United Nations
Commission on Sustainable Development

Background Paper


                    Institutional Arrangements to Follow Up the
                    United Nations Conference on Environment and
                                  Development


                              BACKGROUND PAPER # 1


                Prepared by the Division for Sustainable Development
                  for the Commission on Sustainable Development
                                 Fourth Session
                              18 April - 3 May 1996
                                   New York


I.    INTRODUCTION


1.       The Commission on Sustainable Development first considered Chapter
38 on International Institutional Arrangements at its second session in 1994. 
The review at the time consisted of sketching the general framework of the
post-UNCED structures, particularly at the United Nations, and at the inter-
agency and national levels.   The present document provides a factual
overview of progress made in the institutional arrangements since Rio  within
the UN system, by bilateral organizations, regional organizations and
financial institutions, and at the national level. In case of progress made at
the national level, the overview is limited to post-UNCED institutional,
structural arrangements.  The legal, policy, programme and other aspects
related to national Governments are covered by reports of the
Secretary-General and their addenda on Chapters 8 (E/CN.17/1996/11) and on
Chapter 40 (E/CN.17/1996/18),  and on National Reporting (E/CN.17/1996/19). 
Information regarding the non-governmental organizations is provided in the
report of the Secretary-General on Major Groups (E/CN.17/1996/12).  The
present report is largely descriptive in character, but it may provide the
factual basis for analytical assessment of post-UNCED institutional
arrangements for 1997 overall review.  The institutional entities presented in
the report follow the order in which they appear in Chapter 38.


II.     INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE


A)       General Assembly

2.       The General Assembly has reviewed policy recommendations
contained in the report of the Commission on Sustainable Development at
every session since 1993.  At its forty-ninth session, the General Assembly
called upon the Commission on Sustainable Development in accordance with
Chapter 38 of Agenda 21, to develop close and clear relationships with other
relevant international organizations and entities, such as the conferences of
parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the
Convention on Biological Diversity, and the United Nations Convention to
Combat Desertification and the Global Environment Facility, in order to
increase its effectiveness in monitoring the implementation of Agenda 21 and
other decisions of the United Nations Conference on Environment and
Development.  

3.       At its fiftieth session, the General Assembly adopted resolution
50/113  entitled "special session for the purpose of an overall review and
appraisal of the implementation of Agenda 21".  The Assembly plans to hold a
special session in June 1997 at the highest possible level.  In this regard,
it requested the Commission on Sustainable Development  and its Ad Hoc
Open-ended Inter-sessional Working Group to prepare for the session.  The
General Assembly also requested contribution to the special session from
Governments, the Governing Council of UNEP, relevant regional and
subregional organizations, all other relevant organizations and bodies of the
United Nations system, conferences of parties or other regulatory bodies of
the Rio conventions, and major groups.   Furthermore, the Assembly
requested an effective and coordinated system-wide response through the
Inter-Agency Committee on Sustainable Development to the preparation of
the special session.  

B)       Economic and Social Council

4.       The Economic and Social Council reviews reports of the Commission
on Sustainable Development, one of its functional commissions, and
endorses its recommendations as appropriate. 

5.       The Economic and Social Council, in its agreed conclusions adopted at
its substantive session in 1995 on "Coordinated follow-up by the United
Nations system and implementation of the results of the major international
conferences organized by the United Nations in the economic, social and
related fields", decided to promote a coordinated and integrated follow-up to
and implementation of major international conferences in the economic,
social and related fields.  In this regard, the Council decided to carry out a
review of cross-cutting themes common to major international conferences
and to contribute to an overall review of the implementation of the
programme of action of a United Nations conference.  In the follow-up to
United Nations conferences, the Economic and Social Council also decided to
ensure the harmonization and coordination of the agendas and work
programmes of the functional commissions by promoting a clearer division of
labour among them and providing clear policy guidance to them. 

6.       In the agreed conclusions on "Coordination of the policies and
activities of the specialized agencies and other bodies of the United Nations
system related to science and technology for development"adopted at its
substantive session in 1994, the Council stated that it should be
strengthened as a forum for coordination among all United Nations policy-
making bodies concerned with science and technology for development.  In
this regard, it was recommended to more systematically review and
compare, on a periodic basis, the policies adopted and actions advocated by
all relevant policy-making bodies of the United Nations organizations in the
field of science and technology, giving special attention to the Commission
on Science and Technology for Development and the Commission on
Sustainable Development and their interactions with the regional
commissions.

C)       Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)

7.       The Commission on Sustainable Development, established as a
functional commission of the Economic and Social Council, meets annually
for two to three weeks  and reports to the Council.  The Commission has
been reviewing the progress made in the implementation of Agenda 21,
following the multi-year thematic programme of work adopted at its first
session in 1993.   Each session has had a high-level segment attended by a
large number of ministers and high-level decision-makers from all over the
world, which is increasingly taking the form of dialogue on priority issues of
concern.  

8.       Commission activities are not limited to its annual sessions.  the
Commission provides a framework for a larger process of inter-sessional
meetings, the outcomes of which it subsequently reviews and analyses.  It
has also established two Ad hoc Open-ended Inter-Sessional Working Groups
that hold sessions prior to the meetings of the Commission in order to
prepare its discussions on specific agenda items.  Duration of those ad hoc
working group meetings, as well as subjects to be discussed, are determined
by the Commission at its consecutive sessions and remain flexible but
harmonized with its programme of work.  These year-round activities are
coordinated by the Bureau of the Commission, which meets regularly in order
to take the best advantage of the above-mentioned events while preparing
for the main session of the Commission.

9.       At the third session of the CSD, an open-ended ad hoc
Intergovernmental Panel on Forests was established, with the mandate to
pursue consensus and formulation of coordinated proposals for action aimed
at combatting deforestation and forest degradation and promoting
management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of
forests.  The Panel is to submit a progress report to the 1996 session of the
CSD and its final report to the 1997 session.  Secretariat support to this
Panel is being provided by a small team under the Department for Policy
Coordination and Sustainable Development.
  
10.      To be noted also is the active participation of major group
representatives in the deliberations of the Commission.  The major groups
not only interact directly and substantively with CSD delegates during the
sessions, but have also organized quite a few side events on particular
aspects of topics under consideration by CSD.

D)       Rio Conventions

11.      The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change entered
into force on 21 March 1994 and has received 142 ratifications.  The first
session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) decided to establish the
"Berlin Mandate Process" to strengthen the commitments of developed
countries and those with economies in transition for the period beyond 2000,
through the adoption of a protocol or another legal instrument.   This will
initially involve analysis and assessment, aimed at the negotiation of a
protocol or other legal instrument to be adopted at COP3 planned for 1997. 
The secretariat is due to move to Bonn by July/August 1996.

12.      The Convention on Biological Diversity entered into force on 29
December 1993 and has received 128 ratifications.  The first Executive
Secretary of the Convention took up his appointment on 1 September 1995. 
At the COP2 meeting held in Jakarta in November 1995, it was decided that
the Secretariat of the Convention will be established in Montreal.  According
to its programme of work, COP3 will consider its contribution to the special
session of GA in 1997.


13.      The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification was opened
for signature in Paris in October 1994.  It has been signed by 112 countries
and ratified by 8, and will enter into force 90 days after the 50th
ratification, probably in the course of 1996.  The Intergovernmental
Negotiating Committee is still meeting to prepare for the first COP
(tentatively planned for 1997) and to review the status of ratifications,
implementation of the resolution on Urgent Action for Africa, actions in other
regions, and other matters related to implementation.  The next session of the
INC is scheduled for February 1996 in Geneva.
         
14.      Pursuant to the mandate emanating from Agenda 21, UNEP has
convened three Meetings (March '94, May '95 and July '95) on Coordination
of Secretariats of Environmental Conventions in the interest of promoting the
coherent coordination of the functioning of environmental conventions,
including their secretariats, with a view to improving the effectiveness of
the implementation of the conventions.  The machinery and modalities which are
agreed upon at these meetings are aimed at and beginning to result in:
improving the effectiveness in the implementation of international actions to
protect the environment through enhanced coordination of activities of
international conventions and in approaching issues common to those
conventions; cost effective administration of the UNEP-administered global
and regional convention; and a synergy of substantive activities undertaken
by Convention Secretariats and UNEP.

15.      Agreement relating to Conservation and Management of Straddling
Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks:  The Agreement for the
Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the
Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation of
Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks,
was adopted in August 1995.  On December 4, 1995, the Agreement was
opened for signature.  It will enter into force after ratification by 30
countries.  The Agreement seeks to ensure the long-term conservation and
sustainable use of straddling and highly migratory fish stocks, and responds
to problems identified in Agenda 21.

E)       Inter-Agency Coordination                                            

                
16.       The Inter-Agency Committee on Sustainable Development (IACSD)
was established in October 1992 by the Administrative Committee on
Coordination (ACC) pursuant to the recommendation of UNCED, and meets
twice a year.  The work of IACSD and its system of the Task Managers
received support both from the ACC, as well from Governments during
previous sessions of CSD and at the forty-ninth session of the United Nations
General Assembly.  As recognized by ECOSOC in its agreed conclusions
1994/1, they have proven  to provide an effective and, at the same time,
flexible mechanism for system-wide coordination in the follow-up to UNCED,
implementation of Agenda 21, and in sustainable development work in
general. 

17.      In accordance with the decision of the ACC, the IACSD has launched a
review of its functioning in 1994.  This review is expected to lead to a full
assessment of the United Nations system response to Agenda 21 in
preparation for 1997 overall review.

18.      IACSD is now moving beyond its initial phase of activities related to
procedural and organizational discussions and reporting arrangements.  It is
devoting more time to conceptual and policy-oriented aspects of coordination
in the field of sustainable development.  Likewise, an increasingly important
function of the Task Managers is recognized to be the development of joint
programmes and approaches for implementation at country level.  IACSD
agreed at its sixth session in July 1995 that greater reliance on the Task
Managers for more concrete forms of cooperation would also assist the
Committee in promoting a more focused approach to coordination within a
concrete context, and elaborating action-oriented recommendations on main
policy and cooperation issues.  

