UNITED NATIONS Compilation of Information on Policies and Programmes of Countries, International Organizations and Financial Institutions to Promote Environmentally Sound Technology Transfer, Cooperation and Capacity-Building SUMMARY The purpose of this compilation is to provide, based on available information, an overview on initiatives being undertaken by countries, the United Nations system, other international organizations and the private sector to promote environmentally sound technology transfer, cooperation and capacity-building. The compilation is based on information submitted by national governments to the Commission on Sustainable Development as well as on those provided by national and international organizations, financial institutions and the private sector. It also draws upon the contributions made available to the various intersessional meetings. The structure of the compilation follows, in general, that of the Report of the Secretary-General on "Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building". CONTENTS I. POLICIES AND PROGRAMMES TO PROMOTE ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER, COOPERATION AND CAPACITY-BUILDING II. ACCESS TO AND DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION ON ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGIES III. INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND CAPACITY-BUILDING FOR MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE A. Promoting Environmentally Sound Technology Centres B. Training of Human Resources C. Demonstrations on Environmentally Sound Technologies D. National Needs Assessment in Support of Environmentally Sound Technology Transfer and Capacity-Building E. Research and Development IV. FINANCIAL AND PARTNERSHIP ARRANGEMENTS A. Bilateral and Multilateral Arrangements B. Funding Provided by Financial Institutions C. Successful Recent Investments D. Build-Operate-Transfer Arrangements I. POLICIES AND PROGRAMMES TO PROMOTE ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER, COOPERATION AND CAPACITY-BUILDING. Countries/Organizations - Policies and Programmes Australia A Green Development Import Finance Facility (DIFF) introduced in the Australian government's 1994-1995 budget will provide a minimum of $20 million to Australian business to facilitate the transfer of environmentally friendly technology to developing countries. Under the Green DIFF, projects will be undertaken in areas such as sustainable land, water and waste management, pollution control and energy efficiency including clean coal technology. By transferring environmentally friendly technology and providing vital environmental infrastructure, Green DIFF will make a positive contribution to the transfer of clean production technologies to developing countries. The Private Sector Linkages Program (PSLP) introduced in Australia's 1992-1993 aid budget includes the demonstration, adaptation and supply of proven and appropriate Australian technology. This new program aims to promote economic growth and transfer of technology in the Asian region through activities which link Australian enterprises with equivalent enterprises in selected developing countries. Canada Under the Green Plan, the Environmental Technology Commercialization Program supports up to 50 per cent of costs of strategic alliances or consortia to develop, demonstrate and commercialize new environmental technologies (budget: Can $5 mill). The "Strategy for the Canadian Environmental Industry" containing 22 initiatives, is aimed at training Canadian Embassy staff about ESTs, providing information about Canadian ESTs available and their performances, sponsoring demonstration projects, establishing a national statistical database about the EST sector, and helping other countries to build the capacities to introduce ESTs. Denmark Implementation of a Five-year Action Plan on Cleaner Technologies (period: 1993-97; budget: DKr 360 mill). Implementation of a Five-year Strategic Environmental Research Programme (period: 1992-96; budget: DKr 300 mill). Indonesia Developed the Sixth Five-Year National Development Plan (REPELITA VI) which focuses on waste minimization and cleaner production approaches. Japan In order to maintain high environmental standards and to contribute to global environmental conservation, Japan has attached priority to the development and use of pollution prevention and control technologies. Netherlands Established a policy for the development and implementation of environmentally sound technologies consisting of three main strategies: (i) determination of relevant technological issues in relation to environmental problems; (ii) promotion of research and development and relevant areas of environmentally sound technologies, and strengthening the role of environment issues in education at all levels; and (iii) promotion of the implementation of environmentally sound technologies by relevant sectors of industry. Within the above strategies, a variety of instruments are employed and environmental standards applied. Within the framework of development cooperation, a special green investment program has been created to facilitate the Netherlands private industry contribution to positive environmental actions in a number of developing countries. Norway Developed the cleaner technology production programme to develop, demonstrate and transfer cleaner technologies. (Funding involved NKr 30 mill with 50:50 financing from government and industry.) United Kingdom The Environmental Technology Best Practice Programme has been established to collect and disseminate information on cleaner technologies and waste minimization practices to industry and commerce. Six projects have already been funded, and others are planned over a five years period. United States of America Is implementing the Environmental Technology Initiative under the auspices of the U.S. EPA, and the Environmental Technology Export Strategy under the U.S. Department of Commerce. The recently launched Rapid Commercialization Initiative (RCI) - jointly being implemented between the U.S. EPA and the Departments of Energy and of Defense -, is seen as a summing-up effort in a series of initiatives to develop and export ESTs as a means of stimulating the economy. RCI is focusing on overcoming barriers to commercialization of technologies and applying lessons learned that would enable to shorten the time period between the research phase of a given technology and its actual application and commercialization. A system of verification of technologies with dissemination of credible performance data and diffusion of technologies will be established, including the development of verification protocols for all environmental technologies by U.S. EPA. The Roundtable of State Pollution Prevention Programs support policy development and implementation of state pollution prevention programs. Roundtable initially started with US-EPA grants and US-EPA also established voluntary green lights and the 33-50 programs to promote environmentally sound technologies. Commission of the European Communities Survey on "Clean Technologies: Update of the Situation in the Member States". The survey presents the current status of clean technologies in the Member States, focusing on selected industries, such as the metal products, dairy and wood/furniture sectors. It also describes the efforts made the at the Community level to support this trend through legislation and voluntary instruments. Some recommendations are made for strengthening the preventative focus of the EC's activities by improving the