United Nations
Commission on Sustainable Development

Background Paper


                                                       16 May 1994

COMMISSION ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Second Session
New York, 16-27 May 1994

                             BACKGROUND PAPER

                         Task Manager's Report on
                        Decision-Making Structures:
              International Legal Instruments and Mechanisms
                               (Chapter 39)

                    (Prepared by DPCSD as Task Manager)

                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                             PARA NO.

INTRODUCTION .........................       1 -   4

  I. The Effectiveness of International
     Agreements for Sustainable
     Development .....................       5 -  70

 II. Priorities for Future Law-Making
     in Sustainable Development ......      71 -  81

III. Initiatives to Promote a Balance
     Between Environmental Concerns
     Expressed in International Law and
     Social and Economic Concerns ....      82 - 102

 IV. Initiatives to Encourage
     Cooperation with the
     International Law Commission
     in Projects for the Progressive
     Development and Codification of
     International Law ...............     103

  V. Efforts to Support the Ongoing
     Negotiations for a Nuclear Safety
     Convention in the Framework of
     of International Atomic Energy
     Agency ..........................     104 - 106

 VI. Technical Assistance to
     Developing Countries in
     Strengthening their Capacity to
     Implement International
     Agreements ......................     107 - 123

VII. Technical Assistance and
     Initiatives to Support
     Effective Participation of
     Developing Countries in the
     Negotiation, Implementation
     and Review of International
     Agreements or Instruments .......     124 - 132

VIII.Initiatives in the Area of
     Dispute Settlement ..............     133 - 145

     ANNEXES ..............................

     I.   Summary of UN System Cooperative
          Activities ......................

    II.   Acronyms ........................

Introduction

1.   The overall objective of the review and development of
international environmental law, as contained in Chapter 39 of
Agenda 21, is to evaluate and to promote the efficacy of that law
and to promote the integration of environment and development
policies through effective international agreements or
instruments, taking into account both universal principles and
the particular and differentiated needs and concerns of all
countries.

2.   In addition, the objective of the Interagency Committee on
Sustainable Development, with respect to all Task Manager
reports, is to ensure collaboration and cooperation in the follow
up to, including reporting on, the implementation of Agenda 21 by
the United Nations system.

3.   This Report, therefore, is organized to address both sets of
concerns.  Part I identifies the major international legal
agreements and examines their efficacy; Part II looks at
priorities for future agreements; Part III discusses some of the
initiatives within the United Nations system to promote a balance
between environmental concerns expressed in international law and
social and economic concerns; Part IV reports on initiatives to
encourage cooperation with the International Law Commission; Part
V identifies efforts to support the on-going negotiations for a
nuclear safety convention; Part VI looks at technical assistance
to developing countries in strengthening their capacity to
implement international agreements; Part VII examines technical
assistance and initiatives to support effective participation of
developing countries and countries in transition in the
negotiation, implementation and review of international
agreements or instruments; and Part VIII reviews some of the
initiatives in the area of dispute settlement.

4.   All of the material contained in this Report is based on
material provided by the organizations themselves in response to
an outline provided by DPCSD; informal consultations in New York,
in October 1993; the third session of the Interagency Committee
on Sustainable Development (March 1994); and written comments and
amendments provided by the organizations following the IACSD
meeting.

I.   The Effectiveness of International Agreements for
Sustainable Development

General Comments

5.   In March 1994, UNEP convened a coordination meeting to
provide a forum for consultations, exchange of information and
experience, and for identifying areas of mutual concern and
modalities for harmonization.  UNEP focused on developing a
coherent body of international environmental law; examining the
adequacy of global treaties; promoting their effective
implementation; and enhancing the operative functioning of the
secretariats of conventions developed under UNEP auspices.  UNEP
is also convening a series of meetings aimed at strengthening the
legal regime of toxic chemicals in international trade.  This
will include efforts to develop legally binding instruments for
the mandatory application of the prior informed consent (PIC)
procedure, in cooperation with FAO, WHO and GATT and other
relevant organizations.

6.   ILO has precise procedures concerning monitoring the
application of all of its conventions.  At the same time, the
vast majority of other environment-related Conventions are
monitored by their respective Secretariats and the Parties to
each of those Conventions.  This may lead to an inefficient and
costly monitoring and enforcement process and also be a
potentially significant burden on reporting countries.  It would
be useful to organize an international symposium or workshop to
discuss ways and means to encourage more harmonized and
rationalized approaches to monitoring the application of
environmental Conventions at national, regional and international
levels.

7.   The UNU has involved itself in activities pertaining to the
cutting issues in international law and international
institutions related to environmental governance.  The UNU Global
Workshop on International Environmental Law and Institutions is
planned for May 1995 in Barcelona, Spain, with a focus on
training university staff and international lawyers from
developing countries.  Regional Workshops, organized in
cooperation with UNEP and UNITAR, will follow.

8.   UNU has also initiated a project on International Law and
Global Environmental Change to anticipate approaches in
international law for preventing environmental harm and to
identify major themes in developing and applying international
law to problems of global environmental change.  Research on
issues related to environmental law and governance will be
carried out in the framework of the development of the Centre for
the Study of Governance in Barcelona, Spain.  The first phase of
this project is focused on questions of compliance,
implementation and enforcement of international environmental
policy and management; the second phase, starting in the spring
of 1995 and continuing for the following four years, will focus
on the enforcement of some specific conventions such as the
biodiversity convention and corollary legislation in the
perspective of sustainable development.

9.   UNEP and FAO have been collaborating for the implementation
of the prior informed consent (PIC) procedure based on their
joint programme.  There is on-going work by UNEP in consultation
with FAO and other partners to strengthen the legal basis for the
PIC procedure, and, in particular, the development of modalities
for a legally binding instrument for the mandatory application of
the PIC procedure.  FAO has proposed that this effort proceed on
a truly joint basis between itself and UNEP, leading to the
convening of a joint diplomatic conference.

Regional Level

10.  The Economic Commission for Europe notes that compliance
monitoring of its relevant instruments, implementation and
verification measures will be reviewed under UN/ECE auspices,
taking into account the negotiating history of each convention
and the specific problems of the countries in transition, for
presentation to the Signatories or Parties to these conventions.
A recent analysis by the ECE Secretariat, reviewed by the Working
Group of Senior Governmental Officials central coordinating body
of the "Environment for Europe Process", noted that more
effective implementation of international agreements requires
greater attention to the following issues:  (1) detailed
guidelines for and follow-up to national reporting requirements;
(2) mechanisms for the public to provide information on
compliance; (3) wide dissemination of information on the
agreement itself and on relevant activities undertaken in
relation to it; (4) establishment of implementation committees
entrusted with reviewing compliance; (5) improved mechanisms both
for prevention of disputes and dispute settlement; (6)
unambiguous criteria, rules and procedures regarding
responsibility and liability; (7) provision of adequate support
to assist countries in transition  with resources, experience and
technical skills; and (8) provision of adequate funds to support
the participation of the Parties in the meetings, as needed.

11.  More specific evaluation of the respective Conventions is
undertaken periodically, with generally positive results, as
follows:

(i)  1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution;
1985 Protocol on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or their
Transboundary Fluxes; and 1988 Protocol on Emissions of Nitrogen
Oxides or their Transboundary Fluxes; 1991 Protocol on Control of
Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or their Transboundary
Fluxes

12.  These Conventions and Protocols have established a regional
course of action.  The Parties to the 1985 Protocol, as a whole,
reached the thirty percent reduction target by 1990.  With
respect to the 1988 Protocol, overall emissions of NOx had by
1990 been stabilized at the 1987 level.  Five Cooperative
Programmes for Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution
Effects, and on Integrated Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on
Ecosystems are now operational and help in implementing the 1979
Convention.

(ii) 1991 Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a
Transboundary Context

13.  This Convention, pending its entry into force, is being used
as an instrument promoting both an integrated approach to
environmental protection and management and the preventive and
precautionary principles and sustainable development.  New
regulations have been introduced or existing regulations modified
at the national level in order to arrange for the EIA process, in
particular in a transboundary context.

(iii) 1992 Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary
Watercourses and International Lakes

14.  Pending its entry into force, this Convention is already
encouraging countries in the European region to develop and
implement water management strategies on the basis of water-
quality objectives, set emissions limits on the basis of the best
technology available, develop and use best environmental practice
and other measures of prevention, control and reduction of water
pollution from non-point sources.

(iv) 1992 Convention on the Transboundary Effects of Industrial
Accidents

15.  Examples of activities which have already been undertaken in
order to anticipate the Convention on the Transboundary Effects
of Industrial Accidents pending its entry into force include the
elaboration of new or adaptation of existing legislation; the
setting up of a coordinating centre for exchange of information;
the development and implementation of the UN/ECE Accident
Notification System; and preparations towards the establishment
of regional mechanisms for training and exercises and industrial
safety management.

16.  ESCAP has emphasized that the effectiveness of existing
international agreements or instruments requires a mutually
reinforcing system of international and national environmental
legislation.  While international legal instruments establish a
harmonized set of obligations, national legal instruments reflect
these obligations for appropriate implementation.  A number of
countries in the Asian and Pacific region have not yet
incorporated these obligations in their national legislation due
largely to a lack of national capacity.  ESCAP has been assisting
in this regard particularly with reference to the following four
areas:

(i)  Ramsar Convention on Wetland Management

17.  ESCAP conducted a review of the status of this Convention.
The review covered 24 countries in the region and examined the
main constraints in the implementation of the Convention at the
national level.