19.      ACC at its second regular session of 1995 endorsed the initiative of
the Secretary-General calling for a more coordinated follow-up to the
implementation of commitments and plans of action emanating from recent
international conferences.  In this connection ACC established three task
forces to carry forward the work on this issue:  (1) the enabling environment
for social and economic development; (2) employment and sustainable
livelihoods; and (3) basic social services for all.

F)       High-level Advisory Board on Sustainable Development

20.      The High-level Advisory Board on Sustainable Development consists of
21 eminent persons knowledgeable about sustainable development, who are
appointed by the Secretary-General in their personal capacity for a two-year
term of office.  The Board serves as a source of expert advice for the
Secretary-General in formulating policy proposals, elaborating innovative
approaches and courses of action and identifying emerging issues to be
brought to the attention of relevant intergovernmental and coordinating
bodies of the United Nations system.

         The first Board members completed their term of office on 30 June
1995.  At its fourth session, they welcomed the Secretary-General's
intention to continue the Board as a "think-tank", an independent advisory
body, and a group of influential people able to serve as "Ambassadors" for
the United Nations in the field of sustainable development.  

21.      At its fifth session, the Board, in its new composition, agreed to
contribute to the preparatory process for the 1997 special session of the
General Assembly.

G)       Secretariat support structure

22.      The secretariat function for the Commission on Sustainable
Development is carried out by the Division for Sustainable Development
under the Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
(DPCSD).  The Division is composed of Energy and Natural Resources
Branch, Human Development Institutions and Technology Branch, Economics
and Finance Branch,  National Information Analysis Unit and the secretariat
for the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests.  A Small Island Developing
States Unit has also been established.

H)       Organs, programmes and organizations of the United Nations system
                      (Also see Annex I)

1)       United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

23.      The UNEP Governing Council (at its seventeenth session) concluded
that virtually all of UNEP's activities are addressed in Agenda 21, and that
the general thrust of Agenda 21 does not alter the mandate of the Council as
established by General Assembly in 1972.  Rather, it reinforces UNEP's
mandate and stimulates constructive change in UNEP's programme emphasis
in support of sustainable development.  The Governing Council also reviewed
in detail UNEP's Programme for the Bienniums 1992-1993 and 1994-1995 to
ensure that it provided maximum support to Agenda 21.  In its decision
17/32 adopted in 1993, the Council noted that the UNEP's programme was
in transition and would require further development to fully incorporate the
results of UNCED.

24.     It was felt that change would be needed in UNEP's focus and
priorities, its relationship with other partners and its institutional base.  
In response, the UNEP Secretariat engaged in a broad consultative process
about the future of UNEP.  The Secretariat presented to the 18th Governing
Council a policy and programme framework for the 1996/97 biennium that
addresses the requirements for organizational effectiveness:  a firm
institutional setting, a sound scientific base, a broader constituency, a
capacity to catalyze action, a sound financial footing, a role in conflict
prevention and resolution, and a more focussed, prioritized and fully
integrated, issue-oriented approach.  

25.      Chapter 38 of Agenda 21 established priority areas for UNEP action. 
These priorities have been grouped into three functional response categories:
assessment, policy and management.  UNEP's 18th Governing Council, in
decision 18/2 of 26 May 1995, decided to review, at its nineteenth session,
the governing structures of the Programme with a view to taking action or,
where necessary, recommending to the General Assembly to take action to
modify and streamline those structures to produce greater efficiency,
effectiveness and transparency.

26.       The Governing Council, at its 17th and 18th sessions, decided to
create a strong regional representation, in line with Agenda 21, and adopted
a plan of action to strengthen the Regional and Liaison offices.  Changing the
role of the Regional Offices within UNEP was seen by the Governing Council
as a prerequisite for success.  By those decisions, the role of Regional
Offices has been strengthened: a) to be equal partners with Headquarters in
design and delivery of programmes; b) to be the coordinators of the overall
programme portfolio of UNEP's resources and services intended to respond
to the specific needs of each region; and c) to build strong outreach
programmes, partnerships and networks in their regions.

27.      The key internal measures to institutionalize the changes in the role
or Regional representation is expected to be fully carried out by the end of
the 1994/95 biennium and the full impact will be felt in the coming 1996/97
biennium.  They include: new Regional Director reporting relationships; new
Regional Director core-functions; Regional programme consultations
requirement; new management strategy.

28.      The 18th session of the Governing Council (1995) adopted other
decisions which deal with UNEP's relationship with CSD and with other
agencies.  The Council urged the Executive Director to pay special attention
in:

"Ensuring that the work under the subprogramme 'Globalization
and the environment' includes activities which the United
Nations Environment Programme was invited to undertake by the
Commission on Sustainable Development in its decisions on
trade, environment and sustainable development and
consumption and production patterns adopted at the second and
third sessions of the Commission.  In so doing, the UNEP should
cooperate with all relevant international organizations." (Decision
18/3 of 26 May 1995)

The Council "stressed the need for the UNEP to focus on those
system-wide activities of the UN system for which it has been
assigned a special responsibility by Agenda 21, and the major
policy issues and challenges in the field of the environment, as
determined by the Governing Council;" and also

"Emphasized the need for the UNEP, in accordance with its
mandate and in implementation of Agenda 21, to continue to
provide effective support to the work of the CSD as the high-
level policy forum for the discussions to follow up the UNCED,
inter alia, through the provision of scientific, technical and policy
information and advice on the environment;" (Decision 18/7 of
26 May 1995)


29.      Apart from playing its role and assisting in furthering the
inter-agency arrangements, UNEP has established the Inter-Agency Environment
Coordination Group pursuant to Governing Council decision 17/9 of 21 May
1993.  The Group is recognized by the Council as "a flexible consultative
and advisory body, meeting as and when required, to enable the UNEP to
discharge effectively its coordination mandate."  The IAECG is to "focus on
assisting the Executive Director in coordinating the activities of the UN
system in addressing the major challenges, as set out in the programme of
work for the biennium 1996-1997."  The Council further stressed that "in
determining the terms of reference and future activities of the Group, full
account should be taken of the role, responsibilities and work of the IACSD."
(Decision 18/14 of 26 May 1995)  

30.      The 18th Governing Council also decided that UNEP should
concentrate its activities in the following major areas:

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Examples of priority actions taken by UNEP in relation to Chapter 38

a)  Strengthening UNEP's catalytic role in stimulating and promoting
environmental activities and considerations throughout the UN
system: By its decision 18/13 the Governing Council endorsed the assessment of
the Executive Director that there is a need for a system
wide strategy document in the field of the environment to, inter alia, enable
the UNEP to discharge its policy guidance and coordination
mandate within the UN system, and requested her to prepare and submit such a
document to the Council at its regular session in 1997,
with a view to its becoming operational in 1998.

b) Developing and promoting the use of such techniques as natural resource
accounting and environmental economics:  workshops and
expert group meetings organized by UNEP have resulted in: (i)a framework
action programme in valuation of environmental and natural
resources; (ii) a manual for the application of the modelling techniques for
planning sustainable development; (iii) guidelines for planners
in assessing socioeconomic causes of environmental degradation; (iv) creation
of an international working group for the preparation of a
user-friendly manual on environmental and natural resource accounting; (v) a
framework action programme for the use and application of
environment instruments for environmental management and sustainable
development; (vi) guidelines, principles, recommendations for
further research requirements, etc. to facilitate the implementation of
policies and measures for internalization of environmental costs.

c) Environmental monitoring and assessment: UN system-wide Earthwatch, to
which UNEP provides a secretariat, is being revitalized;
UNEP also co-sponsors other monitoring systems as part of Earthwatch
activities (details in E/CN.17/1996/18 and its addendum).

d) Raising general awareness and action in the area of environmental
protection:initiative to celebrate World Environment Day in various
regions of the world; entered into a major cooperative agreement with IUCN
focusing on regional delivery; focus on women, children and
youth has also been revitalized.

e) Further development of international law: see document E/CN/17/1996/17 and
its addendum.

f) Further development and promotion of the widest possible use of
environmental impact assessments: refer to documents
E/CN.17/1996/11 and E/Cn.17/1996/18 and their addenda.

g) Information exchange on environmentally sound technologies: see document
E/CN.17/1996/13 and its addendum.

h) Provision of technical, legal and institutional advice to Governments:
Re-orientation of UNEP's technical assistance programme since
UNCED has focused on: (i) the integration of the programme within the over-all
framework of endogenous capacity-building established
by Agenda 21; (ii) building of partnerships with other agencies involved in
capacity-building in developing countries and countries with
economies in transition; associating major stakeholders and utilizing existing
national expertise. 
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         "(a) Assessing and addressing existing and emerging critical
issues in the field of the environment;

         (b) Promoting international cooperation in the field of the
environment and recommending as appropriate policies to this end;

         (c) Acting as a catalyst to address major threats to the
environment;

         (d) Monitoring the status of the global environment through
gathering and dissemination of reliable environmental information;

         (e) Facilitating the coordination of the activities of all UN
bodies on matters concerned with the environment, ensuring through
cooperation, liaison and expert participation, that environmental
considerations are taken into account in their activities;

         (f) Supporting, upon request, environment ministries and other
national environmental authorities, in particular in developing countries and
countries with economies in transition, in the formulation and implementation
of their environmental policies, and related capacity-building activities;

         (g) Furthering the development of international environmental
law;

         (h) Providing expert advice on the development and use of
environmental economic concepts and instruments;

          (i) Developing regional programmes for the environment."
(Decision 18/1 of 26 May 1995)                                                

                

31.      Chapter 38 also calls for closer cooperation and collaboration
between UNEP and other organizations.  The collaborative relationship
between UNEP and UNDP is reflected in a joint statement issued by the
UNDP Administrator and UNEP's Executive Director in May 1994.  Three
particular areas of cooperation are envisaged by the two
organizations: (i) the development of national frameworks for
sustainable development; (ii) assistance to governments in the
servicing and implementation of the Rio and post-Rio conventions; and
(iii) mobilizing UNDP's country-based strengths for the dissemination
of environmental information.  In the context of this cooperation
agreement several specific agreements have been or are being
concluded, on information exchange, desertification control, and
capacity building.