integration of industrial and environmental policies, and for stimulating the use of cleaner technologies by smaller companies. World Bank Is currently preparing a new operational policy directive and revising its Environmental Guidelines for Industry, with emphasis on pollution prevention and the adoption of cleaner production technologies. African Regional Centre for Technology (ARCT) Implementation of a project on "Strategic Planning for Long-Term Science and Technology Training Resource Utilization in Subsaharan Africa: Planning Human Resource Development in S&T Information System in Africa" dealing with inadequacy of training resources and facilities, lack of readily available information on training institutions and lack of back- up technical expertise/skills, with the support of the Carnegie Corporation of New York. II. ACCESS TO AND DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION ON ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGIES. Countries/Organizations - Policies and Programmes Australia Is developing the National Environment Industries Database (NEID) which will provide information on Australia's environment management capabilities for use both domestically and internationally. NEOD will be a network of databases which will be able to be utilized by countries in the region to determine technologies most suitable to their own environmental situations. A linked database on cleaner production is also being prepared. India Established the Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Network. Indonesia National data systems - ENSICNET, INFOTERRA, GEMS. Japan Information Center for Science and Technology (JICST) provides data bases in English of Japanese literature through on-line network. Japan/UNEP The UNEP International Environmental Technology Center (IETC) established in accordance with a proposal by Japan and located in Osaka and Shigo, handles information regarding technology in the field of sustainable environmental management for individual large cities, freshwater lakes, marshes and basins. The basic design of the IETC database is being worked on. Republic of Korea The Korea Institute of Industry and Technology Information (KINITI) of the Republic of Korea provides science and technology information and access to foreign databases. The Korea Research and Development Centre (KORDIC) is a newly established organization, with the purpose to generate science and technology information which are emerging from research and development activities of 26 research institutes of the Ministry of Science and Technology. Netherlands The Netherlands Organization for Energy and the Environment (NOVEM) is the operating agent for the Greengas Technology Information Exchange (GREENTIE). The scope of the project is to realize a system of international information exchange with respect to technologies concerning the greenhouse gas problem as well as creating network of countries that are interested in these technologies. NOVEM is also participating in the information system "CADDETT" which aims at exchanging knowledge regarding energy technologies. Poland Chemical technologies data bank is being established to accomplish process evaluation. United States of America Established Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (PPIC) to encourage application of environmentally sound technologies. United States - Asian Environment Programme (US-AEP) Operates a comprehensive data system called the Environmental Technology Network for Asia (ETNA) to provide information on ESTs to Asian users, as well as conveying Asian needs to US providers. United Kingdom Established, as part of the Technology Partnership Initiative, a network to facilitate information exchange on ESTs, and to encourage technology cooperation on a commercial basis. The initiative aims at facilitating direct business to business contacts in the private sector. FAO Is operating the two major systems, namely the International Information System for Agricultural Science and Technology (AGRIS) and the Current Agricultural Research Information System (CARIS). FAO/UNIDO Bio-Informatics Network, recently being initiated in Asia, has the objective to develop databases on appropriate biotechnologies. IEA Established a number of information systems to assist in collecting and disseminating of information on energy and energy-related technologies, including: (i) Centre for the Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies (CADETT); (ii) IEA Coal Research Centre; (iii) Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE); (iv) International Centre for Natural Gas Technology Information; (v) East-West Power Technology Centre (in the process of being established). IEA/OECD Developed, with the contribution of the United Kingdom, the two year pilot phase of the GreenTIE project which aims at providing interested users(mainly developing and newly industrializing countries) with streamlined access to information on "Greenhouse Gas Technologies". ILO Established an information service called INSTEAD which is aimed at disseminating technological information to small- and medium-sized enterprises in the informal sector, in the areas of food processing, agricultural tools, building material, energy and handicrafts. UNEP/International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA) IPIECA and UNEP are jointly preparing a publication about the experience of the oil industry over the past 100 years in technology cooperation and capacity-building. The publication will: (i) Provide a framework which analyses the process of technology cooperation and capacity-building, looking at some key strategic issues, the different kinds of partnership and the involvement of the petroleum sector in that process; (b) include 12 case studies selected on the basis of geographical spread (Africa, Southeast Asia, Russia, North America and the Middle East) and representing a broad range of oil industry activity in the process of technology cooperation and capacity-building; and (iii) identify the key lessons learned, the obligations and responsibilities that are required of the partners, and a summary of the beneficial outcomes that have resulted from many decades of direct investment. UNEP-IE OzonAction Information Clearinghouse (OAIC) designed to facilitate and encourage technology transfer to developing countries, through information exchange, training activities and networking. International Cleaner Production Information Clearinghouse (ICPIC), established with the assistance of the US EPA, functions as an on-line electronic information system. UNIDO Industrial and Technology Information Banks (INTIB) was established with the objectives: (i) to facilitate the handling of industrial inquiries; (ii) to help develop and promote information sources and users; (iii) to provide various levels of access to computerized sources of industrial and technological information; and (iv) to assist in the development of information networks. WHO Established the Global Environmental Technology Network (GETNET) aimed at linking environmental technology information and training facilities in the field. World Bank World Bank financially supported the establishment of an institutional network on information on ESTs in India ($2 million) and the global information system for tracking of hazardous waste also in India ($0.2 million). Secretariat of the Basel Convention Information are being compiled which are received from the Parties on measures to develop technologies for the reduction and/or elimination of generation of hazardous