(ii) Climate Change

18.  ESCAP, in cooperation with countries in the region, is
developing a regional strategy on climate change.  This would
assist in identifying the socio-economic implications of climate
change and developing mechanisms that would help to implement the
provision of Framework Conventions on climate change.

(iii)Basel Convention

19.  ESCAP undertook an inter-country project, involving 15
countries, on the preliminary assessment of illegal traffic in
toxic and dangerous products and wastes.  A workshop is planned
in Yokohama in March 1994 to examine the existing situation and
make recommendations.

(iv) Desertification

20.  ESCAP is organizing an intergovernmental expert group
meeting in March 1994 to provide regional inputs to the draft
international convention on desertification.

21.  ECA has also noted that, while a number of regional
instruments of international agreements have been developed, work
carried out so far needs to be increased in order to generate
significant impact.  There is a need for more interagency
cooperation and more resources.

22.  UNEP is involved in the development and facilitating of a
number of regional agreements, such as the Regional Seas
Programme which was initiated in 1974 and is implemented through
regional components.  The Programme, which is supported by
respective Regional Conventions and Protocols, provides measures
to prevent, reduce and control marine degradation.  UNEP is also
contributing to the development of an agreement to combat illegal
trade in wildlife in the South African Region.

International Agreements

     Fishing: Agreement for the Establishment of the Indian Ocean
Tuna Commission; Agreement to Promote Compliance with
International Conservation and Management Measures by Fishing
Vessels on the High Seas; UN Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks
and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks; and International Code of
Conduct for Responsible Fishing

23.  The Agreement for the Establishment of the Indian Ocean Tuna
Commission was just approved by the FAO Conference in November
1993 for managing stocks of tuna and tuna-like species in the
Indian Ocean Region. Its effectiveness cannot yet be determined.

24.  The Agreement to Promote Compliance with International
Conservation and Management Measures by Fishing Vessels on the
High Seas was also approved by the FAO Conference in November
1993 as a direct implementation of UNCED recommendations calling
upon States to take action to deter reflagging of vessels as
means of avoiding compliance with applicable conservation and
management rules for fishing activities on the high seas.

25.  The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea has
served as the overall legal framework for Chapter 17 of Agenda 21
and the ongoing UN Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and
Highly Migratory Fish Stocks.  FAO expects that this Conference
will accord a major role for regional fishery management bodies
in the management of these stocks; consequently FAO is already
carrying out a review of the effectiveness of its regional
fishery bodies to prepare them to implement the decisions of the
Conference.

26.  The International Code of Conduct for Responsible Fishing is
voluntary, but parts of it will be drawn up in such a way as to
lend themselves to incorporation into national laws or adoption
as separate international legal instruments.

     Plants: International Plant Protection Convention;
International Code of Conduct for Plant Germplasm Collecting and
Transfer; Principles of Plant Quarantine as Related to
International Trade; International Undertaking on Plant Genetic
Resources; and the Agreement for the Establishment of the Near
East Plant Protection Organization

27.  FAO is working to make the International Plant Protection
Convention (IPPC) into a more effective mechanism for setting
international standards and guidelines for phytosanitary
measures, in light of concerns expressed in the Uruguay Round of
Multilateral Trade Negotiations of GATT.  In particular, FAO has
established a Secretariat for the IPPC and a Committee of Experts
on Phytosanitary Measures (CEPM) to advise on standards and
guidelines.

28.  Both the International Code of Conduct and the Principles
were adopted by the FAO Conference only in November 1993.  The
Code is voluntary and non-binding.  The International Undertaking
is a revision of an earlier agreement.

29.  The Agreement for the Establishment of the Near East Plant
Protection Organization was opened for signature on 18 February
1993 at a Diplomatic Conference convened in Rabat under the aegis
of FAO.

     Convention on Biological Diversity

30.  The Convention entered into force on 29 December 1993; the
first Conference of the Parties is scheduled for 28 November to 9
December 1994.  UNEP has provided the Interim Secretariat and has
been a catalyzing force behind the early implementation of the
Convention.  Coordination among several Secretariats is important
for implementation, including FAO, UNESCO, IUCN, WRI, WWF and
other organizations.  The complementary nature of the
Biodiversity Convention, CITES and CMS is evident.  The
implementation of these instruments should be based on the
integration of environmental protection and economic development.
Consequently, close coordination between these instruments and
cooperation between their Secretariats is essential.  While the
enforcement of other environmental regimes may contribute to the
preservation of wildlife, these particular conventions provide a
framework for the comprehensive protection of wildlife and
biodiversity in a sustainable manner.

31.  UNCTAD is contributing to UNEP's Expert Panel on evaluation
of the potential economic implications of conservation of
biological diversity, established as a follow-up to the
Convention, in particular as regards loss of biodiversity and the
use of economic instruments to counteract such loss; and as
regards valuation of the benefits and costs of biological
diversity.

32.  FAO is cooperating with the Intergovernmental Committee on
the Convention on Biological Diversity.  With the Treaty Section
of the United Nations Office of Legal Affairs and the United
Nations Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, FAO is
providing legal advise to the Secretariat of the Committee.  The
Twenty-Seventh Session of the FAO Conference (November 1993)
requested the Director-General, inter alia, to provide a forum
for negotiations among Governments for the adaptation of the
International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources, in harmony
with the Convention of Biological Diversity and for consideration
of the issue of access on mutually agreed terms to plant genetic
resources, including ex-situ collections not addressed by the
Convention.

33.  UNESCO has established an International Network of Biosphere
Reserves, and its General Conference in 1993 asked the Director
General to devise an appropriate statutory framework for Network.
This Network is seen as a "significant tool to implement the
Convention" on biological diversity, since it provides sites
suitable for research, monitoring, conservation and sustainable
development cooperation.  The Action Plan for Biosphere Reserves
is implemented by UNESCO in cooperation with UNEP, FAO and IUCN.

     Code of Conduct on Biotechnology

34.  This Code of Conduct is under preparation by FAO.

     1986 Conventions on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident
and on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or
Radiological Emergency

35.  In order to enhance the effectiveness of these two
Conventions, IAEA operates an emergency response system to
provide affected countries with timely notifications plus
additional information and assistance as required.  Collaboration
with other concerned organizations is assured through the Inter-
Agency Committee for Response to Nuclear Accidents (IAC/RNA).

36.  Within the Framework Convention on Early Notification of
Nuclear Accidents, WMO is cooperating with IAEA towards an
agreement to use the WMO Global Telecommunications system (GTS)
as carrier for radiological and related information in both
routine and emergency situations.

     Radioactive Waste: IAEA Code of Practice on the
International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste;
IAEA/IMO/UNEP Code of Practice for the Safe Carriage of
Irradiated Nuclear Fuel, Plutonium and High-Level Radioactive
Wastes in Flasks on Board Ships; and the London Convention of
1972 (London Dumping Convention)

37.  In 1990, the IAEA Code was adopted by consensus.  IAEA can
send experts on request to Member States requiring assistance
related to any suspected "dumping" of radioactive material.  More
could be done if funds were available to strengthen waste
management infrastructures in developing countries.

38.  IAEA has also, under its Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS)
programme, issued five codes of practice for nuclear power plant
safety and a comprehensive set of 55 safety guides for
implementation of the codes.  Expert services, advisory missions
and technical cooperation are also provided.

39.  IAEA has provided the main input to the technical part of
the work of the Intergovernmental Panel of Experts on Radioactive
Waste Disposal at Sea (IGPRAD).  It has also established an
international assessment project to assess the health
implications of dumping of high-level radioactive wastes into the
Arctic Seas, with the final results to be reports to the Parties
to the London Convention, in 1996.

     Hazardous Waste: Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods; Basel
Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous
Wastes and Their Disposal

40.  Concerning Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods (on which ICAO
works closely with the UN Committee of Experts on the Transport
of Dangerous Goods), Annex 18 to the Convention is complemented
by detailed "Technical Instructions for the safe Transport of
Dangerous Goods" which are also incorporated into the regulations
of the International Air Transport Association.  While these
provisions are applied strictly by governments and airlines,
there is nevertheless a certain dependence on the integrity of
packers and shippers of dangerous goods.  In addition, in close
coordination with WMO and IAEA, ICAO is undertaking a task
entitled "Monitoring and provision of warnings to aircraft of
radioactive debris and toxic chemical clouds."

41.  The ECE has promoted legally binding instruments related to
the international carriage of dangerous goods by road, rail and
inland waterways, in order to ensure safe and environmentally
sound conditions of transport of chemicals without impeding their
movement in international trade.  The ECE is, in particular,
responsible for the development and updating of existing
international instruments and provisions in this field such as
the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of
Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) and the European Provisions
concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by
Inland Waterways (ADN); and on behalf of the United Nations
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), of recommendations covering
the basic requirements for world-wide transport of these goods by
all modes.  The Convention on Civil Liability for Damage Caused
During Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road, Rail and Inland
Navigation Vessels (CRTD) to life, property and the environment
was adopted by the Inland Transport Committee in 1989.  The
Convention is based on the principles of strict and limited
liability, the channelling of responsibility and compulsory
insurance.