32.      Between UNEP, the UNDP, the World Bank and other agencies,
cooperate closely as partner agencies, also together with UNIDO, in
programme implementation under the Multilateral Fund of the Montreal
Protocol.  Collaboration is also highly visible between these three
agencies within the context of the Global Environmental Facility.  A
third example of collaborative effort between UNEP and the UNDP, in
close collaboration with the World Bank, FAO and IUCN, has been the
development of a joint project on the development of environmental
legislation and institutions in Africa.

2)  United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

33.      UNDP created a new Sustainable Energy and Environment Division in
the fall of 1995.  This Division consolidated the units and entities
in UNDP which were primarily concerned with environment and natural
resources management.  The Division consists of five units: Capacity
Building, including Capacity 21 and the Sustainable Development
Networking Programme; Natural Resources Management Programme; Energy
and Atmosphere Programme, including the Energy Account and the
Montreal Protocol; UNSO - the Office to Combat Desertification and
Drought; and the Global Environment Facility.  The creation of this
consolidated division has resulted in a stronger focus on sustainable
development in the organization.  In addition, it facilitates better
coordination among the entities, which, in turn, means better support
to the UNDP Country offices, regional bureaux and partner countries in
the area of natural resource management and integration of environment
and development.

34.      Capacity 21 Unit was established as a direct response to the Rio
Conference and UNDP's mandate in capacity building emanating from
Agenda 21.  The mandates of the Unit are:
         - To assist the integration of sustainable development issues
into development policies;

         - To assist the involvement of all stakeholders in development
planning and environmental management; and

         - To create a body of expertise in capacity building for
sustainable development and capacity-building.

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Examples of UNDP-led coordination at the national level

Costa Rica: UNDP led the formation of the Inter-Agency Commission on Agenda
21, an interim organization charged with promoting Agenda 21 with more than
fifty members of NGOs, International Organizations and the UN system.  The
work ended in 1994 when the President of Costa Rica took the leadership role
of promoting and dictating new strategies.

India: UNDP Resident Coordinator accelerated UN system coordination efforts
through regular meetings of UN heads of agencies and the establishment of
inter-agency working groups and task forces on specific initiatives.

Nepal: UNDP has been instrumental in the coordination of activities with NGOs
through the organization of meetings with National and International NGOs and
the establishment of a networking mechanism to discuss and promote
institutional capacity at the local level.

Philippines: Inter-Agency working groups led by UNDP were established in
selected thematic areas related to environment and sustainable development. 
Apart from information exchange,  these groups promote conceptualization of
country specific issues and the implementation of joint initiatives.  These
groups participated actively in the formulation of the Country Strategy Note
for UN Agency cooperation activities in the country.

Central African Republic: UNDP was selected during a multi-donor consultation
to become the lead agency for environmental issues.  UNDP promotes UN system
coordination efforts, particularly with FAO and the World Bank.

Sudan & Mozambique: UNDP has strengthened its relationship with UNEP, the
World Bank and FAO through cooperation in the area of environmental management
and particularly with UNICEF, on Sustainable Human Development.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

35.         There are Capacity 21 focal points in each of the five
Regional Bureaux at the UNDP Headquarters as well as in each country
where a Capacity 21 programme is being implemented.  Additional staff
has also been assigned to deal with such initiatives as the Montreal
Protocol and the Global Environment Facility.  In addition, at the
field level, 41 Sustainable Development Advisors ( one national
officer per country) assist in developing national programmes,
mounting workshops and monitoring programme implementation at the
national level.    The Sustainable Development Network Programme aims
to facilitate access to information and is operational in 30 countries
as of 1995 where Capacity 21 programmes are underway.  

3)   Office to Combat Desertification and Drought (UNSO)

36.      There is a special section in Chapter 38 of Agenda 21 concerning
the United Nations Sudano-Sahelian Office which is now renamed the
Office to Combat Desertification and Drought, calling for the
strengthening of its role in combatting drought and desertification
and management of land resources, while operating under the umbrella
of UNDP and with the support of UNEP.

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UNSO's role in combating drought and desertification and land resource
management

a) Support to the Negotiation Process of the Convention: provided technical
and financial support to the African group which played a
lead role in the negotiation of the Convention; contributed to the partnership
arrangements to ensure implementation at national level and
the process for developing National Action Programmes.

b) Support to the Urgent Action for Africa: preparatory activities for
launching the National Action Programme process under the
Convention, including development of the concept and methodology for the
National Desertification Funds.

c) Support to the Sub-Regional/Regional Action Programme process under the
Convention: participated in sub-regional meetings and
presented a concept paper, "Sub-Regional Action Programme Process, a Possible
Approach".
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37.      UNSO has been strengthened substantively by its integration into
the Sustainable Energy and Environment Division of UNDP.  UNSO has
been designated the central entity within UNDP responsible for
spearheading and supporting the organization's work in desertification
control and dryland management in all affected regions.  In line with
the objective of the Convention to Combat Desertification, UNSO has
refocused its work by broadening its geographic focus, developing a
partnership with UNEP and placing a major emphasis on "up stream"
support for action plans and capacity building.

4)  United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

38.      Since UNCED, UNCTAD's governing body, the Trade and Development
Board (TDB), has placed increasing emphasis in its work programme on
issues relating to sustainable development.  A decision was taken in
1993 to consider an issue relating to sustainable development at each
of its semi-annual sessions.  In 1994, the TDB established an Ad Hoc
Working Group on Trade, Environment and Development, which is the
primary mechanism for ensuring the linkages sought among these three
issues.  The Working Group has so far dealt with issues relating to
eco-labelling, competitiveness effects of environmental legislation,
environmentally friendly products and emerging environmental policy
instruments with a trade impact.  The output of this Working Group has
been fed directly into the discussions at the World Trade Organization
(WTO)'s Committee on Trade and Environment.

39.      In the realm of primary commodities,  the Standing Committee on
Commodities has incorporated in its work programme issues relating to
internalization of costs and environmentally preferable products.  The
UNCTAD secretariat has also undertaken work on the role of re-use and
recycling in sustainable resource management of developing countries;
and analysis of environmentally-effective and cost-efficient economic
instruments to meet the objectives of the Basel Convention.  Following
UNCED, the UNCTAD Intergovernmental Group of Experts on International
Standards of Accounting and Reporting, has begun to focus attention on
environmental accounting.

40.      In 1993, the science and technology programme was transferred to
UNCTAD, including the role to serve as the secretariat to the
Commission on Science and Technology for Development (CSTD).  The
CSTD, at its first session, decided to contribute to the work of the
CSD and chose to focus on "science and technology aspects of
integrated land management".  Through the work of one of its panels, 
CSTD provided substantive input to the CSD deliberations on Chapter 10
of Agenda 21 at its third session. 
         
41.      Regarding SIDS, one of UNCTAD's main orientations is to
facilitate the strategic choices of these countries in their
specialization or re-specialization in the context of trade
liberalization and globalization.  Of related interest is the
continued work of UNCTAD on the construction of an indicator to
measure development sustainability and vulnerability from the economic
point of view, to complement the work of other organizations concerned
with the construction of sustainable development indicators involving
physical and environmental aspects, in accordance with the relevant
recommendation of the Barbados Programme of Action.  These activities
on specialization and vulnerability, in which the issue of natural
disasters is taken into consideration, are carried out by the Division
for Least Developed, Landlocked and Island Developing Countries in the
UNCTAD secretariat.  For operational activities to assist SIDS, the
UNCTAD cooperates with IMO to carry out activities in the field of
marine transportation dealing with such issues as marine pollution.

5)  United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

42.      At the intergovernmental level, a policy was adopted by the
Executive Board in 1993 to integrate Primary Environmental Care in all
UNICEF-assisted programme.  The essence of this policy is to reinforce
the necessary synergy at the community level among three basic
elements:  a) meeting people's basic livelihood and health needs; b)
optimal use and sustainable management of natural resources; and (c)
empowering local groups or communities for self-directed sustainable
development.  The Board decision also emphasizes the need for
promoting children and women's active participation and for enhancing
sustainable partnership with NGOs and other UN agencies, with special
attention to ecologically stressed and vulnerable areas.

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Regional Primary Environmental Care (PEC) demonstration projects

1. Sahelian Initiative on Primary Environmental Care:  Nine countries in the
Sahel jointly started an initiative in mid-1994 to integrate PEC activities
into UNICEF-assisted country programmes.  On the basis of the assessments,
demonstration activities have been identified which, at the present stage,
have focused on two broad areas, i.e. community-based environmental education
and reduction of women and children's workload in terms of water, fuel and
fodder collection, and food preparation.

2. Child Protection and Primary Environmental Care: Started in 1993, the
programme covers eight countries in the Amazon.  Countries may take different
approaches according to national situations, but with one overall strategy of
addressing child protection issues in conjunction with ecological
considerations.  Project components include "Primary Care for Indigenous
Environments", "the Displaced Amazon Children", etc.  
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

43.      At the secretariat level, UNICEF has recently undergone some
restructuring at the headquarters to improve efficiency and better
coordination.  As a result, the Environment Section has been merged
with the Water and Environmental Sanitation Section to form the new
Water, Environment and Sanitation Cluster with a view to facilitating
incorporation of Primary Environmental Care in UNICEF-supported
country programmes.  At regional and country levels, programme
officers for water and sanitation have been assigned the
responsibility of coordinating and promoting activities relating to
primary environmental care in their respective countries.

6)  United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)

44.      At the intergovernmental level, the International Conference on
Population and Development (ICPD), consistent with Agenda 21,
recognized that there can be no sustainable development without the
full and equal participation of women.  As a result of the ICPD's
Programme of Action, UNFPA is concentrating its funding in three core
areas: (a) reproductive health/family planning including sexual
health; (b) population and development strategies; and (c) advocacy. 
Within each of these programme areas, support is provided for
research, training, awareness creation and information dissemination,
ensuring the complimentarity of programme activities both within each
programme area as well among the three core areas.

45.      At the headquarters level, and at the regional level, UNFPA's
Country Support Teams/Technical Support (CST/TSS) System  established
in 1992, is central to UNFPA's efforts to facilitate the
implementation of Agenda 21 and the ICPD Programme of Action.  The
CST/TSS system provides technical backstopping to countries in all the
programme areas of the Fund as well as conducting training sessions
and organizing workshops on pertinent issues, with a clear aim of
integrating population variables with those of the environment and
natural resources.