wastes, on sources of technical assistance and training, as well as on available scientific and technical know-how in relation to, inter alia, low- and non-waste technologies. These information is being made available to the Parties of the Basel Convention on an annual basis. ARCT Established, with the financial support of UNDP, the African Regional Centre for Technology Information System and Network (ARCTIS-NET) which functions as a regional technology management information and communication network. ESCAP ESCAP's Asia-Pacific Centre on Technology Transfer (APCTT) has established the Mechanism for the Exchange of Technology Information (METI). It functions as regional network for collecting and disseminating information on ESTs that are available for transfer to small- and medium-sized enterprises in Asia and the Pacific. APCTT's International Network for Transfer of ESTs (INTET) functions as a self-supporting network, providing expertise and consultancy services in technology transfer. Commonwealth Science Council Produced manual for installation and maintenance of small photovoltaic systems. Work on standards for components and installations are envisaged. Delphi Group Provides services to environmental technology companies in the area of commercialization, market entry and finance, with particular focus on India and South Africa. III. INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND CAPACITY-BUILDING FOR MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE. A. Promoting Environmentally Sound Technology Centres. Countries/Organizations - Policies and Programmes Australia Is establishing a Centre for Cleaner Production which will support UNEP's efforts to foster the development and adoption of ESTs in the Asian region. Supported the establishment of a number of cooperative research centres in Australia which will contribute to the development and adoption of environmentally sound technologies. Canada Environmental technology exploitation centres have been established for providing technology transfer services to small- and medium-sized enterprises in Canada to help in the commercialization of technologies. India A National Cleaner Technology Promotion Centre (NCPC) has been established with partial assistance from the World Bank to facilitate transfer of technology within and from outside the country. Upgradation of scales for capacity building and development and promotion of cleaner technologies. Indonesia Environmentally Sound Technology Centres - in the form of National Committee which will be set up by the Ministry of State for Environment. Linkages are now being established with other related sectoral ministries/agencies such as the Ministry of Industry, provincial governments, Indonesia Commercial Chambers and NGOs. Japan The International Center for Environmental Technology Transfer (ICETT) is engaged in information exchange on ESTs which have been introduced mainly in industrial sectors, and is implementing environmental research and training programmes to support capacity- building in developing countries. Japan/UNEP The International Environmental Technology Centre (IETC) aims at promoting the transfer of ESTs to developing countries and countries with economies in transition. The focus is on the demand and implementation aspects of managing technology change for sustainable development of large individual cities, freshwater lakes, marshes and basins. Netherlands Provides support to the UNIDO/UNEP National Cleaner Production Centre Programme. Tunisia Is planning the establishment of an "Eco-Technology Centre" in Tunisia to carry out specific functions concerning: (i) building the local capacities needed to adapt and improve existing technologies; (ii) linking technology suppliers to users; (iii) supporting in technology assessment; and (iv) attracting foreign enterprises and involving them in technology partnership arrangements with local companies. United Kingdom Setting-up of a National Environmental Technology Centre (NETCEN) which brings together over 400 of the United Kingdom's foremost environmental scientists and consultants to create a centre of environmental excellence in the United Kingdom. United States of America Established an information clearinghouse, under the Environmental Pollution Prevention (EP3) project, which provides an easily accessible source of information about pollution prevention and ESTs. The ASEAN Environmental Improvement Project (EIP) also has EST information centers in Asia. A vendor database is being developed which will allow facilities in countries that are covered by the EP3 project, to access information about U.S. firms that offer ESTs and services. The Asia Environmental Partnership also manages an information system of suppliers of US environmental equipment and services. US-AEP Is operating 9 Technology Cooperation Offices, namely in: Seoul, Hongkong, Taipei, Kuala Lumpur, Singapore, Jakarta, Manila, Bangkok and Bombay which promote ESTs. Established an information clearinghouse, under the Environmental Pollution Prevention (EP3) project, which provides and easily accessible source of information about pollution prevention and ESTs. In addition, a vendor database is being developed which will allow facilities in countries that are covered by the EP3 project, to access information about US firms that offer ESTs and services. Uruguay/World Federation of Engineering Organizations (WFEO)/Inter-American Development Bank The project to organize and set-up a regional centre for Latin America and the Caribbean in Montevideo, Uruguay, to support engineering for sustainable development in the region is under way. It is proposed that the regional centre will have three main functions: (i) to gather and disseminate information to promote, among the engineers of the region, interest in the realization of sustainable development and training in sustainable development technologies; (ii) to organize training courses and technical meetings of engineers with scientists, professionals from other disciplines and representatives from governments and non-governmental organizations; and (iii) to promote the study of engineering projects of regional interest that may contribute to sustainable regional planning. UNEP/UNIDO National Cleaner Production Centres are being established in six developing countries: India, China, Indonesia, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Mexico to promote capacity-building for cleaner production. The Centres are targeted to providing policy advice on environmental management, supporting demonstrations of cleaner production techniques and technologies, training professionals in industrial environmental management, and serving as source of information on issues related to cleaner production. World Bank/China World Bank pledged $ 171.0 Million to support development of technology transfer centres; $ 0.3 Million to support development of technology diffusion stations; $ 0.5 Million to support development of cleaner production centres. Commission of Science and Technology in the South Is exploring the modalities for the establishment of the "Network of International Science and Technology Centres for Sustainable Development in the South". The network would consist of a number of international research and training centres of excellence in areas of the frontier of science and technology which are most likely to have a strong impact on the economic and social development of the South. Commonwealth Science Council Supported institution building and equipment for solar training facility in Tanzania. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity/Interim Secretariat of the Convention on Climate Change Recommended the establishment of a Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice whose functions will include, among others, to identify innovative, efficient and state-of-the-art technologies and know-how, and to advice on the ways and means of promoting development and/or transfer of such technologies. Secretariat of the Basel Convention Establishment of Regional Centres for Training and Technology Transfer on Environmentally Sound Management of Hazardous Wastes and the minimization of their generation. Feasibility studies are being undertaken for three regions (Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia and the Pacific, and Central and Eastern Europe). ESCWA/OOAS Initiative is being launched to establish a "Regional Centre for Outer Space Science and Technology Education" for training engineers and technicians in space technology applications. B. Training of Human Resources. Countries/Organizations - Policies and Programmes Belgium/Developing Cuntries (not specified) In the framework of University Cooperation, several scholarships to nationals from developing countries for specific training at post-graduate level dealing with environmental management are being granted, for example, postgraduate training in environmental sanitation and masters degree in human ecology. Finland/Asian Developing Countries (not specified) Support for the Regional Environmental Education in Asian Countries for the development of environmental management and administration, standards and sound use of natural resources, and support of technology transfer for pollution control. Australia Human resource development and capacity building are integral to the technology transfer process. Capacity building is intrinsic to Australia's development cooperation program across all sectors, and it takes the form of education and training, institution strengthening, technical assistance and collaborative research, particularly in agriculture. It also includes the promotion of the capacity of developing countries to design and implement development programs and policies - including technology transfer - based on national priorities. /Indonesia Funding of a $24 million project to extend the capabilities of the Indonesian Environment Planning Agency and $7 million to strengthen provincial capacity in watershed planning in eastern Indonesia. Denmark Assist in the improvement of the capabilities in developing countries for better control of seeds and plants through the education of personnel within the areas of research in seedborne diseases and control of seed tests from developing countries. The Institute implements nine-months diploma courses in Denmark and more practically oriented short-term courses in the developing countries (period: 1966-1997; budget: DKK 149 mill). /Namibia Support to computer treatment of satellite pictures to improve a cross-departmental satellite picture unit (period: 1992-1995; budget: DKK 3.2 mill). /Niger Support to environmental sustaining activities to protect natural resources in the country with two concrete projects: training of the population in the traditional house building style which does not require wood; and preparation and introduction of an educational programme for environmental protection in the schools (period: 1992-1997; budget: DKK 14.5 mill). /Senegal Implementation of an environmental training project, Phase II, to increase the youth and children's awareness of the risks and results of environmental degradation (period: 1993- 1995; budget: DKK 10.5 mill). Netherlands/Poland Within the framework of the bilateral Memorandum of Understanding with Poland, the Netherlands is currently exploring the possibilities for support in the integration of environmental concerns in regular technical vocational training in Poland. United States of America Support for workshop and training programmes to transfer ESTs as part of EP3, EIP and the Philippine Industrial Environmental Management Program (IEMP). US-AEP Conducts fellowship exchanges and training programmes which provide services to over 500 Asian participants every year. Japan/Developing and Eastern European Countries Implementation of training course programs in the following areas: environmental engineering; air pollution control and source monitoring practice; measures to reduce the use of ozone depleting substances; environmental engineering (water pollution) and monitoring (water quality); marine pollution surveillance and control; domestic waste water treatment technique; lake water quality management; industrial pollution control research and engineering; environmental radioactivity analysis and management; industrial energy use and exhaust gas treatment technology; saving and re-using industrial water; energy conservation; geothermal energy; urban solid waste management and solid waste management. Implementation of expert dispatch program in the following areas: air pollution control; water pollution control; pollution control (other pollution, compound pollution); energy conservation and waste management. /China, Thailand, Indonesia Japan established environmental research and training centers in Thailand, China and Indonesia. The centers are implementing pollution prevention and pollution control research and training programmes. United Kingdom/Latin American and South East Asian Countries (not specified) Under the Hands-On-Training Scheme (HOTS) assistance is given to UK companies wishing to provide Hands-On-Training of the UK to businessmen and women from developing countries. Also sponsoring seminars on environmental management and training. Secretariat of the Basel Convention Training courses and technical assistance promoting waste minimization including i.a. advisory services in identifying the main hazardous waste streams being generated in a particular country and making a preliminary assessment of improved technologies to minimize their generation. Development of Technical Guidelines for Environmentally Sound Management of Hazardous Wastes on priority waste streams and on disposal options, promoting the development and adoption of clean technologies, emphasizing the importance of technology and environmental audits, substitution of technologies and raw materials, product life cycle analysis. ARCT Provided expert advice on the training and development of human resources in food technology, construction, maintenance and use of biodigesters, and in the installation and management of scientific and technological information systems. International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)/UNEP Training kits for environmental management are being developed to provide training tools for local organizations such as industry associations, chambers of commerce, as well as for local governments to reach out, through workshops and other activities, to managers of industrial enterprises, particularly SMEs. UNEP/UNIDO Through the National Cleaner Production Centres. C. Demonstrations on Environmentally Sound Technologies Country/Organization - Activity Australia Two projects funded under the ASEAN Australia Economic Cooperation Program (AAECP) are good examples of demonstration projects that Australia is supporting: - Environmentally Sound Energy Production and Waste Disposal from Biomass/Wastes Project will demonstrate the use of a fluidized bed combustion cogeneration/incinerator system. This system will use biomass wastes such as crop, timber mill or garbage residues