42.  The Basel Convention has developed tools to encourage and
facilitate its implementation, including the preparation of a
draft protocol on liability and compensation for damage and the
drafting of technical guidelines for the environmentally sound
management of wastes subject to the Convention.  The Secretariat
of the Convention is also providing legal and technical advice
for the elaboration of regional conventions and protocols for the
control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes in Africa,
the Mediterranean, Caribbean and South Pacific.  Still, according
to UNEP, a wider participation, particularly by the main
generators of hazardous wastes, is needed to enhance further
effectiveness.

43.  The Secretariat of the Convention and UNEP are providing
assistance to developing countries for improvement of
infrastructure and institutional capacities, including
appropriate legislative frameworks and enforcement mechanisms.
One of the more important means for ensuring effectiveness
includes efforts to facilitate the transfer of clean
technologies.

     Conventions dealing with occupational safety, health and
working environment

44.  A unique feature of ILO is its system of supervising the
implementation of ratified Conventions.  The ILO has a number of
International Labour Standards concerning the working
environment, the most recent of which are the ILO Chemicals
Convention (No. 170), 1990 and the Prevention of Major Industrial
Accidents Convention (No. 174), 1993. Each government is required
to send regular reports and to send copies of these reports to
both employers' and workers' organizations in their countries.
These organizations may, in turn, make their own comments on the
reports. The reports are further examined by an independent
Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and
Recommendations, and all comments are made public.  A selection
of these is then taken up by the annual ILO Conference for
further public discussion on a tripartite basis. Such close
supervision and consensus-building yields a high rate of
effectiveness.

     Regulations for Telecommunications

45.  The ITU makes international legal instruments, such as Radio
Regulations as adopted or modified by World Radio Conferences and
embodied in the Final Acts of those Conferences.  Regulations
successfully ensure that the limited natural resources -- the
electromagnetic Radiofrequency Spectrum and the Geostationary
Satellite Orbit -- are equitably and efficiently shared, and are
used harmoniously to avoid harmful interference between the
various users.

     Standards for Civil Aviation

46.  ICAO is faced with some problems in general terms in
encouraging States to implement Standards and also in ensuring
that they file differences when obliged to do so.  However,
technical standards for noise and engine emission certification
are of particular concern to aircraft manufacturing states and no
particular difficulty with implementation of the standards is
experienced.

     Regulations and standards for Telecommunication

47.  The International Radio and Telecommunication regulations,
which have the full status of international law, enjoy
considerable compliance among signatory and even non-signatory
nations, largely because the cost of ignoring them -- direct
endangerment to life -- is so high.  In addition, equipment
manufacturers must comply or equipment would be largely
unmarketable.  In short, there are considerable moral, technical
and financial incentives to comply.

48.  This may serve as a model for other Agreements.  That is,
compliance is enhanced when a direct link between the terms of
the Agreement and the physical or economic well-being of people
can be unambiguously demonstrated.  Similarly, where the
marketing of specific technologies depends on acceptance of
clearly identified standards, there is an added incentive to
comply.

     Ozone Protection Instruments:  Vienna Convention for the
Protection of the Ozone Layer; The Montreal Protocol on
Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer; London Amendment and
Adjustments

49.  According to UNEP, the improvement of the effectiveness of
the ozone protection regime has been pursued by the decisions of
the five meetings of the parties to the Montreal Protocol, by the
establishment of a permanent Multilateral Fund for financing the
implementation of the Protocol; and by the high number of
participating States. Furthermore, the phase-out of Halons by the
end of 1993, and of all the CFC's, carbon tetrachloride, methyl
chloroform and all hydrobromofluorocarbons by the end of 1995 is
helped by the development of alternative environmentally safe
substances.  Finally, the work of both the Scientific and the
Technology and Economic Assessment Panels provide a strong
scientific underpining to international and national decision-
making.

50.  UNCTAD has launched a programme of studies relating to
financing environmental protection, with special emphasis on
ensuring that environmental and developmental concerns are
appropriately balanced.  Within the framework of the UNCTAD
secretariat's proposal for a global system of tradeable carbon
emission entitlements, studies are underway on new mechanisms for
joint implementation of commitments utilising entitlements;
essential design requirements of a global system of entitlements;
and on model rules and regulations of a global entitlements
market.  The UNCTAD secretariat is also designing a carbon
emission offset scheme for application in a developing country.

51.  Implementation of the Vienna Convention and the Montreal
Protocol creates the potential for joint programmes with UNDP,
the World Bank, WMO, UNIDO, WHO, IPCC and INC/FCCC. Collaboration
between UNEP, industry associations and organizations as well as
with non-governmental scientific and environmental organizations
is underway.

52.  According to WMO, they, with UNEP, have concluded that the
London Amendment and Adjustments are insufficient to ensure full
compliance with the Montreal Protocol, and that, due to the
expanded threat of ozone depletion, more must be done.  However,
there are two problems associated with this.  One, the Global
Ozone Observing Station at present is below the needs of the
Convention and verification of Protocol; it requires expansion,
improvement and greater funding.  Two, some ozonesonde stations
still fail to deposit their data at the Observing Station in
Toronto.

     Convention on the Law of the Sea

53.  For more than a decade, even before its entry into force,
the Convention on the Law of the Sea has provided the basic
principles and rules on the protection of the marine environment
and the sustainable development of marine living resources.  It
has further provided the global legal framework both for the
development of marine environmental law at global and regional
levels and for Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 and the ongoing UN
Conference on Straddling fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish
Stocks.

54.  Following the Convention's entry into force on 16 November
1994, the Secretary-General of the United Nations will be called
upon, inter alia, to assist in the establishment of two new
bodies, the International Seabed Authority to administer the deep
seabed regime and the International Tribunal for the Law of the
Sea.  He will also be responsible for setting up and servicing
the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, which
envisages cooperation with UNESCO/IOC and the International
Hydrographic Organization.

55.  The Convention calls on relevant international organizations
to formulate and keep under review detailed international rules,
regulations, procedures and recommended practices in a number of
areas.  In the interrelated areas of marine environmental
protection, promotion of marine scientific research and
sustainable development of marine living resources, the main
"competent international organizations" in the UN system
responsible for such tasks are IMO, IAEA, UNEP, UNESCO/IOC, WMO
and FAO, as well as secretariats of related conventions. The
Secretary-General is entrusted with promoting its uniform
application by States and harmonized implementation by
international organizations.

56.  The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO,
for example, provides expertise and advice to the Commission on
the Limits of the Continental Shelf and assists in the
formulation of guidelines, criteria and procedures for marine
scientific research in the Exclusive Economic Zone.

57.  UNEP has developed a set of regional seas convention and
protocols covering nine regions of the world.  These instruments
represent an important contribution to the comprehensive legal
regime of protecting and preserving marine environment as
stipulated by UNCLOS.  In the field of land-based sources of
marine pollution, UNEP has promoted the development of the 1985
Montreal Guidelines for the protection of the marine environment
against pollution from land-based sources.  The most recent
initiative, the programme for the development and periodic review
of environmental law for the 1990s calls for further UNEP action
related to the UNCLOS regime.

     International Shipping, Maritime Safety and Prevention of
Pollution

58.  This area of international cooperation includes several
Conventions related to sustainable development, including, for
example, the International Convention for the Safety of Life at
Sea (SOLAS), with amendments; the International Convention for
the Prevention of Pollution from ships, with amendments; the
International Convention relating to Intervention on the High
Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties; the International
Convention relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of
Pollution by Substances other than Oil; and many others regarding
oil pollution damage, including the Establishment of an
International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage,
with protocols; the International Convention for Safe Containers,
with amendments; the International Convention on Oil Pollution
Preparedness, Response and Cooperation (1990); and the Convention
on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and
Other Matter, with amendments.

59.  IMO works through the Maritime Safety Committee (MSC), the
Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) and the Legal
Committee to review and update the various conventions, codes and
guidelines in their specialized fields of expertise. A
significant development in this context was the recent
establishment of a new Sub-Committee on Flag Statement
Implementation which reports to the MSC and MEPC.  The
fundamental nature of the approach being taken by this Sub-
Committee is to address the difficulties encountered by Member
States in administering IMO safety and pollution prevention
requirements.

60.  The ITU has collaborated with IMO in the elaboration of the
Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS), designed to
improve the safety of shipping and the safety of life of
seafarers.  The increased safety of shipping inherently minimizes
environmental pollution resulting from shipping accidents.

61.  UNEP contributes to the London Convention on the Prevention
of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter.
Consideration is presently being given (with development of a
long-term strategy for the Convention) to expanding the regime to
cover marine pollution from all sources.  This requires further
cooperation between UNEP and IMO.

     Convention to Combat Desertification

62.  This Convention is still under negotiation, although it is
considered likely to be finalized in Paris in June 1994.  The
Secretariat of the Convention noted that, since desertification
is caused by complex interactions among various factors, the
Convention in its Articles 4, 5, and 6 on obligations provides
the constitutive elements of a coherent long-term strategy at all
levels to combat desertification.  This strategy is based on
obligations of a general nature, as well as obligations of
affected country parties and obligations of developed country
parties.

63.  UNEP promoted the 1977 United Nations Conference on
Desertification which adopted a plan of action to combat
desertification (PACD) and mandated UNEP to coordinate and
monitor world wide action to implement the plan.  The
recommendations of the PACD have not been implemented to the
extent envisioned due to financial constraints and a lack of
political commitment.  Both UNEP and WMO are actively involved in
the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee on Desertification
(INC-D).