7)  United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat)

46.      Efforts are underway to establish an open-ended Urban Forum to
stimulate a broad-based dialogue among all key stakeholders in the
urban scene.  This initiative has emanated from the preparatory
process of the Habitat II Conference (June 1996) by several United
Nations agencies (e.g. UNDP, UNEP, WHO, ILO, UNIDO, ESCAP, the World
Bank) and local government associations .  The proposal was based on
the consensus opinion of these agencies that while the individual
agencies were going ahead with the implementation of Agenda 21 on
sectoral lines, many human settlements related issues which were truly
cross-sectoral in nature needed better co-ordination and distinct
ownership.   The Urban Forum is expected to serve as a vehicle of
collaboration between all the parties concerned in identifying
priorities for actions for exchange of information on best practice,
and to develop joint programmes and other specific and targeted
initiatives.

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New Programmes of Habitat since Rio

- The Settlements Infrastructure and Environment Programme (SIEP) was launched
by UNCHS in July 1992 to assist governments and communities to develop
practical policy options and local capacity in critical areas of
infrastructure delivery and management.  The primary emphasis of the programme
is to strengthen the means of implementation identified in Agenda 21,
particularly the scientific and technical means, which are critical for
priorities identified in chapters 7, 18 and 21 of Agenda 21. 

- Sustainable Cities Programme (SCP) launched in 1990 jointly with UNEP.  The
programme has expanded its operations since UNCED, providing municipal
authorities and planners in public, private and community sectors in
developing countries and transition countries with an improved environmental
planning and management capacity.  City-level demonstration activities at
various stages in the project cycle are currently underway in several
countries.  UNDP, the World Bank, WHO, DANIDA and other multi- and bi-lateral
agencies are supporting these activities. 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

47.      UNCHS has committed itself to addressing in a strategic manner
the Agenda 21 priorities related to human settlements principally in
five areas: a) financing sustainable human settlements development,
focusing on defining improved global-to-local financial instruments;
b) sustainable land resource management for human settlements; C)
changing consumption patterns in human settlements; d) promoting "best
practices" in human settlements delivery mechanisms using appropriate
urban environmental indicators; and  e) integrated environment upgrading
demonstration projects for human settlements in selected cities.

8)  United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

48.      At the intergovernmental level, the Executive Committee adopted a
conclusion on refugees and the environment in October 1994, with the
aim of mitigating the environmental impact of the presence of
refugees.  

49.      UNHCR introduced the Interim Guidelines for Environment-sensitive
Management of Refugee Programmes in July 1994.  The fundamental
principle enunciated in the interim guidelines was the integration of
an environmental perspective into UNHCR programme, planning and
implementation.     The reformulated policy on the environment based
on UNHCR's past experience in environmental matters and on an
assessment of the effectiveness of the interim guidelines was adopted
by the Executive Committee in 1995.

50.      The reformulated policy applies to environmental issues
associated with the presence of refugees, such as: deforestation, soil
erosion and depletion and degradation of water, as well as the
accompanying socio-economic problems for refugees.   The basic
environmental principles relate to: integration, prevention, cost-
effectiveness, and participation.  In addition, the organizational
principles of the reformulated policy address: the role of actors
concerned, emergency phase, care-and-maintenance phase and finally,
durable solutions.

51.      At the secretariat level, UNHCR created the Office of the Senior
Coordinator on Environmental Affairs in April 1993, as a first step to
follow up on UNCED.  The prime responsibility of the Senior
Coordinator was to develop policies and guidelines to ensure that
environmental considerations are systematically incorporated into
UNHCR's programmes.  In December 1994, UNHCR's Senior Management Committee
decided to establish an internal Working Group on the Environment.  The
Working Group elaborated a series of practical steps to assist UNHCR in
integrating environmental concerns into day-to-day programmes.


9)   Specialized agencies of the United Nations system and related
organizations and other relevant inter-governmental organizations 


a)  International Labour Organization (ILO)                                   

                
52.      At the intergovernmental level, the Governing Body of ILO
convened a Tripartite Advisory Meeting on Environment and the World of
Work in November 1992 to advise on future ILO work relating to this
subject and particularly on the ILO's follow-up to UNCED's Agenda 21.  
An explicit decision was taken then not to establish a separate
organizational unit to deal with environment and sustainable
development issues, but rather to promote the integration of these
issues within the ILO's mainstream programmes.  The integration
strategy is promoted and coordinated by the Focal Point responsible
for environment and sustainable development matters.  The Committee on
Employment and Social Policy of the Governing Body regularly reviews
ILO activities related to environment and sustainable development, and
especially ILO collaboration within the UN system.

53.      At the secretariat level, ILO environment activities are focused
on four core themes.  These included the integration of environment
and sustainable development considerations within its (a) major
programmes and (b) in the design and implementation of its technical
cooperation activities; (c) collaboration with the United Nations
system and other international and regional institutions; and (d)
support to the ILO's tripartite constituents (i.e. employers' and
workers' organizations and ministries of employment and labour), to
enable them to deal directly and effectively with relevant environment
and sustainable development matters.

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ILO priority programmes of work related to Agenda 21

(a) Preparation, adoption and support for the implementation of new
International Labour Standards which, while focused on the working
environment, also take into account implications for the public and the
environment, e.g. Convention and Recommendations concerning
Safety in the Use of Chemicals at Work(1992), concerning the Prevention of
Major Industrial Accidents (1993), and concerning Safety
and Health in Mines (1995);

(b) Role of workers and trade unions in environment and sustainable
development;

(c) Role of employers' and their organizations;

(d) Harmonization of classification and labelling systems of chemicals;

(e) Environment, sustainable development and women;

(f) Environment, the world of work and indigenous and tribal peoples. 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

54.   The 1994-1995 Programme and Budget included specific environment-
related activities in eight major programmes as well as an
Interdepartmental Project on Environment and the World of Work aimed
at assisting its tripartite constituents to implement world of work
activities related to Agenda 21.

55.      There is a plan to create, as part of the ILO's Active
Partnership policy, of a system of Multidisciplinary Teams in 14 sub-
regions around the world which enable ILO to serve more directly and
effectively the specific and immediate needs of its constituents in
Member States, including issues related to environment and the world
of work.

b)  Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

56.      At the intergovernmental level, the FAO Conference decided
following UNCED, that FAO should integrate sustainability criteria
into its programmes and activities.  Governing bodies have identified
sustainable development/follow-up to UNCED as an organizational
priority in the context of FAO's Programme of Work and Budget. 
Accordingly, sustainable development and environment was recognized as
a major priority of FAO in the 1992-1993 and 1994-1995 Programme of
Work and Budget and in the Medium-term Plan 1992-1997.  

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New programmes of FAO since UNCED

New programme relating to sustainable development for 1996-97: Technology
Development and Transfer; Women in Development; People's Participation; Rural
Development and Agrarian Reform; Environmental Information and Management;
Coordination and Promotion of Sustainable Development.

Work on international instruments: Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries
and another instrument on Flagging; International Undertaking on Plant Genetic
Resources; development of a legally binding instrument on Prior Informed
Consent, jointly with UNEP.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

57.      UNCED helped to crystallize shifts in policy, programme and
structure which had been underway for some time within FAO.  The
objectives and activities of Agenda 21 permeate FAO programmes in
agriculture, fisheries and forestry.  Specific programme shifts are
more relevant to sectoral chapters of Agenda 21.

58.      At the Headquarters, the main structural change has been the
creation of a Sustainable Development Department.  The Assistant
Director-General of this new Department took up his duties in January
1995.  The new Department has as its mission to catalyze and integrate
cross-sectoral action in agriculture, forestry, fisheries, rural
development and nutrition, and to follow-up on UNCED and other global
conferences and related agreements to promote concepts, strategies and
methods for sustainable development.  Inter-departmental working
groups at FAO headquarters have adjusted their work programmes to
address relevant Agenda 21 programme areas and to support FAO in its
Task Manager role for chapters 10, 11, 13 and 14, of Agenda 21.  At
the regional and sub-regional level, new Sustainable Development
Multidisciplinary Teams have been established, which involve the
decentralization of  headquarters staff, in accordance with their
capacity and the needs of the region/subregion.

59.      FAO has seconded staff to the Secretariats of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Forests and of the Convention on Biological
Diversity.

60.      An Integrated Pest Management Facility was established in June
1995 under the co-sponsorship of FA and the World Bank.  This Facility
will support, inter alia, the implementation of programme area related
to toxic chemicals of Chapter 19 of Agenda 21.

c)  United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO)         

61.      At the intergovernmental level, the governing bodies of UNESCO
gave great importance to reorienting the environmental science
programmes of UNESCO and its Intergovernmental Oceanographic
Commission, as well as the environmental education programmes.  These
programmes now focus on the interlinkages between development and
environment and thus on sustainable development.  The new Medium-Term
Strategy of the Organization for 1996-2001 states that it is through
UNESCO's intergovernmental and international programmes in
environmental and social sciences, and through increased cooperation
between them, and by combining research, training, education,
information and awareness-raising, that relevant solutions to the key
issues of socially and environmentally sustainable development will be
sought.  A main focus of such activities will be human resources
development and capacity building in developing countries.

62.      At the secretariat level, a number of institutional changes have
taken place to reflect these policies.  The Bureau for Coordination of
Environmental Programmes created during the UNCED preparatory process
now serves as the focal point within UNESCO for UNCED follow-up and is
responsible for assuring a coherent cross-sectoral and inter-programme
policy for effective and coherent UNESCO input to both
intergovernmental and inter-agency coordination and monitoring
mechanisms established after UNCED.  Moreover, the Director-General
has established a small Committee for UNCED follow-up consisting of
five outside experts to advise him on enhancing cross-sectoral and
interdisciplinary approaches in UNESCO's activities aimed at
addressing the interlinkages between environment and development. 
Additionally, an integrated management unit was created outside the
structure of the Organization's programme sectors for the new
interdisciplinary and inter-agency Project on Environment and
Population Education and Information for Development.

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UNESCO's new initiatives in response to Rio

1. Transdisciplinary Project on Environment and Population Education and
Information for Development: a UNESCO's tool in leading and integrating
efforts aimed at fostering both education for sustainable development and
population education as mandated in Agenda 21 and the Action Plan of the
International Conference on Population and Development.

