Review of trends in progress achieved in implementing Agenda 21 Chapters 23-32 on Major Groups Prepared by the Secretariat of the Commission on Sustainable Development for the Second Session of the CSD 16-27 May 1994, New York. I. BACKGROUND Agenda 21 recognizes nine Major Groups as partners in sustainable development efforts. These groups include Women, Children and Youth, Indigenous People, Non-governmental Organizations, Local Authorities, Workers and Trade Unions, Business and Industry, Scientific and Technological Communities and Farmers. Their particular roles and contributions to sectoral and cross-sectoral sustainable development activities, in partnership with Governments and international organizations, are outlined in the appropriate chapters throughout Agenda 21. Chapters dedicated to each major group (23 through 32, in Section III of Agenda 21) outline the activities through which Governments and inter-governmental bodies should support, enhance and encourage the role and contributions of Major Groups to sustainable development. The relationship of the CSD to Major Groups is described in the institutional chapter (38) of Agenda 21 as follows (emphases added): "The Commission should provide for the active involvement of organs, programmes and organizations of the UN system, international financial institutions and other relevant intergovernmental organizations and encourage the participation of non-governmental organizations, including business and industry and scientific communities". (paragraph 38.11) "The Commission on Sustainable Development should have the following functions: (d) to receive and analyze relevant input from competent non- governmental organizations, including the scientific and private sector in the context of the overall implementation of Agenda 21 (e) to enhance dialogue within the framework of the United Nations, with non-governmental organizations and the independent sector as well as other entities outside the United Nations system". (paragraph 38.13) "Within the inter-governmental framework, consideration should be given to allowing non-governmental organizations, including those related to major groups, particularly women's groups, committed to the implementation of Agenda 21 to have relevant information available to them, including information, reports and other data produced within the United Nations system." (paragraph 38.14) "The non-governmental organizations and major groups are important partners in the implementation of Agenda 21. Relevant non-governmental organizations, including the scientific community, the private sector and women's groups, should be given opportunities to make their contributions and establish appropriate relationships with the United Nations system. Support should be provided for developing countries' non-governmental organizations and their self-organized networks." (paragraph 38.42) "The United Nations system, including international finance and development agencies, and all inter-governmental organizations and forums should, in consultation with non- governmental organizations, take measures to: (a) Design open and effective means to achieve the participation of non-governmental organizations, including those related to major groups, in the process established to review and evaluate the implementation of Agenda 21 at all levels and promote their contribution to it; (b) Take into account the findings of review systems and evaluation processes of non-governmental organizations in relevant reports of the Secretary-General to the General Assembly and all pertinent United Nations agencies and intergovernmental organizations and forums concerning implementation of Agenda 21 in accordance with the review process." (paragraph 38.43) "Procedures should be established for an expanded role for non-governmental organizations, including those related to major groups, with accreditation based on the procedures used in the Conference. Such organizations should have access to reports and other information produced by the United Nations system. The General Assembly, at an early stage, should examine ways of enhancing the involvement of non-governmental organizations within the United Nations system in relation to the follow-up process of the Conference." (paragraph 38.44) Key words for the relationship between the CSD and Major Groups are then, receiving and analyzing inputs, enhancing dialogue, designing an open and effective mechanism of participation, and expanding the role of major groups in the UN system. Chapters 23 through 32 make specific suggestions on the particular supportive relationship the CSD, the UN system and the Governments should have with each group. The review below includes information on (i) the international experience: supportive relationships between inter-governmental bodies and major groups within the framework of Agenda 21 activities; (ii) national experience: supportive relationships between Governments and national major groups in the implementation of Agenda 21; and (iii) Major Group views: summaries of activities undertaken by each Major Group for Agenda 21 implementation based on the inputs and reports received by the CSD Secretariat. Analysis in the report is limited to the information that was made available to the CSD Secretariat by Governments, the UN system, and the Major Groups. Inputs received from non-UN organizations, such as the British Commonwealth and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), are also included in the report as appropriate. As this report is part of the UNCED follow up process, the summaries focus on the post-1992 activities unless the earlier activities are still relevant or have been enhanced in response to UNCED. This is particularly the case in handling the information about UN Agency activities on environmental concerns some of which had been initiated prior to UNCED. II. REVIEW OF TRENDS The following review is indicative rather than comprehensive. Two annexes are provided to assist with the reading of the information. Annex I contains a list of activities that Agenda 21 requests from inter-governmental bodies in support of Major Groups. Annex II provides a similar set of summarized activities that focus on the activities requested from Governments. A. Chapter 23 -- Preamble There are no "activities" in the Preamble. The chapter contains two broad objectives as a general framework for the rest of the chapters on major groups. These objectives emphasize that implementing Agenda 21 requires broad public participation in decision-making, and that, to accomplish the first, there is a need for new forms of participation. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION Major Groups, particularly NGOs, have been and are involved in the work of international organizations for decades. For example, all UN Agencies have had traditional ties and established contacts with the specific non-governmental groups that are directly relevant to their mandates as well as with a wide range of other actors in civil society. As the subsequent sections of this report summarize, all UN Agencies who submitted information to the CSD Secretariat have sustainable development programmes that involve one or more Major Groups. Furthermore, many UN bodies, such as the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) indicate that UNCED or Agenda 21 were not the first instance when the UN system focused on the subject of promoting public participation in environmental decision making. Agenda 21's focus on Governmental, inter-governmental and Major Group partnerships is different both quantitatively and qualitatively. The sustainable development agenda requires the involvement of a broader range and expanded number of actors from civil society. More importantly, it requires that the Major Groups are given new opportunities to take part in the decision making processes relevant to achieving sustainable development. The latter may include, among other things, Major Group participation in setting programme priorities, designing programmes, participating in the resource allocation decisions, and being active in the programme implementation and in the evaluation of the implemented programmes. The inputs received from UN system agencies indicate only limited change in the access of major groups to the decision making and programme design process of the organizations. Although many Agencies report that they hold consultations with NGOs, for example, most instances of consultations appear to be ad hoc or Programme specific rather than being based on reliable, consistent, stable or formal mechanisms of Major Group involvement in decision- making. The World Bank's NGO Committee, established in 1982, is one of the few formal mechanisms that exit in this context. This Committee involves over two dozen NGOs and senior Bank officials. Through the Committee, NGOs are able to take part in the design of up to 30 per cent of the Bank's programmes. In 1993, 73 out of a total of 245 projects benefited from such NGO participation (same figure in 1990 was 50 out of 228 projects). This Committee is not a follow up to UNCED. However, its official status, and its stable and predictable nature is likely to influence the Bank's UNCED follow-up activities. UNESCO is another agency that includes NGOs that are in category A consultative status with the Organization in the various stages of programme planning and execution. In addition, UNDP's current policy highlights greater NGO participation including in the design and implementation of country programmes. The extent to which UNDP is able to translate this objective into stable mechanisms of participation in decision making largely depends on the relationships between Governments and NGOs at the national level. Another development favorable to greater participation of Major Groups is emerging through the growing influence of commercial and non-commercial electronic networks. The UNCED process increased interactions and interest in a number of existing networks (such as Econet/Peacenet) and catalyzed the formation of new ones (such as TogetherNet). Many commercial networks also responded to the growing demand for environmental information, activism and contacts. One inter-governmental affect of this development is taking shape in the Organization of American States. According to secondary sources, the OAS is engaged in a project that aims to help connect South American and Caribbean academic institutions through the electronic media. There are also examples of UN Agency activities that expand interactions with Major Groups by undertaking projects with groups other than the nine that are recognized in Agenda 21. For example, UNEP's programmes treat consumers groups and religious groups as distinct "Major Group" categories. Through joint programmes with religious groups, UNEP contributes to issues related to environmental ethics. Similarly, UNEP's focus on consumer groups enables joint programmes that focus on life-styles and sustainable consumption patterns. Another UN body, ESCAP, works with the representatives of the Media. ESCAP was instrumental in the formation of Asia Pacific Forum of Environmental Journalists (AFEJ) which provides region-wide assistance in generating and disseminating environmental information. NATIONAL EXPERIENCE Nine countries provided information relevant to the objectives outlined in the Preamble. Austria reported a number of supportive legislation for participation of particular major groups such as women and youth. This country indicated that NGOs participate both in the decision- making and in the implementation of the decisions taken and that the public sector provides financial support to major group participation. Belgium indicated that a wide range of NGOs are full participants in national environment and development policies. Ecuador reported that an environment NGO will be participating in a national advisory committee on environment. Iceland indicated that there is a long-tradition of participation by non-governmental groups and organizations in decision-making and that this is a given and integral part of local and national policy making. Japan reported that it plans to increase NGO participation in decision-making and that, at present, national policy making process take into account the views of Major Groups. Spain reported that it plans to allow NGO participation in the Ministerial level sustainable development debates. Spain has established an Advisory Council that involves high-level Government officials and organizations that represent social interests. Tunis reported that NGO representatives officially participate in the work of the sectoral committees established by the Government to coordinate environmental activities. The United Kingdom reported a number of initiatives to increase participation of the "voluntary sector" in various governmental panels, round-table's and other similar fora. The United States recently established a high-profile sustainable development council (the President's Council for Sustainable Development- PCSD) which includes representatives of national NGOs. There was insufficient information to conclude whether there are new forms of participation for several reasons, including (I) an overall low level of reporting from countries; (ii) lack of specific information on Major Groups' participation in the reports received; and (iii) lack of criteria for what should be considered new in each national context. MAJOR GROUP VIEWS Major Groups have traditionally welcomed more participatory and consultative mechanisms and have been demanding them at every local, national and international opportunity. For many Major