     Convention on International Trade on Endangered Species of
Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

64.  Violations of CITES occur in a variety of situations. In a
number of cases, CITES permits are forged or altered to
facilitate the illegal trade or simply to indicate a greater
quantity of specimens or even a different species being shipped.
The CITES Secretariat assists the Parties in a variety of
measures to stop permit fraud.  However, in order to ensure
effective implementation of CITES, relevant provisions should be
integrated into national legislation; personnel trained;
resources made available for enforcement purposes; and government
policies developed to prevent political interference with CITES
processes.  Public education and awareness are also essential.

65.  The formation of a law enforcement consultative group is now
being considered as a possible means to address enforcement
problems within CITES.  The Secretariat also organizes numerous
regional and national training seminars in CITES implementation
and is involved in a far-reaching project to improve national
legislation.

66.  In many ways, CITES is the most successful of all
international treaties concerned with the conservation of
wildlife.  Its success is explained primarily because it has been
able to balance environmental and economic goals in such a way
that States have been willing to accept it.

     Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species (CMS)

67.  Over the first few years the Convention was characterized by
limited progress but in recent years a more dynamic development
has occurred.  There are now 42 Contracting Parties who, by
joining the Convention, have committed themselves to strictly
protect migratory species that are threatened with extinction.
The member States have also been encouraged to take coordinated
conservation actions for these and other non-endangered migratory
species within the framework of specialized agreements with other
countries.

     United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

68.  This Convention deals with global, complex and cross-
sectoral environmental issues in a comprehensive and holistic
manner, and is in the forefront of the progressive development of
international environmental law.  The Convention provides for the
adequacy of commitments by developed countries to limit their
emissions of greenhouse gases to be reviewed by the Conference of
the Parties (COP) at its first session (scheduled for Berlin, 28
March to 7 April 1995). Discussion on the review of adequacy
started at the ninth session of the INC/FCCC.  It is through this
review and subsequent ones that the Convention is likely to
evolve into a more effective instrument.  Forms of such evolution
could include protocols or amendments to the Convention.

69.  WMO, jointly with UNEP, initiated the discussions on the
Framework Convention on Climate Change and is actively involved
in its Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC/FCCC).  UNEP
participated in establishing the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change (IPCC), which continues to facilitate the work
under the Convention, and assists the interim secretariat of the
Climate Change Convention, located within the United Nations,
pending the decision by the Conference of Parties at its first
session on its permanent location. UNESCO and its
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) provide
technical support to both the IPCC and the interim secretariat of
the FCCC.

70.  The  programme of studies related to a global system of
tradeable carbon emission entitlements being undertaken by UNCTAD
pay particular attention to means of ensuring that any legal
instruments eventually negotiated make appropriate provision of
the specificity of the developing countries.  UNCTAD is also
considering studies on the development of tax-based instruments
for financing environmental protection, including domestic carbon
taxes, international carbon tax arrangements, and environmental
value-added tax.

II.  Priorities for Future Law-Making in Sustainable Development

Air Pollution

71.  Follow-up on the 1985 Protocol to the 1979 LRTAP Convention
on Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or their Transboundary Fluxes
within the European region.  A new protocol for further reduction
of sulphur emissions after 1993  has been finalized.  This new
protocol contains provisions for differentiated obligations among
countries, taking into account environmental damage and cost-
effective, optimized abatement strategies for the region as a
whole.  Parties may apply new economic instruments, and two or
more Parties may, pending decision by the Executive Body, jointly
implement obligations for emission reductions. Following the
adoption of the new sulphur protocol, highest priority will be
given to the development of a strategy for the second step of the
Protocol on nitrogen oxides, possibly taking into account a
multi-pollutant and multi-objective approach. Work is also
carried out to substantiate information on emissions, transport,
effects and abatement options concerning persistent organic
pollutants and heavy metals as a basis for the elaboration of
possible protocols. (ECE)

72.  Efforts should be intensified to address the possible
contribution of aircraft engine emissions to environmental
problems in the upper atmosphere, a task being undertaken by the
ICAO Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection, in
cooperation with the atmospheric science community.  Any measures
to control emissions at source would be expected to be
incorporated in the Annex 16 Standards. (ICAO)

73.  Preparations should be completed by 1994 of a new Annex to
MARPOL 73/78 on Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships, as well
as the development of a new annex to MARPOL on prevention of
pollution by noxious solid substances transported in bulk. (IMO)

74.  Both UNEP and WMO suggest that the Montreal Protocol needs
to be strengthened, including enhancing the capability of the
Global Ozone Observing Station.

Water

75.  For the Transboundary Water Convention, priority is given to
finalize lists of hazardous substances and industrial sectors
from which these substances derive and recommendations for Member
States on the application of these lists.  This may lead to the
elaboration of a Protocol. (ECE)

76.  Priority is also being given to the preparation of
guidelines for monitoring and assessing the conditions of
transboundary waters in the European region as a basis for
elaboration of a protocol on harmonization of monitoring systems.
(ECE)

77.  Focus is also on legal and administrative aspects of the
practical application of relevant provisions of the Water
Convention and experience gained in their application. Guidelines
on practical approaches to, and instruments of, water- demand
management for the promotion of sustainable water management, are
being prepared. (ECE)

78.  At the subregional level, transboundary water pollution is
becoming so critical, complex and urgent that there is a felt
need to do more.  Particular attention must be given to the new
States in region. (ECE)

Industrial Accidents

79.  Efforts are required by the ILO and others to facilitate the
effective implementation of the principles contained in ILO's
Convention concerning the Prevention of Major Industrial
Accidents (No. 174) 1993 and to promote its ratification.  (ILO)

80.  Priority is being given to strengthening the ability of
future Parties, and in particular, countries in transition, to
prevent and prepare for and respond to industrial accidents and
to establish an assistance programme and set up a systematic
funding mechanism. (ECE)

81.  There is a need to develop national coordinating mechanisms
and national legislation dealing with industrial accidents,
coordinate activities under existing bilateral and multilateral
agreements and/or programmes in this field with those carried out
under the Convention, as well as strive for compatibility with
legal regimes under existing conventions during the elaboration
of new agreements. (ECE)

Plant Genetic Resources and Plant Protection

     (1) Revision of the International Undertaking for Plant
Genetic Resources (FAO)

     (2) Establishment of an international network of gene banks
(FAO)

     (3) Progressive elaboration and adoption of further
international standards and guidelines on phytosanitary measures
(FAO)

Fisheries

     (1) review and possible restructuring of FAO's regional
fishery management bodies (FAO)

Nuclear Safety

     (1) intensified efforts to conclude on-going negotiations
for a nuclear safety convention (IAEA)

Transport and disposal of hazardous materials

     (1) organize a Workshop, in March 1994, to follow-up on an
inter-country project, in support of the Basel Convention, on the
preliminary assessment of illegal traffic in toxic and dangerous
products and wastes in the ESCAP region.  The project collected
information in fifteen countries on national legislation and
regulations, mechanisms and human resource capability for the
implementation of the Convention. (ESCAP)

     (2) Draft an International Convention on Liability and
Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of
Hazardous and Noxious Substances by Sea. (IMO)

     (3)  Improvement of the Code for the Safe Carriage of
Irradiated Nuclear Fuel, Plutonium and High-Level Radioactive
Wastes in Flasks on Board Ships (INF Code), taking into account
the Joint IAEA/IMO/UNEP Working Group and paragraph 17.22 of
Agenda 21. (IMO)

Maritime

     (1) Revise 1976 Convention on Limitation of Liability for
Maritime Claims. (IMO)

     (2)  Draft convention on offshore mobile craft (subject to
the outcome of the International Conference of the Comit'e
Maritime International (CMI). (IMO)

     (3)  Prepare a new convention on wreck removal. (IMO)

     (4)  Complete preparation by 1994 of a new Annex to MARPOL
73/78 on Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships; as well as the
development of a new annex to MARPOL on prevention of pollution
by noxious solid substances transported in bulk. (IMO)

     (5)  Promote further development of an international legal
regime for protection of the marine environment from land- based
activities.

          See also references to maritime transport in the
section above on transport and disposal of hazardous materials.

Toxic Chemicals

     (1)  Strengthen the legal regime of toxic chemicals in
international trade, particularly with respect to the development
of legally binding instruments for the mandatory application of
the prior informed consent (PIC) procedure. UNEP, FAO, WHO, GATT
and other organizations were requested to cooperate in
undertaking these activities.  (UNEP)

     (2) Preparation of a Code of Ethics on the international
trade in chemicals as a complement to the Amended London
Guidelines. (UNEP)

     (3)  Efforts are required by the ILO and others to
facilitate the effective implementation of the principles
contained in the ILO Chemicals Convention (No. 170), 1990 and to
promote its ratification.  (ILO)

EIA and Environmental Emergencies

     (1)  For the Environmental Impact Assessment Convention, the
focus within the ECE region is on the promotion of bilateral and
multilateral cooperation, public participation in EIA,
strengthening the capability of future Parties to comply with the
obligations under the Convention and methodological aspects of
EIA in a transboundary context. (ECE)

     (2)  Develop legal regimes in environmental impact
assessment and environmental emergencies.  (UNEP)

     (3)  Strive for compatibility with legal regimes under
existing conventions during the elaboration of new agreements in
the field of environmental impact assessment.

