-4042963; Fax: 44-171-4040326) Dr. P. S. Rana, Executive Director, HUDCO, HUDCO Block, India Habitat Centre, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110 003, India (Tel: 91-11-4617696, 4615343; Fax: 91-11-4620216) Mr. Vijit Ratnarajah, ITMIN, Ceylinco House, Ground Floor, 69 Janadhipathi Mawatha, Colombo 1, Sri Lanka (Fax: 94-1-683945) Mr. Manoj K. Sharma, Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI), 10/10 Madan Mohan Malviya Marg, Lucknow 226 001, India (Tel: 91-522-274094, 274517-22; Fax: 91-522-274512-14) Mr. N. K. Sharma, Managing Director, National Research Development Corporation of India (NRDC), 20-22 Zamroodpur Community Centre, Kailash Colony Extension, New Delhi 110 048, India (Tel. 91-11-6419945, 6432121; Fax: 91-11-6460506, 6449401) Mr. Rajesh Kazi Shrestha, Hony. Secretary General, Nepal Chamber of Commerce (NCC), Chamber Bhawan, Kanti Path, P.O. Box 198, Kathmandu, Nepal (Tel: 911-1-222890, 229998; Fax: 977-1-229998) Mr. R. Srinivasan, Counsellor, Environment Management Division, Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), India Habitat Centre, 4th Floor, Zone IV, Lodi Road, New Delhi 110 003, India (Tel: 91-11-4691151, 4642388; Fax: 91-11-4602524, 4645223) Mr. N. Srinivasan, Editorial Assistant, Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology, P.O. Box 4575, Adj. Technology Bhawan, Off. New Merauli Road, New Delhi 110 067, India (Tel: 91-11-6856276; Fax: 91-11-6856274) Mr. P. R. Srivastava, Assistant Chief (Projects), UIFN, HUDCO Block, India Habitat Centre, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110 003, India (Tel: 91-11-4617696, 4615343; Fax: 91-11-4620216) Mr. Edward Someus, Director, Product Control Ltd., H-1046, Budapest, Mikszath 81, Hungary (Fax: 36-1-1691939) Mr. Kanit Tiravanit, Senior Scientist, Technology Transfer Centre, Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MOSTE), Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand (Tel: 622-2460064; Fax: 622-2468106) Mr. Jan Verboomen, B-3200 Aarschot, Belgium Mr. Abdulla Zawawi Ali, Head, Technology Transfer Division, Standards and Industrial Research, Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM), Persiaran Dato Mentari, Section 2, P.O. Box 7035, 40911 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia (Tel: 603-5592601/5591630; Fax: 603-5508095)
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Date last posted: 3 December 1999 10:27:35