which would otherwise be disposed of in less environmentally appropriate ways such as haze producing or open burning. - Wastewater Treatment Technology Transfer and Cleaner Production Demonstration Project will utilize existing and new treatment facilities to demonstrate appropriate Australian technologies for factories (especially in the food processing, textile and distilling industries) and industrial estates. The project also includes a training component and a component to strengthen linkages between the major wastewater management organizations. Indonesia Demonstrations on cleaner production, the OzonAction Programme and waste minimization. Japan MITI and the Japanese Electric Cooperation are demonstrating on energy efficiency projects. Poland Demonstration projects on cleaner production and the improvement of process safety (risk assessment, hazard study, inherent safety). United Kingdom/Developing Countries (not specified) Implementing demonstration projects (e.g. Air and Calder and Project Catalyst) where applicable results were disseminated to developing countries. US-AEP/Asian Developing Countries (not specified) US-AEP is conducting about 25 to 50 demonstrations of technologies per year. EP3 is also conducting 5-10 technology demonstrations each year. Sponsors the Environmental Technology Fund which is a series of small-matching grants administered through the National Association of State Development Agencies to help small- and medium-sized US businesses bring their ESTs to the Asian region and demonstrate them. UNEP/UNIDO Through the National Cleaner Production Centres. World Bank/India World Bank assisted in projects of the National Programme for Demonstration Projects pertaining to small- and medium-sized enterprises. Commonwealth Science Council Testing of solar lanterns in Tanzania. ARCT/Cameroon, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Sierra Leone, Togo and Zambia Established Pilot and Demonstration Units in these countries as a vehicle for the popularization, promotion and commercialization of research and development results. D. National Needs Assessment in Support of Environmentally Sound Technology Transfer and Capacity-Building Countries/Organization - Policies and Programmes Commission of the European Community/Tunisia The European Commission intends to finance a joint EC/Tunisia case study on environmentally sound technology, applying the methodology adopted by the CSD's Intersessional Ad Hoc Open-Ended Working Group on Technology Transfer and Cooperation. The objective of the initiative is to help Tunisia in the development of the institutional and human capacities required to introduce environmentally sound technologies. Particular attention will be given to strengthening national capacities in: (i) identification and evolution of Tunisia's technological needs; (ii) acquisition of information on existing technologies; (iii) selection and application of suitable technologies; and (iv) appropriateness of transfer of technology on favourable terms. The study will also examine the possible role that the Eco-Technology Centre announced by the Tunisian authorities could play. Netherlands/Costa Rica In Costa Rica, a national needs assessment study on ESTs is being supported by the Netherlands. The study covers the needs for national capacity-building in a broader sense (e.g., in the field education, research, intermediary infrastructure, specific knowledge, enforcement of environmental regulations, cooperation between actors). The aim of the study is to supply Costa Rica with an effective tool for donor-management. The Netherlands' support consists of the supply of financial means and expertise. Switzerland/Pakistan Switzerland and Pakistan will collaborate in a project that will identify the demand of Pakistan for EST in two industrial sub-sectors (possibly textiles and paper), and make concrete recommendations concerning: (i) enhancing the capabilities to absorb environmentally sound technologies that are suitable to the conditions and the socio- economic and environmental requirements of the sub-sectors concerned; (ii) involving local techniques, technologies and resources; and (iii) promoting technology transfer, through partnerships between technology suppliers from Switzerland and potential users in Pakistan. E. Research and Development Countries/Organizations - Policies and Programmes Japan/Other Countries (not specified) Funding of collaborative research and development activities (firms - national laboratories - universities) on environment-related industrial technologies managed by the Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth in Japan and abroad. /Thailand Implementation of research cooperation in the area of remote sensing technology. Denmark/Ghana Technology appraisal project to improve, through research, the capacity of the Centre for Technology Assessment (CTA) and supervise the government and private technology committee about the social, economic and cultural and environmental impacts of technology. Norway/Lithuania Participated in developing a system for using geographic information systems in Lithuania. The system is used in connection with land management. /Central and Eastern European Countries Norwegian agencies carried out programmes for developing information technology. /Hungary The Norwegian Institute and the Ministry of Environment in Hungary jointly developed planning systems for surveillance of air pollution. Commission of the European Communities Supports a number of environmental technology networks, such as the EuroEnviron PREPARE within the EUREKA research programme. Islamic Development Bank (IDB)/Near East and African Countries (not specified) Financed the Date Palm Research and Development Network which is aimed at catalyzing and enhancing ongoing research and development activities on date palms in the Near East and African region, through an inter-country cooperative research and development network. ARCT/West African Countries (not specified) Started, in collaboration with IDRC Canada, a research and development programme in four West African countries to promote environmentally benign small and medium scale agro-food enterprises, using cassava and fish as case studies, with a view to enhancing the countries' technolo-economic development on a sustainable basis. IV. FINANCIAL AND PARTNERSHIP ARRANGEMENTS. A. Bilateral and Multilateral Arrangements Country/Organization - Programme/Project Australia/Asian Countries Undertakes a range of activities aimed at facilitating the transfer of environmentally sound technologies, particularly to South East and East Asia in the context of development cooperation programs. /Indonesia Implementation of a five year project aimed at strengthening the government's environment protection agency and the deployment of ESTs in industrial projects which fulfil local requirements, create employment and involve appropriate technologies and local skills. Japan/Thailand, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines Projects called "Green Aid Plan" have jointly been implemented in the five developing countries in areas such as human resource development, research cooperation and technology demonstration (e.g. desulfurization technology). Germany/Developing Countries (not specified Promotion of private investments and technology transfer between private sector companies in developing and newly industrializing countries. Norway/Central and Eastern European Countries (not specified) Energy efficiency, technology transfer and capacity-building projects. Belgium/Thailand