III. Initiatives to Promote a Balance Between Environmental
Concerns Expressed in International Law and Social and Economic
Concerns

82.  The Economic Commission for Europe notes that three
Conventions -- those concerning Environmental Impact Assessment,
Transboundary Water and Industrial Accidents -- have been drawn
up in anticipation of UNCED and thus consistent with the
interrelationships inherent in sustainable development.

83.  EIA is an excellent instrument to implement and strengthen
sustainable development as it not only combines the precautionary
principle with the principle of preventing environmental damage
but also arranges for public participation.  Within the ECE
region, EIA has already proved to be an effective instrument at
the national level, and it is expected to lead to environmentally
sound and sustainable development by providing information on the
interrelationship between economic activities and their
environmental consequences in particular in a transboundary
context.

84.  Both the precautionary principle and the polluter pays
principle have been recognized as guiding principles in the
implementation of the Transboundary Water Convention.  This
Convention also respects the principle of meeting the needs of
the present generation without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet own their needs.

85.  Under the Industrial Accident Convention, countries are
guided by principles of good-neighborliness, reciprocity, non-
discrimination and good faith, public participation, prevention,
environmentally sound and sustainable development, environmental
impact assessment, immediate notification, peaceful resolution of
environmental disputes and the recognition of the polluter-pays
principle as a general principle of international law.

86.  Furthermore, ECE has promoted legally binding instruments
related to the international carriage of dangerous goods by rail,
road and inland waterways, in order to ensure safe and
environmentally sound conditions of transport of chemicals
without impeding their movement in international trade.

87.  In order to promote regional initiatives for a balanced
consideration of environmental and development concerns in the
process of further development of international law on
sustainable development, ESCAP, in cooperation with IUCN, has
developed a proposal for the establishment of a regional law
centre at the National University of Singapore to provide
training and assist in enhancing the relevant national capacities
of countries in the Asia and Pacific region.  ESCAP has also been
developing a regional strategy on climate change both to identify
the socio-economic implications of the Framework Convention and
to develop mechanisms to assist in implementing the provisions
dealing with climate change.

88.  The Framework Convention for Climate Change as a whole
represents a synthesis of the global environmental concern and
the need for people of all countries, especially developing
countries, to improve their well being, through economic and
social development.  This synthesis is apparent in the objective
and principles of the Convention, as well as in certain
statements contained in the Preamble.  For this reason, the
Convention can be appropriately referred to, not as an
"environmental convention," but as a "convention on sustainable
development."

89.  The Convention on Biological Diversity has as its premise
that nations are responsible for conserving their biological
diversity and for using their biological resources in a
sustainable nature not only because of the "intrinsic value of
biological diversity" but also because of the "ecological,
genetic, social, economic, scientific, educational, recreational
and aesthetic values of biological diversity and its components"
(Preamble).

90.  Among the different follow-up recommendations of UNCED, only
one, the Convention to Combat Desertification, concerned the
elaboration of an international Convention.  As such, this
Convention constitutes the first international negotiating
process towards the implementation of the concept of sustainable
development in fragile ecosystems through legally binding
commitments at the national, regional and global levels.  The
balance between environmental concerns and social and economic
concerns is duly reflected in several Articles of the Convention,
particularly in Article 2 on Objectives and in several articles
of the Preamble.

91.  To establish international instruments or agreements in the
field of environment and socio-economic aspects of development,
it is necessary to establish mechanisms at all levels to take
into account all members of society.  Mechanisms should be based
on data assessment, information systems and participatory action-
oriented research and policy analysis.  INSTRAW is preparing a
time-use study and methodologies for gathering information
disaggregated by gender in all sectors of development and
environment in order to produce cross-sectoral indicators
applicable for both sector and cross-sectoral issues of Agenda
21.

92.  GATT's Working Group on Domestically Prohibited Goods was
established in July 1989 to examine issue of trade in products
that are banned or severely restricted in the country where they
are produced.  The Group drafted a Decision on Products Banned or
Severely Restricted in the Domestic Market which would cover all
products, ranging from consumer products to agricultural products
and which would include chemicals.  However, the Decision
specified that where a product is covered by another
international agreement or scheme, and a GATT contracting party
is participating in that scheme, that scheme would take
precedence.  The Decision remains in draft form, not yet adopted
by GATT Council.

93.  The Group on Environmental Measures and International Trade,
within GATT, has been tasked with examining trade and environment
issues, including trade provisions contained in existing
multilateral environmental agreements vis-a-vis GATT principles
and provisions.  The Group has not yet reached any conclusions
but the contracting Parties have emphasized that the approach
should not be to judge existing agreements, but rather to take a
forward-looking approach so that problems in the future can be
avoided.  The Group has proceeded with a generic analysis both of
different types of trade measures which could be used in
multilateral environmental agreements and whether there is a need
to use trade measures which are inconsistent with GATT
principles.  The Group's work, as well as the work on
Domestically Prohibited Goods, will likely be carried into a new
work programme on trade and environment, currently being
negotiated, following the adoption of the Decision on Trade and
Environment by the Trade Negotiations Committee on 15 December
1993, which commits governments to continue work on trade and
environment in the world Trade Organization.

94.  UNEP has also addressed the concerns relating to a potential
conflict between multilateral environmental agreements and the
GATT regime.  Since the beginning of 1993, UNEP has carried out
preliminary studies on the issue of compatibility between such
environmental instruments as CITES, the Montreal Protocol, the
Basel Convention and the Convention on Biological Diversity and
the GATT regime, and more indepth studies are contemplated.
UNCTAD, with UNDP, has launched a programme of studies relating
to financing environmental protection with special emphasis on
ensuring that environmental and developmental concerns are
appropriately balanced.

95.  The ILO is implementing programmes concerning the
development of international labour standards, codes of practice,
research and policy advisory services focused on three main ILO
issues:  the working environment, employment and poverty
alleviation, and vocational and management training.  These
programmes are enhancing the capacity of employers' and workers'
organizations and ministries of labour and employment to deal
directly with critical environment and sustainable development
matters at all levels.  A special Interdepartmental Project on
Environment and the World of Work is aimed at assisting countries
to integrate these world of work issues within their national
Agenda 21 and sustainable development strategies.  Reference
should also be made to the ILO's Indigenous and Tribal People's
Convention (No. 169), 1989, which has specific provisions of
direct relevance to the environment.

96.  Strategies for environmentally sound industrial development
are based on a holistic approach that brings the environmental
dimension to bear on all planning, policies and expenditures
related to industry.  UNIDO's approach stresses pollution
prevention and waste minimization, which requires the correction
of market failures resulting from pollution externalities that
cause divergence between private and social costs and benefits.
The integration of environmental and industrial policies requires
the proper functioning of economic mechanisms and the integration
of environmental considerations into the industrial development
process without adversely affecting the objectives of industrial
growth.

97.  The World Heritage Committee (December 1993) emphasized that
links with other Conventions, especially with Biodiversity,
Ramsar and CITES, should be strengthened, and the UNESCO
Secretariat was asked to prepare a reflection on the relation
between the World Heritage Convention of the Committee and
sustainable development.

98.  In all of its initiatives, FAO's approach is to promote the
sustainable use of natural resources for food and agriculture in
parallel with environmental concerns.  This is particularly
relevant with respect to the Biodiversity Convention and
Resolutions as well as to the revision of the International
Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources and the establishment of
an international network of gene banks.

99.  The IAEA is mandated by its Statute to establish, in
collaboration with competent organs of the UN and its specialized
agencies, standards of safety for protection of health.  Under
the Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme, the Agency has
issued five codes of practice for nuclear power plant safety and
a comprehensive set of fifty-five safety guides for
implementation of the codes.  A joint IAEA/UNIDO/UNEP/WHO project
on risk assessment and management has produced a procedural guide
and a manual for classification and prioritization of risk.  Case
studies and training form an important part of this initiative
which concentrates on large industrial areas with multiple risks.

100. Because of the nature of international civil aviation,
aviation environmental questions are handled on a global basis.
Nevertheless environmental concerns do differ from region to
region; thus, for example, the Assembly of ICAO in 1990 adopted a
resolution on operating restrictions on aircraft exceeding
prescribed noise levels to reconcile the concerns of certain
developed countries obliged to keep noise levels to a minimum in
heavily populated areas, and the concerns of developing countries
that operating restrictions would impose a heavy economic burden
on their airlines.  ICAO expects to continue to strive for an
appropriate balance between environmental and developmental
concerns.

101. As part of its 1994-1995 programme, the UNU has initiated a
programme on Integrated Studies of Eco-Systems which aggregates
issues of environmentally sustainable development from the entry
point of eco-systems and their ability to support, resist or
recuperate from the long-term impact of major transformations.
UNU's projects will approach issues from three perspectives:  one
focuses on integrated studies of fragile eco-systems and other
vulnerable regions in given geographical zones like mountains and
low-lands, and fragile eco-systems in critical zones.  A second
set of projects comprises sectoral studies of critical resources
such as forests, water, oceans and biodiversity resources. A
third set of projects covers improved methods of measuring and
monitoring sustainability and environmental management.

102. UNU is also reviewing the current status of Environmental
Impact Assessment and further developing methodologies to respond
to the need for improved management tools for sustainable
development, especially in developing countries.

IV:  Initiatives to Encourage Cooperation with the International
Law Commission in Projects for the Progressive Development and
Codification of International Law (para 39.1 A)

103. ECE has indicated that, at regular intervals, the
International Law Commission has been informed regarding relevant
legal activities undertaken under the auspices of the UN/ECE
which were taken into account and commented when elaborating
elements for relevant legal instruments.