2. International Project on Environment and Development in Coastal Regions and
in Small Islands: a new framework for enhanced cooperation with Member States
in response to Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 and the Programme of Action of the
Global Conference on Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing
States.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

d)  International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

63.      The Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection, the
institution created by the Council of ICAO to develop international
standards and recommended practices relating to control of aircraft
noise and aircraft engine emissions, was established before UNCED.

64.      The ICAO Assembly, at its meeting in September/October 1995
(resolution A31-11), adopted a resolution comprising a "Consolidated
statement of continuing ICAO policies and practices related to
environmental protection".  In the statement, the ICAO Assembly, inter
alia:

         - Declared that ICAO is conscious of and will continue to take
into account the adverse environmental impacts that may be related to
civil aviation activity and its responsibility and that of its
contracting States to achieve maximum compatibility between the safe
and orderly development of civil aviation and the quality of the
environment;

         -Requested the Council to continue to pursue all aviation matters
related to the environment and also maintain the initiative in
developing policy guidance on these matters, and not leave such
initiatives to other organizations;

         -Requested the Council, with the assistance and co-operation of
other bodies of the Organization and of other international
organizations, to continue with vigor the work related to the
development of Standards, Recommended Practices and Procedures and/or
guidance material dealing with the impact of aviation on the
environment.

e)  World Health Organization (WHO)

65.      In response to UNCED, the Director-General has established the
post of an Executive Director, Health and Environment for directing
the implementation of programmes related to  agreements reached at the Earth
Summit.  The former Division of Environmental Health has been reorganized into
the Division of Operational Support in Environmental Health and an Office for
Global and Integrated Environmental Health, each under a Director.

66.      At regional offices, new Directorates for Environmental Health
have been established at the Pan American Health Organization/World
Health Organization Regional Office for the Americas in Washington, at
the Regional Office for Africa in Brazzaville and at the Eastern
Mediterranean Regional Office in Alexandria.  In the African Region, a
Regional Environmental Health Centre for Africa is going to be
established in South Africa.

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Agenda 21-related activities of WHO

WHO/UNDP Initiative - launched in 1993  with linkage to UNDP's Capacity 21
Programme, to promote and support the involvement of the health sector in
national planning for sustainable development and, where relevant, to prepare
action plans for health and environment.

AFRICA-2000 - initiative on water supply and sanitation

Inter-organization Programme on the Sound Management of Chemicals - WHO
cooperates with ILO, UNEP, UNIDO, FAO and OECD to work on national profiles to
assess the current capabilities and capacities for management of chemicals.

Regional plan for investment in the environment and health - launched in the
American Region of WHO, complementary to the regional action plan for
environment and health adopted by the Pan American Conference on Health and
Environment in Sustainable Human Development.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

67.      In late 1992, the Director-General's Council on the Earth Summit
Action Programme for Health and Environment was established to advise
on organizational, institutional and financial issues related to the
implementation of agenda 21 and the Global Strategy for Health and
Environment, the latter adopted by the World Health Assembly in 1993. 
The Council highlighted the importance of supporting countries in
their development and implementation  of national action plans for health and
environment in support of national planning for sustainable development.

f)  International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

68.      There has been no specific change in the Union's organizational
structure as a result of UNCED, and the last restructuring took place
in 1989 when the Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) was
created to deal with the development sector on equal footing with the
traditional Standardization and Radiocommunication Sectors of the ITU. 
Nevertheless, sustainability has become an important criterion for all
programmes and activities of the BDT.  Specifically, reference to
Agenda 21 is made in the Buenos Aires Action Plan adopted in 1994 in
two of the programmes; namely, Programme No. 9 on Integrated Rural
Development, and Programme No. 12 on Development of Telematics and
Computer Networks.

69.      One of the two global Development "Study Groups" deals with
questions related to telecommunication and information policies and
strategies and to financing of telecom development.  One of these
questions relates to "Telecommunication support for the protection of
the environment"  The question is based on the notion that
telecommunication and information technology have an important role to
play in protecting the environment and in promoting development
activities at low risk to the environment in the following manner:
         
         -  Their application, especially those associated with space
systems can be extremely useful in implementing and conducting
environment protection activities such as monitoring air, river,
harbor and sea pollution, as well as forestry, wildlife studies and
others.
         
         -  The application of telecommunication technology contributes to
reducing paperwork which ultimately saves forests and, if sufficiently
promoted in rural areas, could reduce urban congestion. 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Buenos Aires Action Plan implemented by ITU

Programme 9: Integrated Rural Development: aims at improving access to
adequate telecommunication services in rural and remote areas
in developing countries, a key element for integrated rural development for
sustainable development advocated by UNCED.  The Programme will create
"Community Telecentres" to offer telematic services and support and public
phone booths for rural communities.

Programme 12: Development of Telematics and Computer Networks: aims at
contributing to sustainable development by facilitating access to information
resources available in many countries, and by establishing connections to
computer networks from many locations, including rural communities -- through
electronic forum, globally coordinated regional pilot projects to develop
telematics and computer networks.
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g)       World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

70.      At the intergovernmental level, the Executive Council in 1993
approved the "Guidelines on the Role of National Meteorologies and
Hydrological Services in the Implementation of Agenda 21 and the
Framework Convention on Climate Change" and the role of WMO in
providing scientific information and advice on climate and climate-
related activities.  

71.      At the secretariat level, a review of WMO Programmes was carried
out, together with  regional associations and technical commissions,
to determine WMO's continued contribution in implementing Agenda 21. 
As the result, activities related to UNCED follow-up have been
incorporated in the existing scientific and technical Departments at
the Headquarters and the Regional Offices, as well as in the WMO
Fourth Long-Term Plan and the Programme and Budget for the twelfth
financial period.  In addition, the Resource Mobilization Unit was
established within the WMO Secretariat since March 1993 to mobilize
resources for projects in meteorology and operational hydrology for
improvement in the monitoring of the atmosphere and related
activities. 

72.      In December 1993, the new Sun Foundation, an Alliance for Air,
Water and Environment, a non-governmental and non-profit foundation
linked with WMO was inaugurated to enable the mobilization of
resources from the private sector for carrying out environmental
projects of interest to WMO members. 

h)  International Maritime Organization (IMO)                                 

                

73.      At the intergovernmental level, the Marine Environment Protection
Committee (MEPC) has been designed as the focal point for UNCED
follow-up within the Organization.  MEPC established a Working Group
for the purpose, which in turn identified the following issues as
requiring action:

         - mechanisms for the funding of facilities in ports for ship-
generated wastes;
         - application of the precautionary approach to IMO's work; and
         - development of an IMO-UNCED Strategy for Extra-budgetary
Activities relating to Environmentally Sustainable Development.
Other issues of relevance to Agenda 21 have been referred by MEPC to
other intergovernmental organs of IMO, such as the Maritime Safety,
Legal and Technical Co-operation Committees.                                  

                
74.      At the secretariat level, the post of Senior Deputy Director in
the Marine Environment Division was temporarily designated Special
Assistant to the Director, Marine Environment Division in late-1992,
with responsibility for coordinating IMO's follow-up to UNCED.  This
arrangement ceased in late-1995 when the necessary follow-up
activities were clearly established within the Secretariat.  IMO has
minimal representation at the regional level and there has been no
need for structural change.

i)  United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)

75.      At the intergovernmental level, the Fifth Session General
Conference of UNIDO established new organizational priorities, one of
which, Environment and Energy priority has four operational
components:

         1. Supporting the formulation and implementation of national
strategies for Environmentally Sustainable Industrial Development (ref.
Chapter 2 of Agenda 21);
         
         2. Supporting the transfer of technology for clean and safe
industrial production (ref. Chapter 34);

         3. Supporting developing countries in the implementation of
international protocols, conventions and agreements (ref. Chapter 9 and 39);

         4. Supporting developing countries, conform in the implementation
of industry related norms and standards (ref. Chapter 4).

76.      At the secretariat level, the restructuring of UNIDO in January
1994 resulted in the creation of a new Industrial Sectors and
Environment Division which: i) integrated UNIDO's environment
programme development and implementation with its technical expertise;
ii) enabled a closer coordination between the policy dialogue in the
CSD and the implementation of operational activities implied by Agenda
21; and iii) combined industry-wide environmental activities with its
subsectoral operational activities.

j)  International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

77.      Agenda 21 follow-up was seen by IAEA as having broad implications
for all its programmes.  In this regard, an Inter-Departmental Co-
ordination Group on Agenda 21 has been set up within the Agency's
Secretariat to ensure in-house co-ordination and follow-up of the
large number of environment and sustainable development projects
involving several Departments.  The mandate of the Group is to review
and co-ordinate the contribution of the Agency to the activities being
carried out within the framework of Agenda 21.  It supervises 
inclusion in the Agency's programme of projects and tasks relating to
Agenda 21 themes, ensures their appropriate priority, and monitor the
relevant results and impact of the Agency's programmes.

78.      The activities of the IAEA cover many of the chapters of Agenda
21.  Prominent areas include: food and agriculture, land conservation
and agroforestry, fresh water, human health, comparative assessments
of energy sources, nuclear safety and radiation protection,
radioactive waste, protection of the oceans the seas and coastal
areas, biotechnology and environment-friendly technologies,
environmental monitoring and finally, such cross-sectoral issues as
capacity building, major groups and international legal instruments. 

k)  Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis
    (DESIPA)

79.       DESIPA has established a Microeconomic Issues and Policies Unit
whose work has included the analysis of innovations in pricing systems
which have been instituted in an effort to reduce environmental
pollution and allocate natural resources more effectively.  One such
issue is the use of pollution taxes and tradeable permits to reduce
carbon emissions in electric power generation.  The unit is also
studying pricing systems in the supply of fresh water, as numerous
countries are instituting or considering schemes to de-regulate and/or
privatize their systems of water supply.

80.      The Statistical Commission in 1993, created a Task Force on
Environment Statistics, of which the United Nations Statistical
Division is the convener.  The objective of the Task Force is to
improve coordination and cooperation among international agencies by
eliminating duplication and improving the focus of their environment
statistics programmes.

81.      In response to Agenda 21, the Statistical Division has developed
methodologies in the fields of:

         i)  environmental indicators and indicators of sustainable
         development; and
         ii)  integrated environmental and economic accounting.