Preparation of a project aimed at improving the production of tapioca. An essential phase of this project is the improvement of water irrigation and to reduce the pressure on the environment. The collaboration between the Belgian private enterprises and local communities is encouraged. A study is being undertaken on the environmental effects of the development plan "Southern Seaboard". The involvement of the Belgian private sector in the project is generally desired since the transfer of technology is a general objective to be achieved in the context of this project. /Morocco Implementation of the Environmentally Sound Industrial Development (ESID) Programme for Morocco which aims at: (i) increasing the awareness in the environmental impact of the industrialization of the country; (ii) building the environmental/institutional capacity for monitoring and control of industrial pollution; (iii) creating a specialized information centre in environment/energy including cleaner production database; and (iii) compiling the laws and regulations of the investment code and the environment code in a guidelines document for investors and future industrial site planning. United Kingdom/Developing Countries (not specified) Implementation of the Technology Partnership Initiative (TPI) to encourage transfer of technology and know-how on commercial terms to 43 rapidly industrializing developing countries in Latin America, Africa, and the Middle and Far East. These technologies must be both affordable and appropriate to the needs of the clients in the recipient countries. It seems to achieve this by increasing direct business contacts and by providing businesses and organizations overseas with information on proven technologies, management techniques and best practice adopted in the United Kingdom. United States of America/Developing Countries (not specified) Implementation of the Environmental Pollution Prevention (EP3) project to create and support sustainable pollution prevention programs in developing countries, providing access to U.S. pollution prevention information and expertise, and applying pollution prevention actions to both urban and industrial sectors. Country programs have been established to date in: Chile, Ecuador, Egypt, Indonesia and Tunisia. EIP is working to transfer ESTs in Brunei, Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. EIP and IEMP collaborate on EST transfer in the Philippines. Netherlands/Central and Eastern European Countries (not specified) Established the program for cooperation with Central and Eastern Europe. Part of the budget in this program has been used for environmental technology cooperation. The program has three main goals: (i) the development of a market economy, privatization and entrepreneurship; (ii) the strengthening of the competitiveness of and modernization of the market, restructuring, rationalization and upgrading of the private sector; and (iii) the development of sustainable processes of production and energy saving techniques in the private sector. /UNEP Support to UNEP in the field of education and transfer of knowledge to developing countries, including: - participation in the assessment of the environmental aspects in relation to industrial sectors (pulp and paper, cement) for Egypt, Zimbabwe and Senegal. For the pulp and paper industry of Egypt, an in-depth assessment has been carried out and financed. - support to the UNEP Working Group on Sustainable Product Development to promote development of cleaner products on a global scale. /World Bank Support to the World Bank with several activities such as: - revision of the guidelines for industrial pollution prevention and abatement; - the preparation of a cleaner production programme by the Asia Department; - exchange of information on the transfer of technology with several country departments such as for Colombia, Indonesia, China and Eastern Europe. US-AEP/Chile, Ecuador, Egypt, Indonesia, Tunisia Coordinates efforts under the ASEAN environmental impact project to foster clean technology and pollution prevention. In addition, the Environmental Pollution Prevention (EP3) project, administered by the US Agency for International Development, aims at creating and supporting sustainable pollution prevention programs in developing countries, providing access to US pollution prevention information and expertise, and applying pollution prevention actions to both urban and industrial sectors. EP3 country programs have been established to date in Chile, Ecuador, Egypt, Indonesia and Tunisia. /Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines Supports activities in the six ASEAN member countries. In addition, nearly thirty other Asian and Pacific countries are eligible for participation in its programmes. /Asian Countries (not specified) Sponsors the Environmental Technology Fund which is a series of small-matching grants administered through the US-based National Association of State Development Agencies. These grants help small and medium sized US businesses bring their ESTs to the Asian region and demonstrate them. Denmark/Nicaragua Support to promote low cost EST solutions to environmental problems, including research and development in universities and technical institutes for low cost EST based efforts to solve environmental problems. Support effective organization and the relevant professional skills, and to make it possible to carry out pollution control and water resources management (period: 1993-94; budget: DKK 7.9 mill). /Bhutan Assist the national government in the context of developing the National Environmental Strategy in establishing systems to ensure a sustainable natural resource use, setting up of an environmental secretariat and formulating a national environmental strategy and preparation of environmental impact statements (period: 1990-97; budget: DKK 12 mill). Assist governmental authorities in the preparation of guidelines which ensure environmental concerns a central position in national planning and to establish cooperation among the authorities and between the public and private sector (period: 1990-97; budget: DKK 12 mill). /Philippines Implementation of three integrated environment projects, through NGOs' grass level activities, to change environmental policy on national as well as local level, and to improve the environment and the common population's quality of life. Finland/Egypt Assistance in environmental auditing and management to develop environmental management in metal, chemical and/or pulp and paper sector industries (budget: US$ 1 mill and E 3 mill). Hazardous waste management in the Alexandria Metropolitan area to develop an environmentally safe management system for all major hazardous wastes generated in the Alexandria area (budget: US$ 1 mill). /Tanzania Pangani Hydro-Power Plant, 70 MW, subsidizing fossil fuels. /Peru Diesel power plants in Iquitos, 18 MW, subsidizing steam power. /Nepal Diesel power plant in Biratnagar, 24 MW, subsidizing aggregates. All of these programmes/projects are mainly supported by associated financing and involvement of the private sector. Commission of European Communities/ Developing Countries (not specified; and Central and Eastern European countries) Technology cooperation programmes have been launched geared towards fostering the build- up of the local human and technological capacities for the effective diffusion of cleaner production processes and cleaner products. External evaluations of these programmes have highlighted their scientific quality and cost-effectiveness, as well as the