V:   Efforts to Support the Ongoing Negotiations for a Nuclear
Safety Convention in the Framework of the International Atomic
Energy Agency

104. The draft text of a nuclear safety convention is presently
under consideration within the IAEA by an open-ended group of
legal and technical experts.  It is expected that the Group of
Experts will reach consensus on the main outstanding issues early
in 1994, and submit a draft nuclear safety convention to a
diplomatic conference in 1994.  The Convention will apply to
nuclear power plants.  Preparations for a Convention on the
safety of radioactive waste management will be initiated by the
IAEA as soon as the on-going process of developing waste
management safety fundamentals results in broad international
agreement.  Also of relevance in this context are the IAEA Code
of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of
Radioactive Waste and the IAEA/IMO/UNEP Code of Practice for the
Safe Carriage of Irradiated Nuclear Fuel, Plutonium and High-
Level Radioactive Wastes in Flasks on Board Ships.

105. The Economic Commission for Europe has had close contacts
with IAEA during elaboration of the Industrial Accident
Convention to ensure complementarity between various treaties.
Provisions of the two Conventions form part of complementary
legal instruments in a comprehensive international legal regime
for accident notification and mutual assistance.

106. ILO participated in the first meetings on drafting of a
nuclear safety convention by IAEA.  There were two main concerns
voiced at the meetings:  the need to provide for a supervisory
mechanism similar to one established at ILO; and the importance
of ensuring conformity with the relevant ILO Conventions, in
particular the Radiation Protection Convention and the
Occupational Safety and Health Convention.

VI:  Technical Assistance to developing countries and countries
in transition in strengthening their capacity to implement
international agreements

107. Between the start of 1992 and January 1994, the membership
of ECE increased from 34 to 54 countries, including 27 countries
in transition.  This has had a profound effect on the nature of
the Commission's work.  It is playing an increasingly important
role in providing assistance to countries in transition, and,
with UNDP and UNEP, in giving emphasis to building and
strengthening their national capacities for sustainable
development, reviewing their performance in meeting domestic
environmental policy objectives and relevant international
commitments, and strengthening their environmental management and
planning capabilities, in particular for the implementation of
environmental laws and Conventions.  Specifically, the ECE
Secretariat has added the post of regional adviser in the field
of environment in order to provide countries in transition with a
standing and substantive advisory and training service.

108. In addition, the Executive Body for the Convention on Long-
Range Transboundary Air Pollution is developing ways and means to
facilitate the exchange of technology for the purpose of second
general protocols on emission reduction which rely heavily on
technological obligations.  It is also investigating the
feasibility of establishing a technical service network.

109. ESCAP provides technical assistance to countries in the
region to enhance national legislative capacities in the field of
environmental law, and to provide a national framework for
implementation of environmental laws and agreements.  In
cooperation with IUCN, it is attempting to establish a Regional
Law Centre at the National University of Singapore.  Through the
Interagency Committee on Environment and Development in Asia and
the Pacific, it is establishing a data base on environment and
development which could provide reference information on
environmental law.

110. One of the pillars of the Framework Convention on Climate
Change is the commitment by developed country Parties to provide
financial resources and facilitate transfer of technology to
developing country Parties to enable the latter to implement
their commitments.  Reference to cooperation in different aspects
of implementation abound; they are perhaps best encapsulated in
Article 12.7.  The interim secretariat of the Framework
Convention has taken some initiatives aimed at supporting
capacity building in developing countries.  One of these is a
training programme being undertaken jointly with UNITAR and being
financed by UNEP/GEF.  Another is an information exchange system
on country activities (CLIMEX), undertaken jointly with UNDP,
designed to facilitate the provision of financial assistance to
developing countries.

111. Many articles of the Convention to Combat Desertification
call for assistance to strengthen the capacity of developing
countries to implement their obligations under the terms of the
Convention through national, sub-regional and regional action
programmes.  Relevant dispositions on the terms of such an
assistance are spelled out in Articles 20, 22 and 23 of the
Convention.

112. INSTRAW conducts training seminars at all levels on issues
dealing with women in relation to a number of issues, including
those related to sustainable development and obligations under
international Conventions.  It is felt that the legal aspects of
Agenda 21 could be extended specifically to both genders and
included in capacity-building and dissemination of information
activities.

113. UNEP undertakes activities for the development of national
environmental legislation and institutions in many countries in
all regions.  It also sponsors, with UNITAR and other
organizations, a number of training programmes in the field of
environmental law for developing countries in all regions.  UNEP,
in cooperation with UNDP, has developed a joint project for the
development of environmental legislation and institutions in
Africa.  This project will be implemented in close collaboration
with such bodies as FAO, the World Bank and IUCN.

114. Consistent with its October 1991 global Conference on
Ecologically Sustainable Industrial Development (ESID), UNIDO
offers governments advice on industrialization strategies and
policies and provides assistance to developing countries in
formulating and implementing policy measures that seek to achieve
the dual objectives of industrial growth and environmental
protection.  This is done primarily through technical cooperation
and information services, and includes training workshops on
various environmental management tools such as environmental
auditing, environmental impact assessment methods and techniques,
information system design and public awareness campaigns.

115. UNITAR in Geneva organizes a series of training seminars on
the negotiation and implementation of international environmental
agreements for participants from developing countries and
countries whose economies are in transition.

116. Under the Multilateral Fund of the Montreal Protocol, UNEP,
UNDP and the World Bank, as the implementing agencies, are
assisting a number of developing countries in the planning,
preparation and implementation of country-programs, projects and
sectoral activities to replace and phase out CFCs, halons and
other ozone-depleting substances.  In addition, UNDP has joined
UNCTAD in a program of technical assistance to analyze the
interlinkages between trade and environment and to reconcile
environmental, trade and commodity policies.

117. ILO, by its own account, is the only organization in the
United Nations system to declare an explicit link between
standards it adopts and the technical cooperation it provides.
This is not a conditionality but rather a commitment by ILO to
back up its standards with the help needed to implement them in
practice.

118. FAO is proposing a cooperative effort involving United
Nations agencies, Governments, and NGOs concerned with forestry
to prepare and disseminate guidelines for the application of the
"Forest Principles" and implementation of forestry aspects of
Agenda 21.  The Development Law Service of the FAO Legal Office
provides technical assistance to developing countries to enhance
their national legislative capacities in the field of
environmental law as an on-going activity.  Some of this
assistance is linked to implementation of international
conventions or soft law instruments.  In addition, FAO is
planning to prepare in consultation with interested Member
Governments model national legislation for the implementation of
the recently approved International Agreement to Promote
Compliance with International Conservation and Management
Measures by Fishing Vessels on the High Seas.  Finally, the Legal
Office is in the process of computerizing its data bank on
national and international legislation on food, agriculture,
natural resources and environment, and is disseminating
information on a continuing basis.

119. UNESCO and its IOC undertake activities aimed at
strengthening the scientific and institutional capacity of
developing countries to implement international agreements in the
areas of competence of the Organization, in particular biological
diversity, oceans and climate change.  UNESCO also publishes
scientific and technical reference documents relevant for the
implementation of a number of international agreements.

120. The World Bank has a number of ongoing and planned projects
or project components involving technical assistance for national
environmental legislation and institutions in the World Bank
Group (including IDA, GEF and trust fund projects).  Through the
Environmental Affairs Unit in its Legal Department, it provides
technical assistance for environmental law and institutions in
over thirty developing countries.  The World Bank also supports
training courses and seminars on environmental law and related
issues, including specialized training for lawyers from
developing countries.

121. The IAEA and UNDP have launched a major initiative to
improve radiation protection systems and nuclear safety networks
in the newly independent States of the former soviet Union.  By
determining where international assistance can best be focused,
it is hoped that funds can be raised from both governments and
private industry.  With respect to developing countries, IAEA
notes that more assistance is required for building a regulatory
capacity and implementing the agreements to which they are party.
In addition, more could be done if comprehensive collection of
data could be undertaken in a greater number of developing
countries, and if additional funds were available for national
efforts to establish country-specific data bases.

122. The International Telecommunication Union provides technical
assistance at the national level for legislation and regulatory
aspects of national telecommunication entities, including
structuring reforms of these entities so that they contribute
more effectively to nation-building and sustainable development.

123. The World Meteorological Organization, within the Framework
Convention on Early Notification of Nuclear Accidents, is working
with IAEA toward an agreement to use the WMO Global
Telecommunications System as a carrier for radiological and
related information.  Within this context, WMO has established
four Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres (RSMCs) for
generating specialized model products for environmental emergency
response.  The RSMCs are to make available operationally, on
request, to WMO Members, the model products to assist them in
case of a nuclear accident or other environmental emergency.
Assistance is also given through short-, medium- and occasionally
long-term fellowships, and through financial support for
attendance at meetings.  WMO also publishes several scientific
and technical reference documents.

VII: Technical Assistance  and Initiatives to Support Effective
Participation of Developing Countries in the Negotiation,
Implementation and Review of International Agreements or
Instruments

124. The Economic Commission for Europe noted that the
integration of the countries of central and eastern Europe and
the former Soviet Union, that are in transition to a market
economy, into the international community depends to a
considerable extent upon their capacity to participate in the
meetings of international organizations and other international
fora.  Consequently, ECE has taken steps to facilitate the full
participation of its Member States and has established a Trust
Fund for Assistance to Countries in Transition.  This Trust Fund
provides a channel through which governments, international
organizations, institutions and other donors contribute funds to
help the transition countries and new independent States defray
the costs of their participation; it may also cover other forms
of technical assistance.  However, the funds that are available
do not yet match the requirements.