In order to meet the increased demand for work in this area, DESIPA
reallocated existing staff to strengthen the Environment Statistics
Section.

l) Department for Development Support and Management Services
   (DDSMS)

82.      A new Division for Environment Management and Social Development
was established in 1995 with the following Branches: Natural Resources
and Environment Planning and Management; Energy Resources Planning and
Management; and Social Development Management.  
83.

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Illustrative activities of DDSMS

Assistance in formulating National Sustainable Development Strategy: provision
of an integrated package of policy advice on environment
and development issues.

The Coalbed Methane Recovery Project: aimed at improved mine safety and
productivity, decreased methane-based atmospheric environmental impacts, and
production of high-quality methane fuel to be used as a replacement for coal.

The Northeast Asian Programme: Atmospheric Pollution from Coal Combustion:
which includes the People's Republic of China, Republic of Korea, Democratic
People's Republic of Korea and Mongolia, addressed problems associated with
transboundary air pollution in the sub-region in the sub-region caused by the
combustion of coal.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

84.      In the wake of UNCED, the Department has reoriented its policies
on technical cooperation activities so as to increase its emphasis on
environmental protection.  In accordance with Agenda 21, DDSMS
substantive missions now ensure that development policies relating to
minerals, water and energy strike a balance between development on the
one hand and the environmental consequences of production on the other
hand.  All technical cooperation projects have been re-evaluated to
include environmental concerns.  DDSMS is in the process of preparing
environmental guidelines for mining with UNEP and has published a
training manual in environmental management of mine sites.

85.      The recent policies place an emphasis on a decentralized
monitoring and implementation system which takes the Rio principle of
subsidiarity seriously.  Human resource capacity-building as well as
emphasis on broad-based, effective mass and specialized environmental
education are accorded priority.


I)       Regional and subregional cooperation and implementation  

86.      Agenda 21 recommended that the regional commissions, within their
respective agreed mandates, contribute to enhancing regional and
subregional cooperation in three ways: (a) by promoting regional and
subregional capacity-building; (b) by promoting the integration of
environmental concerns in regional and subregional development
policies; (c) by promoting regional and subregional cooperation, where
appropriate, regarding transboundary issues related to sustainable
development.  In this regard, the commissions were urged to review the
need for modification of ongoing activities in the light of Agenda 21.

87.      A meeting of Regional Institutions was held in New York from 6 to
7 December 1995 attended by respresentatives of the five Regional
Commission, regional offices of UNEP and some Regional Development
Banks.  The need for a regional focus for sustainable development was
stressed, as well as the actual and potential role of the regional
institutions in this regard.  Ministerial level meetings have been
held in all of the regions as follow-up to UNCED and as a means to
identify regional priorities for programmes.  The policy directives of
the ministerial conferences are generally aimed at promoting
institutional development and capacity building at the national level.

1)       AFRICA:  Economic Commission for Africa (ECA)                      

88.      At the intergovernmental level, the Commission adopted a
resolution in 1993 on the restructuring of its intergovernmental
machinery to establish organs dealing with overall development issues
on the one hand, and thematic conferences of ministers on the other. 
Among thematic conferences, the Conference of African Ministers is
responsible for Sustainable Development and the Environment.  It will
address, in an integrated manner within the framework of Agenda 21 and
the other Rio outcomes, the challenges of sustainable development and
environment in Africa, particularly in terms of promotion of
strategies and programmes based on the inter-relationships between
agriculture especially food supply, rural development and water
resources, population, the environment and human settlements.

89.    Capacity building is clearly recognized as essential for the
successful attainment of the objectives of many regionally agreed and
nationally implemented strategies, programmes and plans of action.

90.      The new "Framework Agenda for Building and Utilizing Critical
Capacities in Africa" initiated by ECA will provide a mechanism for
collaboration, coordination and harmonization and for monitoring of
efforts by African member States, their inter-governmental
organizations and other partners, including United Nations agencies,
towards African capacity building.  

91.      At the inter-agency level, the UNEP/ECA/OAU joint secretariat
established since 1985, has been providing assistance to African
countries in relation to servicing the African Ministerial Conference
on the Environment (AMCEN).  Since 1994, the cooperation between ECA,
UNEP and UNCHS has been strengthened.  An inter-agency Task Force was
established to look into programme activities.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Framework Agenda for Building and Utilizing Critical Capacities in Africa

1. Critical capacities in support of good governance, human rights, political
stability, peace and
    security in Africa;
2. Building and utilizing policy analytic and development capacity;
3. Building and utilizing human capacities;
4. Developing entrepreneurial capacities for public-and private-sector
management;
5. Developing capacity for building and maintaining physical infrastructure;
6. Capacities to exploit natural resources and diversify African economies
into processing and manufacturing;
7. Strengthening capacities for food security and self-sufficiency;
8. Capacities for the mobilization and efficient allocation of financial
resources;
9. Capacities to manage the African environment and ecological resources for
development;
10. Capacities to harness science and technology for accelerated growth and
development.    
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

92.      At the secretariat level, the programme of work of ECA was
revised to reflect concerns of the Commission in integrating the
environment in various sectors of priority action for Africa.  The
Medium-term Plan for the period 1992-1997 was revised to realize the
linkages and relationships between food and agriculture, population,
the environment and human settlements.  The sub-programme on Poverty
alleviation through sustainable development attempts to exploit the
synergy in these relationships and the maintenance of the right
balance in this nexus.  A project document on building capacities for
SIDS has been prepared and consultations are underway for possible
joint activities.

2)       EUROPE:  Economic Commission for Europe (ECE)
         
93.      At the intergovernmental level, the Ministerial Conference
"Environment for Europe" held in October 1995, adopted the Environment
Programme for Europe prepared by ECE.  It aims at setting out a common
direction to make Agenda 21 more operational in the region by
highlighting a number of long-term environmental priorities.  The
Programme calls for the preparation of a convention on public
participation and includes guidelines on environmental information,
public participation and environmental decision-making.  

94.      At the secretariat level, ECE since UNCED, has developed the
following work orientations: (i) mainstreaming environmental issues
into its different programmes and activities; (ii) completing and
expanding the regional legal framework for sustainable development
which is negotiated under ECE auspices; (iii) providing advisory
services and technical existence to countries in transition; and (iv)
facilitating cooperation among organizations active in the
environmental field at a regional and subregional level.

95.      The structural changes within ECE as a result of UNCED involved
setting up of: (a) a task force involving all substantive divisions to
coordinate activities related to sustainable development; (b) an
Environmental Performance Review Unit within the Environment and Human
Settlements Division.

96.      Support to capacity building focuses on eastern and central
European countries in the following two categories of activities: (a)
support to institutions in charge of applying ECE environmental
Conventions; and (b) strengthening of environmental management and
planning capabilities.  Moreover, regional and sub-regional
cooperation is organized mainly around the ECE environmental
conventions.  The conventions negotiations so far deal with the
transboundary aspects of air pollution, the protection and use of
water resources and lakes, the effects of industrial accidents and the
environmental impact of various types and projects.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
ECE activities that have been modified in the light of Agenda 21

-   Review of compliance with protocols to the Convention on Long-range
Transboundary Air Pollution is being strengthened.

-   A multi-pollutant, multi-effect approach has been adopted to the
strategies for further reduction of air pollution.

-   Energy efficiency 2000 has been greatly enhanced.

-   The working parties on Coal, Gas and Electric Power attached to the ECE
Committee on Energy have put more emphasis on the environmental impact of
energy production and distribution.

-   The ECE/UNEP project in Strengthening Environmental Management
Capabilities in eastern and central European countries has resulted in the
preparation of Guidelines on Integrated Environmental Management in Countries
in Transition.    
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3)       LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN:

Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)

97.      At the intergovernmental level, the ninth Meeting of the
Ministers of Environment of America and the Caribbean, held in Havana,
Cuba in September 1995, reiterated the validity of the principles and
commitments proclaimed at the UNCED and in the Barbados Declaration on
the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States.  The
Meeting agreed further to consolidate and strengthen the Meetings of
Ministers of the Environment of Latin America and the Caribbean, with
a view to achieving consensus on environment-related common positions,
formulating policy and strategy and give greater importance to such
activities in the region which are a continuation of previous
programmes.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sample programme activities of ECLAC

- Technical assistance to governments of the region regarding protection of
the oceans and coastal areas, including marine biodiversity, implementation of
the Law of the Sea and the preparation of the Global Plan of Action to Protect
the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities.

- Organization of expert meetings such a on environmental indicators (June
1995), economic instruments for environmental management (July 1995): on
integrated water resources management in Latin America and the Caribbean
(November 1995); on uses of geothermal energy (October 1995); on "Issues in
the Privatization of Water Utilities in the Americas" (September 1995); on
implementation of Chapter 18 of Agenda 21 (December 1995).

- Technical assistance in the preparation of the Hemispheric Summit on
Sustainable Development to be held in 1996 in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

98.      ECLAC wants its work on environmental issues to be part of an
integral analysis of development.  Thus, it is expected that an
important part of such work will be carried out through cooperation
among different Divisions, and not only in the Environment and Natural
Resources Division.

99.      At the secretariat level, a new Environment and Natural Resources
Division was created in June 1995.  Through this Division, ECLAC has
been carrying out extensive work that falls under the heading of
Capacity Building for Agenda 21, integration of environmental concerns
into development policy, as well as strengthening national capacities. 
The Division is constituted by three units: a Natural Resources and
Energy Unit; an Environment Unit, and a Human Settlements Unit.

100.     The activities aimed at capacity building of member States within
the region can be classified into: (a) support to governments (at
national, provincial and local levels) in policy formulation and use
of policy instruments; and (b) contribution to building up human
resources and capacity.

101.     Technical support was given to courses on environment and
development held in the region, in such areas as economic instruments
for environmental policy, environmental impact assessment,
environmental requisites in international trade and environmental
aspects in the sub-regional trade agreements.