successful links forged between scientists and institutions, North and South. FAO/International Agricultural Research Centres (IARCs)/ National Agricultural Research Sites (NARS) Started, with the financial support of UNDP, a joint initiative to strengthen collaboration in technology transfer, with focus on technology identification and technology transfer pilot programmes that are conducive to on-farm adoption of improved and appropriate technologies, as well as on production systems that enhance sustainable and improved agricultural production. Provisions for commercialization of the technologies are considered. B. Funding Provided by Financial Institutions Financial Institutions - Policies and Programmes Asian Development Bank (ADB) Earmarked a $150 million fund for investments in companies which contribute to sustainable development in Asian markets. Central American Bank for Economic Integration(CABEI) CABEI has approved technical cooperation funds for the following projects: /Honduras, El Salvador, Costa Rica Institutional strengthening of the Science and Technology Council (US$150,000) Institutional strengthening of the Science and Technology Council (US$150,000) Technological Information system for the productive sector (TIPS) (US$125,000) International Finance Corporation (IFC) Provides training in environmental risk management to its financial intermediary client, indirectly encouraging application of ESTs since their, environmental performance including, investment decisions will motivate companies to use ESTs. /Egypt A US$ 2.8 mill. MFMP grant was approved for conversion of Misr Compressor Manufacturing Co., a private compressor manufacturer to produce compressors configured for non-CFC refrigerants. /Poland A US$ 35 mill. GEF grant was approved to undertake a utility/manufacturer demand side management initiative to build the market for energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps and related equipment. North American Environment Fund/Mexico Mexico's largest development bank, the North American Environmental Fund, is jointly managed by the US-based Ventana Environmental Corporation and Nafin. The Fund invests in environmental technology joint ventures between Mexican and US companies. The public sector Japanese Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund has invested $25 million with the rest of the funds predominantly coming from private investors. The principal focus of the Fund is on financing Build-Operate-Transfer type environmental infrastructure and associated technology transfer. Nordic Development Fund (NDF) Loans given for projects involving transfer of environmentally sound technologies: /Botswana Molepolole Mochudi Ground Water Exploitation /China Beishigiao Waste Water Treatment Plant (Xian); Hedong Waste Water Treatment Plant (Urumqi) and the Tanggu Geothermal Project. /Dominican Republic Forest Management Project (Plan Sierra). /Tunisia Forestation Project (Deuxieme Projet de Developpement Forestier). Nordic Investment Bank (NIB) Loans for projects involving transfer of environmentally sound technologies: /China Tanggu Geothermal Project; Beishigiao Waste Water Treatment Plant (Xian) and the Hedong Wastewater Treatment Plant (Urumqi). /Estonia Kemvesi Production of Water Chemicals and the Kunda Nordic Cement, Environmental Rehabilitation of Cement Factory. /Indonesia Forestation Project. /Mauritius Environmental Investment Programme. /Tunisia Forestry Project. /Turkey Istanbul Water and Sewerage Works; Forestation Project and the Greater City of Istanbul Solid Waste Treatment Plant. Nordic Environmental Finance Corporation (NEFC) NEFCO provides risk capital for long term cooperation between Nordic and East European enterprises in the field of environmental technology. The Corporation has a capital base of $50 million and can participate in up to 35% of the equity of a joint venture, as long as private sector partners participate on equal terms. NEFCO can also provide funding for feasibility studies and mobilize additional debt for projects. /Czech Republic Hazardous Waste Handling Plant and the Computer Based Control System for Energy Savings. /Estonia Production of Water Chemicals; Manufacturing of Bio Rotors (Waste Water Treatment Equipment); Environmental Rehabilitation of Cement Factory and the Manufacturing of Devices for Energy and Process Control. /Latvia Municipal Effluent Treatment. /Poland Production of Water Chemicals; Manufacturing of Flue Gas Cleaning Equipment; Manufacturing of Environmental-Friendly Welding Equipment; Environmental Rehabilitation Plan of Paper Mill and the Environmental Rehabilitation of Paper Mill and Liquidation of Pulp Mill. /Russia Hazardous Waste Handling. /Slovakia Utilization of Geothermal Power. Inter-American Investment Corporation (IIC) IIC does not specifically engage in channelling financial resources for the transfer of technology nor for technical cooperation. However, some of the projects financed by IIC include a technology or technology transfer component, as stated below, and these projects and related operations are aimed at the private sector in Latin America and the Caribbean: /Argentina Financing provided to a company for upgrading technology for processing local agricultural commodities into high-value export products. Financing provided to a processor of cattle and poultry by-products to expand operations. /Bolivia Loan given to a mining company engaged in production of boron minerals to finance construction of a chemical facility for boric acid production, fostering intra-regional and international transfer of technology. /Brazil Financing provided to a leading tissue paper manufacturer and maker of special papers for packaging, for expansion through the purchase of new technology. /Colombia Financing provided to implement a satellite data telecommunications network, as well as financing for the production of a new light specially designed aircraft. /Guatemala Financing provided to facilitate the purchase of state-of-the-art technology imported from the US to build and operate a freezing and packing plant for processing fruits and vegetables. /Mexico Financing provided for the expansion of a company, maker of specialty chemicals, biodegradable detergents, dispersants, emulsifying and antifoaming agents, and solvents. /Venezuela Financing provided to implement a satellite-based network for transmitting information, both domestic and international links for data, voice and video transmission. Islamic Development Bank (IDB) Financing of major projects that include technology transfer and capacity-building: /Tunisia Sewerage system for eight cities. /Syria Garbage composting plant. /Niger Oasis Development Project. /Senegal Izmir Bay Cleaning Project and the Reforestation Project. /Pakistan Left Bank Outfall Drainage. /Bangladesh Flood control projects. Recent technical assistance projects funded by the IDB in developing countries which involve the transfer of environmentally sound technologies are: /Saudi Arabia Disposal of solid wastes in Jeddah. A feasibility study is also being conducted for the utilization of solid wastes to produce a comprehensive plan for technically sound and cost-effective solid waste management with acceptable environmental impact. /Tunisia Protection of the seashore and waste treatment. /Yemen Water resources. /Gambia Water resources. /Mauritania Water resources. C. Successful Recent Investments Countries/Organizations - Policies and Programmes Netherlands/India Investments in chrome recovery systems, with the collaboration of the Netherlands; the