125. Based on General Assembly resolution 45/212, paras. 10 and
21, funding is available for the participation of developing and
other countries in the meetings of the International Negotiating
Committee of the Framework Convention on Climate Change.  A
similar arrangement is expected to be made for participation of
developing countries in the sessions of the Conference of
Parties.

126. Funding is available for the participation of developing
countries affected by drought and/or desertification,
particularly least-developed countries, in the negotiating
process of the Convention to Combat Desertification.  This
funding is made possible through voluntary contributions to the
Special Voluntary Fund, specifically created for the duration of
the negotiations by General Assembly Resolution 47/188, para 15.
Furthermore, a Trust Fund was set up to assist developing country
parties in their preparatory activities in the framework of the
negotiating process.  A similar arrangement could be expected for
the assistance of the affected developing country parties
immediately after the adoption of the Convention so as to enable
them to implement action programmes to be undertaken under the
Convention and strengthen their capacity in terms of assessment
and follow-up of such activities.

127. UNDP, through UNSO, has provided substantive support to the
African preparatory process for the development of the Global
Convention on Desertification, promoting regional and subregional
consultations.  Technical and financial support was also given to
the preparation of national case studies.

128. FAO provides assistance for the formal process of signifying
acceptance of international agreements, as well as in the
substantive process of implementing those agreements.

129. UNEP has been continuously providing financial assistance to
developing countries, and recently also to countries with
economies in transition, to enable them to participate
effectively in the negotiation of major environmental legal
regimes.  Such assistance had been rendered all through
negotiations of the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the
Ozone Layer and its Montreal Protocol, the Basel Convention on
the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and
Their Disposal.  The assistance is being further provided for the
on-going negotiations on a binding instrument on chemicals in
international trade, on strengthening the legal regime for
protection of the marine environment from land-based activities
and on agreement to combat illegal trade in wildlife in the South
Africa region.

130. UNCTAD has launched a programme of technical assistance to
improve the capacity of negotiators and policy-makers of the
developing countries to take full account of development issues
when involved in preparing and actually negotiating international
environmental agreements.  The project focuses on the preparation
of training materials on environmental economics; environmental
principles; environmental law and administration; dispute
settlements; transfer of environmentally-sound technologies;
finance; and trade issues.

131. The ICAO Technical Cooperation Programme assists states in
building up the expertise needed to participate fully in
specialized meetings and consultations prior to the adoption of
standards.

132. IAEA fosters exchange of technical and safety-related
information, provides advisory and peer review services, sponsors
and coordinates research activities, provides radiological and
environmental assessments of waste management facilities and
repositories and provides extensive training in all aspects of
radioactive waste management and disposal.

VIII:     Initiatives in the Area of Dispute Settlement

133. The ECE has a well-established procedure for preparing
periodical reviews of national policies and strategies on air-
pollution control, including exchange of data and information,
under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution.
Parties to the Convention submit quadrennial in-depth national
reports, following agreed-upon guidelines, and, annually,
information on changes in respective policies and strategies.
Signatories to the 1991 Convention on EIA in a Transboundary
Context, the 1992 Convention on the Transboundary Effects of
Industrial Accidents, and 1992 Convention on the Protection and
Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes also
adopted respective guidelines for national reporting.

134. The 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air
Pollution and its related protocols contain provisions for
seeking a solution by negotiation or by any other method of
dispute settlement acceptable to the parties to the dispute.
Proposals for prevention of disputes are also prepared in the
context of the second sulphur Protocol.  At present, this
includes the possibility to establish an implementation
committee, of eight members elected by the Executive Body, who
are expected to review implementation of this Protocol and
compliance by the Parties with their obligations.  The Committee
shall report to Parties at sessions of the Executive Body and may
make recommendations to them.  The Parties may, taking into
account the circumstances of the matter and in accordance with
Convention practice, decide upon and call for action to bring
about full compliance with the Protocol, including measures to
assist a country's compliance with the Protocol and to further
the objectives of this Protocol.  Application of compliance
procedure is expected to be without prejudice to settlement of
disputes procedure.

135. The 1991 Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a
Transboundary Context includes provisions which aim at
establishing mechanisms to prevent a dispute about application or
interpretation of agreement.  Article 3 arranges for a situation
in which a country considers it would be affected by a
significant adverse transboundary impact, and when no
notification has taken place, the concerned countries shall, at
the request of the affected country, exchange sufficient
information for the purposes of holding discussions on whether
there is likely to be a significant adverse transboundary impact.
If they agree, the provisions of Convention will apply.  If
countries cannot agree, any such country may submit that question
to an inquiry commission in accordance with provision of Appendix
IV to the Convention to advise concerned Parties on likelihood of
a significant transboundary impact.  The 1992 Industrial
Accidents Convention contains a similar procedure in relation to
identification of hazardous activities.

136. The 1991 EIA Convention, the 1992 Industrial Accident
Convention and the 1992 Water Convention also contain detailed
provisions for consultations among Parties with respect to
dispute settlement.  Disputes may be brought to the International
Court of Justice or settled through arbitration procedures
described in these Conventions.

137. These approaches and similar ones are to be further examined
within ECE,  and possible, innovative, effective methods
elaborated.  This may lead to elaboration of more details related
to mechanisms and procedures for exchange of relevant data and
information, notification and consultations regarding situations
that might led to disputes in the field of the environment.

138. An important consequence of the entry into force of the
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea concerns its
dispute settlement procedures.  Subject to certain exceptions,
any dispute over its interpretation or application between States
Parties may be submitted to compulsory procedures with binding
decisions.  For one of its procedures, i.e., special arbitration,
FAO, IMO, UNEP and UNESCO/IOC are responsible for establishing
and maintaining lists of experts within their respective fields
of competence, from which members of special arbitral tribunals
would be chosen.  Furthermore, States Parties to related
conventions, and not necessarily Parties to the Convention, are
also entitled, if they so agree, to submit their disputes
concerning the interpretation or application of such conventions
to the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea.  It should
be noted that questions of interpretation and application of law
of the sea provisions can have an important impact over a broad
field of international environmental law.

139. Article 14 of the Framework Convention on Climate Change is
a traditional article on dispute settlements.  In addition,
Article 13 provides for the establishment of a "multilateral
consultative process...for the resolution of questions regarding
the implementation of the Convention."  Discussions on this
latter subject will begin at the tenth session of the INC/FCCC in
August 1994.

140. Article 30 on Settlement of Disputes of the Convention to
Combat Desertification is still under negotiation.  At this
stage, the following means of dispute settlement have been
identified and concern parties which are not regional economic
integration organizations:  (a)  artibration in accordance with a
procedure to be defined (adopted by the Conference of Parties) or
procedure of the Permanent Court of Arbitration; (b) Submission
of the dispute to the International Court of Justice.  If the
parties to a dispute have not accepted these means and if they
have not been able to settle the dispute within twelve months,
the dispute shall be submitted to Conciliation in accordance with
a procedure to be defined, unless the parties otherwise agree.

141. UNU is organizing an Asian Water Forum in January 1995 and a
Central Eurasian Water Forum, in March 1995, to provide both a
comprehensive environmental management setting for sustainable
development of these international waters and a basis for
conflict resolution in terms of water allocation between the
countries concerned.

142. ITU has well established mechanisms to avoid disputes,
including a system of advance notification when applying for use
of radio frequency and/or a geostationary satellite orbit, which
ensures adequate consultation by all those countries likely to be
affected by the request.

143. Meteorological data collection and distribution in real time
are done on WMO's Global Telecommunications System (GTS).  Data
are also archived at national, regional and global centres.  WMO
is currently taking steps to implement its Distributed Databases
(DDBs) concept to better meet the needs of Members.  Data are
invaluable for sustainable development programmes and in
resolution of many types of environmental disputes.  These may
range from responsibility for emission of carbon dioxide and
other pollutants to destruction of ozone layer, responsibility
for weather modification and sharing of common water bodies in
lakes and rivers.

144. As a part of its work on trade and environment, the UNCTAD
secretariat prepared a study on "Trends in the field of trade and
environment in the framework of international cooperation"
(TD/B/40(1)/6), a part of which was devoted to questions relating
to the avoidance of international trade disputes regarding
environmental standards.  After examining this study, the Trade
and Development Board concluded, inter alia, that "a balance
should be struck between the advantages of harmonization, from a
trade and transparency point of view, and the advantages, from
the point of view of sustainable development, of allowing for
differences in national standards.  With respect to processes,
strict process standards may have positive benefits for
sustainable development by removing some of the hidden costs of
environmentally unsound practices.  The harmonization of process
standards would not be required where the processes in question
had no transborder or global environmental effects.  Where
harmonization is appropriate, standardization bodies such as the
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) could
provide useful forums in their areas of competence (e.g., eco-
labelling, life-cycle analysis and eco-management).  Where
harmonization is inappropriate, mutual recognition of standards
and/or the development of comparable standards could be
considered."