4)       ASIA AND THE PACIFIC:
         
         a)  Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
         
102.     At the intergovernmental level, another Ministerial Conference on
Environment and Development for the region was held in November 1995. 
It was a major activity for promoting integration of environmental
concerns in the development policies of the region to promote
implementation of Agenda 21.  A regional action programme has been
developed whose primary objective is to foster regional cooperation to
strengthen national capacities for the pursuit of environmentally
sound and sustainable development.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sample ESCAP projects

-  The Ministerial Conference on Space Applications for Development in Asia
and the Pacific was held on 19-24 September 1994 to promote regional
cooperation for capacity-building to derive optimum benefit from application
of space technology for sustainable development.  The Regional Strategy and
the Action adopted by the Conference are now under implementation.

-  The regional project of Programme for Asian Cooperation on Energy and the
Environment )PACE-E) funded by UNDP and the Asia Energy Efficiency 21, a
regional project imitative (AGE 21) focus on issues and activities of energy
and environment interface and energy efficient processes and products in line
of the provisions of Agenda 21.

-  Promotion of subregional cooperation on environment in the North-East Asian
countries through projects for control of CO2 emissions, improvement of
operation of existing power plants for pollution control and monitoring and
intercalibration of environmental data, being initiated in cooperation with
the Asian Development Bank and through discussion with member States.

-  Joint projects with the Asian Development Bank for developing strategies
for greenhouse gas reduction in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea,
development of environment related investment projects in the coastal areas of
Viet Nam, Cambodia and Hainan Island of China.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

103.             At the inter-agency level in the region, the Inter-agency
Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development in Asia and the
Pacific was established, following the 1990 UNCED-preparatory
Ministerial-level Conference on Environment and Development in Asia
and the Pacific.  The organizations of the United Nations,
multilateral financing institutions and other intergovernmental bodies
involved in environment-development activities in the region are
members of this Committee.  In conducting its coordination task, the
Committee established a database on the 1994-95 work programme in line
with the programme areas of Agenda 21.

104.     At the secretariat level, in accordance with the Commission
resolution 48/2, ESCAP has taken a thematic approach and restructured
its subsidiary structure by establishing The Committee on Environment
and Sustainable Development, which functions as the main body to carry
out, review and monitor the regional implementation of Agenda 21.  It
also reoriented its work programme.  The subprogramme on Environment
and Sustainable Development for biennium 1994-1995 is under the
purview of a multi-divisional Working Group of all substantive
divisions within the secretariat headed by the Division of Environment
and Natural Resources Management.  

         b)  UNEP Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific

105.             Good examples of regional cooperation promoted by the UNEP
Regional Office include:

         a)  Network on Environmental Training at Tertiary Level in Asia
and the Pacific                         
         
This Network was established in 1992 to enhance the environmental
expertise of decision makers as well as to strengthen the overall
environmental expertise in the region at technical, management and
policy levels.  It presently consists of 205 institutions and 2023
individuals from 37 countries in the region active in environmental
education and training.  Advancement of the Network objectives is
facilitated by the use of Thematic Networks covering three areas:
Coastal Zone Management, Toxic Chemicals and Hazardous Waste
Management and Environmental Economics.  Additional themes planned to
be added are: Environmental Law, Environmental Technologies and their
transfer, Environmental Assessment and Planning and Tertiary Training
for Environmental Educators.  One of the important roles of the
Network is to implement targeted technical Training and Resources
Development Workshops for tertiary level environmental educators.  A
regional consultative meeting is held once every two years.

         b) Safe Handling and Use of Pesticides and Household Chemicals

The main objectives of this project relate to enhancing the awareness
of women leaders on the human health and environmental impacts
associated with the misuse of pesticides and other chemicals through
training as well as providing trained women leaders with the skills
needed to impart their knowledge to larger audiences at the village
level.  Following a successful experience in Thailand, similar
training workshops were conducted for China, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, the
Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Myanmar, Pakistan and Iran.  Another
series of workshops in other countries in the region is planned for
the 1996-1997 biennium.

         c) Regional Environmental Management Seminars
         
UNEP Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific conducted an
environmental management seminar in Thailand in October 1995.  The
seminar was designed to raise awareness and transfer skills related to
environmental administration and management at national, regional and
international levels.

5)       WEST ASIA:  Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
(ESCWA)

106.     At the inter-agency level in the region,  ESCWA has established
the "Joint Committee on Environment and Development in the Arab
Region" in 1993 with the membership of UNEP, FAO, ECA and other
regional Arab organization for the joint implementation of priority
areas of Agenda 21.  This Committee meets on annual basis to enhance
and strengthen regional cooperation in the formulation, review,
monitoring and reporting of activities and initiatives within the
region for the promotion of Agenda 21.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ESCWA illustrative projects with direct link to Agenda 21

ESCWA/UNEP projects for 1992-95:

         - Strengthening environmental management and planning capabilities in
Jordan;
         - Assessment of water resources using remote-sensing techniques in
the ESCWA region;
         - Regional survey of production and consumption of materials harmful
to the ozone layer;
         - National plan of actions to combat desertification in selected
ESCWA countries;
         - Expert Group meeting on the Implementation of Agenda 21 for
Integrated Water Management in the ESCWA region.
         - A regional symposium on water use and conservation (1993).
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

107.             At the secretariat level, the thematic reorganization of
substantive activities was undertaken by ESCWA.  To reinforce ESCWA's
role and responsibilities to further regional cooperation  to
implement Agenda 21, the Commission decided in 1995 to establish: (i)
a Committee on Energy in the Economic and Social Commission for
Western Asia; and (ii) a Committee on Water Resources in the Economic
and Social Commission for Western Asia.  These committees of an
intergovernmental nature, will be formulating programme priorities for
the Commission in the years to come.

J)      International financial organizations

1)       World Bank

108.     After UNCED, the World Bank created the post of Vice President
for Sustainable Development.  At the programme level, the Bank adopted
a four-fold agenda which includes:

         1) Assisting its borrowing countries in promoting environmental
stewardship - currently active portfolio of loans are targeted to reduce
pollution, protect soils, forests and parts, and strengthen environmental
policies and institutions. 

         2) Second Environmental Screening of all Bank-financed projects
to "do no harm" - every operation of the Bank, in addition to those invested
specifically in environmental projects, are reviewed to ensure that the
environmental dimensions will be properly addressed.

         3) Promoting "win-win" strategies -  by investing in people,
especially through empowering women, and by promoting the efficient use of
resources 

         4) Addressing global and regional challenges - coordinates
external assistance and  financing in a number of regional seas and river
programs, and is an implementing agency, along with UNEP and UNDP, for the
Global Environment Facility and the Montreal Protocol Fund.

2)       International Monetary Fund (IMF)

109.     The Fund has been promoting the integration of environmental
concerns in national policies in two ways.  First, the IMF, in
cooperation with the World Bank, assists member countries in the
preparation of Policy Framework papers which describe three-year
policy frameworks for macroeconomic and structural adjustment policies
including environmental policies.  The World Bank takes the lead in
advising on environmental matters.  Second,  in cooperation with the
national authorities, the Fund staff analyzes the macroeconomic and
financial implications of environmental policies in the context of
their policy dialogue with member countries.

110.     IMF furthers and supports Agenda 21 by helping member countries
achieve certain  conditions for sustainable development such as
monetary stability and having adequate external financial resources,
through its advice on sound macroeconomic management and provision of
financial support for adjustment efforts.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Four ways in which IMF supports sustainable development

1)  Use of briefing notes on environmental concerns in most Fund member
countries as background information for their discussions with
country authorities.

2) Assistance to member countries in adopting desirable structural policies,
including subsidy and price reform, trade liberalization, and
tax reform, which help mobilize budgetary and domestic resources necessary for
sustainable development.

3) Assistance to countries with the design and implementation of social safety
nets aimed at protecting the poorest in society from the
effects of adjustment.

4) Integration, upon request,  of the macroeconomic and financial implications
of sustainable development strategies into their policy
dialogue with member countries.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

111.     Since UNCED, the Fund staff has expanded its understanding of the
interrelationships between macroeconomic policies and the environment.

3)       International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

112.     As part of a broader process of re-engineering its core business
processes to increase efficiency and effectiveness, IFAD has also
revised its project cycle to place emphasis on the Fund's clients, the
rural poor, in line with the Agenda 21 focus on poverty and
environment.  The new project cycle emphasizes a process approach,
moving from a blueprint approach towards flexible implementation.  In
addition, an Economic Policy and Resource Strategy Department has been
created, which focuses inter alia on resource mobilization for
environmentally sustainable rural poverty alleviation efforts.

113.     In order to ensure optimal complementarity between the Fund's
operations and the Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD), an
Interdepartmental Task Force has been created, under the Chairmanship
of the Assistant President, Programme Management Department.  IFAD has
also established a Technical Assistance Grants Programme for
Assistance to African Countries in the Implementation of the CCD in
the Interim Period.

114.     Moreover, IFAD established an accelerated institutional learning
programme on the integration of environmental dimensions in the Fund's
lending operations.  The programme, entitled Preliminary Development
and Testing Phase of Natural Resource Management for Rural Poverty
Alleviation (PDTP), consists of pro-active environmental assessments,
thematic studies of recurrent natural resource management issues in
IFAD's projects, environment-related pre-investment studies, and the
development of guidance material on sustainable agriculture in
marginal areas.  The PDTP has resulted in the adoption of formal EA
procedures for the project cycle and the creation of the post of
Environment Adviser.  

4)       Asian Development Bank (ADB)
         
115.     In 1995, the Office of the Environment and the Social Dimensions
Unit, which had served as the focal point for integrating social
concerns and for Bank-NGO collaboration, have been merged into the
Office of Environment and Social Development to consolidate all Bank
activities related to social and environmental concerns and to better
focus on how the Bank should address primary issues of sustainable
development.  The post-Rio assessment of the Bank's role resulted in
what is in effect the Agenda 21 of the Bank - A Strategic Framework
for Post-UNCED Environmental Action, published in 1993.

116.     The Bank's lending operations since 1992 has increasingly focused
on areas that are the concerns of Agenda 21.  The Medium-Term
Strategic Framework (MTSF) requires that at least half of the total
number of projects the Bank will fund in a given year must aim at
environmental enhancement and social development as primary or
secondary objectives.  Environmental concerns have been integrated at
the strategy level of the Bank's policies for development in the
region through the MTSF, Country Operational Strategy Studies and
Country Assistance Plans.  At the operational level, this is realized
through a rigorous review of environmental aspects during project
processing. 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Example of capacity-building support by the Asian Development Bank in 
the environment sector

         The Bank provides a series of technical assistance to Indonesia to
strengthen the capability for environmental impact assessment in several
ministries of the country.  In line with the approved Bank operational
strategy for Indonesia, the Bank has helped upgrade the performance of line
agencies responsible for planning and implementing environmental management
and control.  Technical assistance was provided for formulating environmental
regulations and quality standards, strengthening enforcement procedures,
training staff in environmental and natural resources planning and management,
and providing monitoring equipment and facilities.