UASB System for tannery effluent; and Bio-methanation for primary treatment of distillery effluent. US-AEP/Republic of Korea Through US-AEP, Remote Sensing Technology, a private sector company based in Colorado, finalized an agreement with the Republic of Korea for the delivery of sensors for car fuel efficiency and pollution prevention. United States of America/Thailand In the result of a Thai Government and USAID initiative to alleviate air pollution in Bangkok, the world's first three-wheel-electric vehicle factory is being established as a Thai-US joint venture in Bangkok. Australia/Indonesia Supports a number of bilateral activities which aim to promote environmentally sound technology transfer and cooperation. Under the Indonesia program, $22 million is being provided over five years for the BAPEDAL Pollution Control Project which is designed to improve Indonesia's environment protection capabilities by helping to develop the capacity of Indonesia's environment protection agency. /Nepal The Nepal Australia Community Forestry Project involves the reafforestation of severely eroded areas of Nepal through the establishment of community managed forests. The project is also intended to reduce demand for fuelwood by spreading knowledge on the construction and use of fuel efficient cooking stoves. A total of just under $10 million was approved for this project in 1991 for a duration of five years. /India A waste management project at an estimated cost of $12 million is beingimplemented to improve industrial hazardous waste management procedures and practices in the city of Hyderabad. Assistance include a waste minimization/clean production component for waste audit techniques, clean production training, demonstration and grants to factories installing clean production technologies. /Thailand, China, Papua New Guinea Assistance to a Lignite Mines Project in Thailand has gradually expanded to include mine waste management. Similar mine waste management projects also currently exist in China and Papua New Guinea. Denmark/Egypt Wind Energy Project to develop the institutional framework for a long-term exploitation of wind energy, to establish a national wind energy centre and a demonstration park for wind mills, to prepare a wind-atlas for the Read See Coast, and to develop a master plan for the future exploitation of wind energy (budget: DKK 31.8 mill). /Philippines Appropriate Technology and Ecology Farming to encourage sustainable development in farming at Mindanao Island, with ecology and biodynamic farming, use of local seeds, appropriate technology, training and general education (budget: DKK 2.7 mill). /India Appropriate Technology and Environment Project to decrease the dependence of fossil fuel through the spread of non-exhaustible energy technologies and to strengthen the value of the traditional culture through training and general education (budget: DKK 7.9 mill). /Cape Verde Wind Energy Project to contribute to Cape Verde's self-sufficiency in energy through the establishment of windmills (budget: DKK 44 mill). /Nicaragua Tree Seed Bank Project with ongoing preparations for setting up a tree seed bank in preparation for making Nicaragua self-sufficient with pine and foliferous seeds and to increase the export and sustain important genetic resources (budget: 30.2 mill). /Tanzania Project on the improvement of production and living conditions for the village people in one of Tanzania's most underdeveloped districts. Among the planned activities are to encourage environmental arrangement, e.g. tree planting and soil and water conservation (budget: DKK 344 mill). Finland With the Finnish pre-mixed concessional credit scheme, the Government of Finland supports investments with Finnish deliveries in various developing countries. Within about 100 projects of this scheme, the next following ones may be seen as demonstrations of environmentally sound technology investments: /China - Fluidized bed-based power generation, 100 MW, in Neijiang, for waste material use. - Combined electricity and district heat generation in Mudanjian and Taijuan, for energy efficiency. - Municipal secondary sewerage treatment in Wuhan for pollution control. - Process development and automatization in SAILS-steel industry for energy and raw materials saving. /India - Indo-Nordic Industrial Pollution Control Programme to stimulate Indian industry to invest in clean technologies and thereby prevent industrial pollution as well as to promote Nordic clean technologies in India. - Industrial filters for pollution control. - Diesel generators for energy efficiency. /Malaysia Scrap metal sorting and processing. /Philippines Process rehabilitation in PASAR-copper smelters for energy saving and pollution control. /Thailand Process rehabilitation and new technology in Phoenix Pulp and Paper Industry for water saving, recovery and pollution control. World Bank/India World Bank provided funding to India of about $ 300 million to support new investments on ESTs; About $ 30 million to support common effluent treatment plants; And about $ 10 million for municipal sewage recycling. D. Build-Operate-Transfer Arrangements. Countries/Organizations/Financial Institutions - Policies and Programmes Australia A number of feasibility studies for activities which incorporate BOT arrangements have received assistance under the development cooperation program. One of these feasibility study which incorporates BOT arrangements on the viability of a joint venture to undertake privatised waste water management projects in China. The feasibility study also covered associated training of engineers in the technology required for cost effective treatment of water and sewerage. Indonesia Environmental Management Centre, Waste Management Indonesia, Water Supply and Sanitation for Low Income Communities, Solar Electrification. US-AEP Participation in BOTs in India, Thailand and Indonesia and are working on others in Taiwan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea and Malaysia. US-AID's Regional Housing and Urban Development Offices in Indonesia and Thailand have signed bilateral Housing Investment Guarantee agreements with the governments of Indonesia and Thailand to finance urban infrastructure projects. These agreements provide funding for public projects and, in the future, will support financing for private projects on a Build-Own-Operate (BOO) or Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) basis. United States of America US AID's Regional Housing and Urban Development Offices in Indonesia and Thailand have signed bilateral Housing Investment Guarantee agreements with the governments of Indonesia and Thailand to finance urban infrastructure projects. These agreements provide funding for public projects and, in the future, will support financing for private projects on a Build-Own-Operate (BOO) or Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) basis. NIB BOTs exists in the energy sector. United Kingdom BOT arrangements are an integral part of the United Kingdom's technology cooperation activities. IFC IFC has approved financing a number of BOT projects, including: - Privatization of the potable water supply and sewerage system for Buenos Aires; - Constructing a 25-megawatt hydroelectric plant in Belize; - Building a waste water treatment plant in Mexico; - Building a 700-megawatt coal-fired thermal power plant in the Philippines; and - Constructing a 200-megawatt gas-turbine power plant in the Philippines.
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Date last posted: 2 December 1999 13:22:30