145. UNEP has consistently promoted the inclusion of adequate
provisions for dispute settlement in the international
conventions negotiated under its auspices, such as the 1985
Vienna Convention and its 1987 Montreal Protocol, 1989 Basel
Convention and 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity.

                             ANNEX I

           Summary of UN System Cooperative Activities

          (as reported by the organizations concerned)

1.   UNCTAD and UNDP have launched a programme of studies
relating to financing environmental protection with special
emphasis on the relationship between the environment and
development.

2.   The Economic Commission for Europe and UNEP have developed a
project to provide assistance to countries in transition for the
integration of environmental considerations in planning and
decision-making in the economic reform process, and for the
strengthening of their environmental management capabilities.

3.   FAO is cooperating with the Intergovernmental Committee on
the Convention on Biological Diversity.  With the Treaty Section
of the United Nations Office of Legal Affairs and the United
Nations Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, FAO is
providing legal advice to the Secretariat of the Committee.  FAO
is also proposing a cooperative effort involving governments,
NGOs and United Nations organizations concerned with forestry to
prepare and disseminate guidelines for the application of the
"Forest Principles" and implementation of forestry aspects of
Agenda 21.  The organization has proposed to entertain
consultations on this subject and to hold regional workshops. FAO
and UNEP have a joint programme to strengthen the legal basis for
PIC and to reach full compatibility between the International
Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides and the
London Guidelines.  FAO, along with the United Nations and a
number of UN System organizations, is cooperating with the
Secretariat of the Convention to Combat Desertification, the UN
Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish
Stocks and the UNEP environmental legislation project for Africa.

4.   IAEA, IMO and UNEP are all cooperating on the Code of
Practice for the Safe Carriage of Irradiated Nuclear Fuel,
Plutonium and High-Level Radioactive Wastes in Flasks on Board
Ships.  IAEA, which seeks to address health, environmental and
safety issues as an integral part of social and economic
development, has a joint project with UNIDO, UNEP and WHO on risk
assessment and management.  Case studies and training form an
important part of this initiative which concentrates on large
industrial areas with multiple risks.  IAEA also works in
collaboration with competent organs of the United Nations and its
specialized agencies to develop standards of safety for the
protection of health, and, through the Inter-Agency Committee for
Response to Nuclear Accidents, it operates an emergency response
system in collaboration with organizations of the UN System. IAEA
and UNDP have launched a major initiative to improve radiation
protection systems and nuclear safety networks in the newly
independent States of the former Soviet Union.

5.   IAEA has noted that more could be done if its work on
agrochemicals, residues and other chemical pollutants could be
expanded; its International Programme on Chemical Safety could be
funded; and if more support were provided to strengthen waste
management infrastructure at the national level.

6.   Through the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
(IOC), UNESCO cooperates with the Climate Change Secretariat in
relation to the Framework Convention; with the UNEP Secretariat
in relation to the Convention on Biological Diversity; with IMO
for the London Convention and MARPOL; and with several regional
conventions, such as those adopted within the framework of the
UNEP Regional Seas Programme.  The Action Plan for Biosphere
Reserves is implemented by UNESCO in cooperation with UNEP, FAO
and IUCN.  The IOC also has specific responsibilities under the
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

7.   In the context of the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the
World Bank -- in partnership with UNDP and UNEP -- cooperates
with the Secretariats of the United Nations Framework Convention
on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity to
implement these global conventions.  The World Bank also manages
approximately eighty percent of the projects financed under the
Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol
on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.  Several GEF projects
implemented by the World Bank are aimed at strengthening
agreements for the protection of international water, including
the 1973/78 MARPOL Convention and the 1992 Convention on the
Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution.  The
"Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program"
(METAP), cosponsored by UNDP, the World Bank, the European
Investment Bank and the Commission of the European Communities,
provides support for implementation of the 1976 Convention for
the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution.

8.   WMO carries out meteorological cooperation with ICAO, for
aviation; with FAO, for agriculture; with UNESCO, for hydrology;
with IOC, for oceanography; and with UNEP, for ozone, among
others.  The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) is the main
contributor of data on the chemical composition and physical
characteristics of the atmosphere to GEMS of UNEP and will be a
main component of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS).
Through GAW, WMO collaborates with ECE and is responsible for the
meteorological part of monitoring and evaluation of the Long-
Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe.  Complementary
data on air pollution within cities is coordinated through WHO
and UNEP.  WMO has initiated collaboration with WHO, UNESCO and
UNEP for joint implementation of the GEMS/WATER programme for
monitoring global freshwater quality.  WMO, with WHO and UNEP,
are addressing water quality concerns of Small Island States of
the Caribbean.

9.   Within the Framework Convention on Early Notification of
Nuclear Accidents, WMO is cooperating with IAEA towards agreement
to use the WMO Global Telecommunication System as a carrier for
radiological and related information.  ICAO, in close
collaboration with WMO and IAEA, is undertaking monitoring and
provision of warnings to aircraft of radioactive debris and toxic
chemical clouds.

10.  UNEP notes that the implementation of the Vienna Convention
and the Montreal Protocol creates the potential for joint
programmes with UNDP, the World Bank, WMO, UNIDO, WHO, IPCC and
INC/FCCC.  Collaboration is underway with the industry
associations and organizations, as well as with NGOs.  The
multilateral fund of the Montreal Protocol, also includes
cooperative arrangements between the World Bank, UNDP, UNIDO and
UNEP, with each UN organization undertaking country programmes in
accordance with its mandate and area of expertise.

11.  In September 1993, UNEP organized an informal meeting
comprising itself, UNCTAD, OECD, the International Trade Centre,
IMF, the International Institute of Sustainable Development, and
the World Industry Council of Environmental Management, to
discuss the relationship between trade and environment, and the
modalities of coordinating on-going work in various agencies.

12.  UNEP has developed with UNDP a joint project funded by the
Government of The Netherlands for the development of
environmental legislation and institutions in African countries.
The first tranche of the funds allocated for the purpose by the
Dutch Government has been deposited in a Trust Fund at UNEP.  It
will be implemented by UNEP/UNDP in close collaboration with such
bodies as The World Bank, IUCN and FAO.

                            ANNEX II

                            ACRONYMS

ACC       -    Administrative Committee on Coordination

ADN       -    European Provisions concerning the International
               Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Inland Waterways

ADR       -    European Agreement concerning the International
               Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road

CEPM      -    Committee of Experts on Phytosanitary Measures

CFC       -    Chlorofluorocarbons

CITES     -    Convention on International Trade on Endangered
               Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

CLIMEX    -    Information Exchange System on Country Activities

CMI       -    Comit'e Maritime International

CMS       -    Convention on the Conservation of Migratory
               Species of Wild Animals

CRTD      -    Convention on Civil Liability for Damage Caused
               During Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road, Rail
               and Inland Navigation Vessels

DDBs      -    Distributed Databases

DPCSD     -    Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable
               Development

ECE       -    Economic Commission for Europe

ECOSOC    -    United Nations Economic and Social Council

EIA       -    Environmental Impact on Assessment

ESCAP     -    Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the
               Pacific

ESID      -    Global Conference on Ecologically Sustainable
               Industrial Development

FAO       -    Food and Agriculture Organization

GATT      -    General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

GAW       -    Global Atmosphere Watch

GEF       -    Global Environment Facility

GMDSS     -    Global Maritime Distress and Safety System

GTS       -    Global Telecommunications System

IAC/RNA   -    Interagency Committee for Response to Nuclear
               Accidents

IACSD     -    Interagency Committee on Sustainable Development

IAEA      -    International Atomic Energy Agency

ICAO      -    International Civil Aviation Organization

IDA       -    International Development Assistance

IGPRAD    -    Intergovernmental Panel of Experts on Radioactive
               Waste Disposal at Sea

ILO       -    International Labour Organization

IMO       -    International Maritime Organization

INC/FCCC  -    Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for the
               Framework Convention on Climate Change

INC-D     -    Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee on
               Desertification

INSTRAW   -    International Research and Training Institute for
               the Advancement of Women

IOC       -    Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission

IPPC      -    International Plant Protection Convention

ISO       -    International Organization for Standardization

ITU       -    International Telecommunication Union

IUCN      -    International Union for the Conservation of Nature

LRTAP     -    Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air
               Pollution

MARPOL    -    International Convention for the Prevention of
               Pollution from Ships, 1973 as modified by the
               Protocol of 1978

MEPC      -    Marine Environment Protection Committee

METAP     -    Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance
               Program

MSC       -    Maritime Safety Committee

NGOs      -    Non-Governmental Organizations

NUSS      -    Nuclear Safety Standards

OECD      -    Organization for Economic Cooperation and
               Development

PACD      -    Plan of Action to Combat Desertification

PIC       -    Prior Informed Consent

RSMCs     -    Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres

SOLAS     -    International Convention for the Safety of Life at
               Sea

UNCED     -    United Nations Conference on Economic and
               Development

UNCLOS    -    United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea

UNCTAD    -    United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

UNDP      -    United Nations Development Programme

UNEP      -    United Nations Environment Programme

UNESCO    -    United Nations Educational, Scientific and
               Cultural Organization

UNIDO     -    United Nations Industrial Development Organization

UNITAR    -    United Nations Institute for Training and Research

UNSO      -    United Nations Sudano-Sahelian Office

UNU       -    United Nations University

WHO       -    World Health Organization

WMO       -    World Meteorological Organization

WRI       -    World Resources Institute

 


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Date last posted: 1 December 1999 12:18:30
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