         The Bank has also assisted Pacific Island Developing Countries to
build and strengthen their national institutional capabilities for
environmental planning and management.  The outputs included formulation and
implementation of national environmental management strategies and training on
environmental impact assessment.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

117.     The Bank closely cooperates with other regional organizations
like ESCAP and non-regional organizations working in Asia and the
Pacific such as the World Bank and the IMF.  The cooperation is not only
project-related to ensure project sustainability but also policy-related with
a view to introduce sustainable policies in the Bank's developing member
countries.  

5)       Caribbean Development Bank (CDB)

118.     In 1994, the Projects Department was reorganized in an effort to
increase efficiency.  This included creation of a Social Development
Division and within it a distinct Unit to address environment and
poverty issues to incorporate social and environment considerations in
the Bank's activities.  The reorganization provided the framework for
increased lending for poverty reduction, human resources development
and environment programmes in the member countries in keeping with its
Directional Plan/Strategy to the Year 2000.  The Bank's Special
Development Fund resources are being replenished to give priority,
among others, to investments in the area of environment.

119.     Environmental Review guidelines were prepared to provide guidance
to staff on the application of the Bank's environmental policy as
approved by the Board of Directors in 1993.  The Bank completed
training workshops in 1994 for staff in all financial institutions in
its member countries.  The workshops were designed to strengthen the
basic skills necessary for the environmental screening of projects
submitted to them for financing.

120.     As a result of the UN Conference on Sustainable Development for
Small Island Developing States, a project was developed for
strengthening the management capacity for sustainable development in
six member countries.  The project is being financed by UNDP under the
Capacity 21 Programme and is being executed by CDB.  The implementing
agency is the Caribbean Centre for Development Administration.

6)       Central American Bank of Economic Integration (BCIE)

121.     The Environmental Fund for Central-America was created by the
Bank in 1994.  The other funds that exist at the Bank which could be
oriented towards environment and sustainable development include the
Fund for Social Development and the Fund for Debt Reconversion.  In
the context of the Programme for Social Development, the Sub-programme
for Preservation of the Environment was created  with the objective
to: a) contribute to the sustainable usage of natural resources,
paying respect to the vital cycles of nature; b) orient the social
objectives of development towards environment in the service of social
well-being.

122.     In October 1992, the Bank entered into agreement with the
Central-American Commission for Environment and Development for inter-
institutional cooperation to coordinate in the field of environment.
 
123.     Environmental assessment is applied in project appraisal,
monitoring and evaluation of the Bank-supported projects.

7)       European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)

124.             The EBRD is responsible for a number of support activities
including the provision of training and technical advice to local
environmental consultants who work with these institutions.  The
Bank's training activities are closely linked to ongoing project work
as well as to institution-building.  The policy studies on
environmental impact assessment, harmonization of environmental
standards and legislation, environmental liability and public
participation provide a rich input for training.

125.             In carrying out its projects, EBRD is concerned with
promoting: a) environmentally sound banking; b) sector-specific
environmental impact assessment; c) public participation and conflict
resolution in investment decision-making; and d) environmental audits
and environmental management in industry. 

126.             The Bank's Environmental Advisory Council is an independent
body of environmental specialists which advises the Bank on
environmental protection and natural resources management at the
national, regional and local level in central and eastern Europe.  It
provides a forum to discuss priority policy issues, measures to
strengthen legislative and regulatory frameworks, institutional and
human resource concerns, technical developments, emerging trends and
future opportunities.

127.             The Environmental Appraisal Unit within the Bank seeks to
ensure that Bank-supported projects comply with the EBRD's commitment
to "environmentally sound and sustainable development".  The Unit
staff screen and review all investment projects and all technical
cooperation projects submitted to the EBRD's Operations Committee, in
compliance with the Bank's Environmental Procedures.

128.             In August 1995, the EBRD created a new sector team within
its Banking Department: Municipal and Environmental Infrastructure. 
The team prepares and implements investments in environmental
infrastructure and services, mainly for municipal authorities, which
are emerging as important client group for the Bank.  These projects
cover such areas as water supply, sewage and waste-water treatment,
sanitation, solid-waste management and district heating.

8)       Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

129.    In 1994, a new Social Programs and Sustainable Development
Department (SDS) was ceated with the primary objective of contributing
significantly to the continued improvement of the quality and
effectiveness of Bank's policies and programmes that address the
environment and natural resources, in support of the sustainable
development of the region.  Three newly created operational regional
departments each have an environmental and natural resources division
as well.

130.    Following the Earth Summit, the Bank approved programmes to
strengthen environmental institutions in several countries of the
region.  These programmes contribute to sustainable development
through more effective environmenal management, enhanced pollution
control, and the prevention of environmental degradation.

131.    The Bank is supporting implementation of the Action Plan that
resulted from the Miami Summit of the Americas (1994), and is
assisting member countries to prepare for the 1996 Summit Conference
on Sustainable Development.                                                   

                
K)       National implementation

1)       Country level 

132.      Many countries have established new entities or coordinating
mechanisms within their government structures for the purpose of 
implementing Agenda 21 and following up on UNCED commitments.  Some
countries have restructured or added new mandates to the existing
institutions.   There are yet other countries which have Ministries of
Environment or similar institutions, but it is not clear if these
entities are directly responsible for the implementation of Agenda 21.

133.     Annex II provides information on the institutional arrangements
at the country level and was prepared on the basis of national reports
received by DPCSD, the Earth Council and through inquiries made to the
Permanent Missions to the United  Nations.  

134.     While the picture of national institutional arrangements is not
complete, the information currently available indicates that 68
countries created new institution or coordinating mechanism and 40
countries restructured existing institution or added new mandates to
them.

135.             UNDP, through its Capacity 21 programme, has promoted
national implementation.  The examples of such activities at the
national level are also reflected in Annex II.  Some of these
activities are also supported by the Global Environmental Facility
(GEF).

136.     It is planned that detailed information covering more countries
would be prepared for the 1997 overall review.  This exercise will be
undertaken in cooperation with the member States, and other
intergovernmental  and non-governmental organizations concerned with
such data.

2)       Bilateral donors

137.     Most bilateral aid donors had begun by the late 1980s to address
the environmental impacts of their ongoing programme and project
activities.  This trend was given added impetus and a sense of
direction by UNCED and the mandate for action laid out in Agenda 21. 
The 1990s has consequently seen a new dynamism in bilateral agencies
with respect to support for environmental and sustainable development
goals.  This has been characterized notably by increased efforts among
bilateral donors to work together towards coherent approaches to
contributing to environmental sustainability through aid policies and
programmes.  There is also growing evidence that increased attention
is being paid by bilateral aid agencies to integrating environmental
concerns at the institutional, policy and programme levels. 
Increasingly, these issues are being approached from both a cross-
sectoral and global point of view.  Review and evaluation of emerging
trends and assessment of their effectiveness is another feature of the
commitment among bilateral donors to the pursuit of environmental and
sustainable development goals.

138.     For many bilateral agencies, the concept of sustainable
development now serves as the guiding principle of development
cooperation, at the policy, programme and project levels.  The
ramifications of global environmental issues for development processes
are receiving increased attention and are taken into account in
designing, monitoring and evaluating projects.  With the help of new
guidelines, procedures and instruments,  programme support staff are
increasingly incorporating such concerns into day-to-day project
management.  Environment and sustainable development-related issues
are also being linked to capacity building, another focus of
development assistance in recent years.

139.     Throughout the UNCED process and its follow-up, there has been
increased coordination efforts among aid agencies and other
departments of ministries concerned.  Such coordination is not only a
subject of discussion of development cooperation policies, but also
related to formulating common positions in international fora as the
Commission on Sustainable Development, Global Environment Facility,
UNCED Conventions, and UNEP.


CASE STUDIES OF BILATERAL ORGANIZATIONS*

(* Based on the inputs received.)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Australian Agency for International Development (Aus AID)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Since UNCED, AusAID has instituted a more detailed system for integrating
environmental issues into the design of its aid activities.  It aid programme
has been subject to annual independent environment audits of its activities
since 1991.  Organizationally, its Environment Section created in 1990 has
been expanded to become the Environment, Agriculture and Physical
Infrastructure Section in recognition of the close linkage of environmental
issues with sectoral policy in agriculture, infrastructure activities and
energy programmes.
 
  AusAID is producing Country Environment Profiles for selected recipients of
Australian Government assistance, aiming, inter alia, at outlining a country's
main environmental issues in the context of ecologically sustainable
development. 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
German Technical Cooperation (GTZ)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  A separate division on Environment and Protection of Resources was created. 
Since UNCED, investment in the Tropical Forestry Action Plan has tripled while
that in Strengthening Environmental institutions has doubled.  There were no
changes within the technical assistance programmes, since technical assistance
as a result of governmental policy has been oriented towards the areas of
Agenda 21 for more than 10 years.  Coordination efforts of GTZ have been
concentrated on the Forestry Action Plan with FAO.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   In 1993, the original environmental unit was upgraded into Environmental,
WID (women in development) and Other Global Issues Division. Japan's fifth
medium-term ODA target, determined by the Cabinet in 1993, calls for a special
emphasis on international cooperation to address environmental degradation as
one of global issues.  This was further stressed in the Basic Environmental
Law, established in the same year.  JICA is now required to take the
environment and other global issues into account in administering its aid
programs.  Environmental cooperation is the target area of US-Japan
cooperation.
  
  Also in 1993, JICA initiated project formulation surveys in the
environmental field at its overseas offices. A Reference Manual for
Operation is currently under preparation to promote the application of
guidelines developed earlier to take into account environmental
issues in development projects as early as possible in the project cycle. 
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                      ** TABLES NOT INCLUDED **

 


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Date last posted: 3 December 1999 10:27:35
Comments and suggestions: DESA/DSD