Groups organizations and representatives, participation in decision making is particularly crucial in the pursuit of sustainable development which they see as a broad environmental governance issue. Almost all of the general and thematic inputs received from Major Groups organizations highlighted the need for more substantive participation. The outcomes of many NGO-organized conferences, seminars and workshops on sustainable development also repeatedly suggested broad-based people's participation in decision-making bodies. A great many of the calls for greater participation concerned participation in international institutions, particularly those that provide funding or investments in environment and development. For example, at the recent inter-governmental meetings on restructuring the Global Environmental Facility (GEF), NGOs provided proposals and made statements. Among their suggestions were (I) the granting of observer status to NGOs as part of the democratization and transparency of the GEF and (ii) the involvement of NGOs and community representatives in project design, formulation and evaluation. Subsequent discussions showed support of many developing and developed country Governments to these suggestions, particularly to the granting of observer status to NGOs in the new GEF with the provision that a set of guidelines are developed. Some governments also supported expanded consultations relevant to the GEF at the local and national levels. The process experienced in the GEF is not an isolated incident but a microcosm of the overall thrust in many other fora. Greater electronic and other connection among "ordinary citizens" enable a greater awareness of how decisions in international fora affect their daily lives which in turn leads to more demands to be allowed to take part in the making of these decisions. It should also be noted that the non-governmental demands for participation often emphasize more transparency and accountability of the existing public institutions rather than being a thrust to create alternative institutions. Meeting the demands for greater Major Group participation at the national and international levels will require continued commitments to Agenda 21 principles by governmental and inter- governmental bodies. However, these efforts need to be met half-way by Major Groups organizations who will need to be prepared to take on new roles as they are granted more access to the decision making of national and international institutions. It is essential that Major Groups continue to see the "right to participate in decision- making" as a means to greater contribution rather than as an end in itself. Lack of preparedness for new responsibilities by Major Groups contains the danger of undoing what is being gradually achieved in the many national and international fora. The current evolution in the national and international institutions is therefore as much a testing ground for the Major Groups as it is for the governmental and inter-governmental bodies. B. Chapter 24-- Global action for women towards sustainable and equitable development INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE The activities relevant to the provision of support from international organizations in this chapter focus on strengthening the position of women in UN bodies and institutions (paragraph 24.9 and 24.10) and in development programmes, in particular, of UNICEF, UNIFEM and UNDP (paragraph 24.11) Progress to date under paragraphs 24.9 and 24.10 include the Secretary General's commitment to improve the gender ratio among the United Nations staff by 1995. To this effect, the Secretary- General has issued an Administrative Instruction titled "Special Measures to improve the status of women in the Secretariat" was circulated in March 1993 (ST/AI/382). The Instruction puts special emphasis on recruitment of women by Departments with less than 35 per cent women staff overall and less than 25 per cent at senior levels. This procedure has not had wide application to date, in part due to the continuing restructuring of the Organization. According to information received from the Secretary General's Focal Point for Women, as of November 1993, women in the UN system constitute 31.8 per cent of the staff (this is an increase of 1.1 per cent, from 30.7 per cent in December 1992). At the higher levels (D1 and above), the current percentage is 13.3 per cent; a ratio below of one to five. The very few cases where the number of women staff exceeds that of men is mostly in the lower professional categories. Women in the UN system are still concentrated in the traditional areas of administration and social sectors. Additional information received from the Division for Advancement of Women, of DPCSD, indicates that in the 12-month period ending June 1993 (one year after UNCED) fewer women were recruited by the UN than were in the previous 12-months. The formation of the Division for the Advancement of Women within the DPCSD may serve to emphasize the gender issue through its central location within the UN system. This Division is currently working on a more complete report on the advancement of women which is expected before the end of 1995. A number of UN Agencies reported on-going programmes that are relevant to strengthening the position of women in their sustainable development programmes. For example, ILO reported that it has prepared a Briefing Note on Women in Environment and Development. This Agency has also launched several pilot demonstration activities dealing with the linkages between women and sustainable development UNIFEM was one of the first UN bodies to respond to Agenda 21 by preparing the guidebook Agenda 21: An easy reference to the specific recommendations on women. The guidebook contains extracts of Agenda 21's activities related to the role of women in environment and development. FAO reported that its activities regarding Chapter 24 are related to international networks that focus on gender and sustainable development issues. Among the networks mentioned are the Association of Women in Development (AWID), the Global Assembly of Women and the Environment, and the Network of Women In Development and Environment (WorldWIDE). FAO reports numerous projects that aim to strengthen women's role in sustainable development, many of which are initiated before the on-set of UNCED and the adoption of Agenda 21. Among the more recent FAO initiatives is the Country Specific Policy Guidelines on Women, Population and Environment for Asia. These guidelines aim at raising awareness and developing practical tools to promote "holistic" approaches to policy design, programming and investments in the rural development context. IFAD's key target group in this category is poor women heading households. The objective of IFAD in this area is to develop and promote cost-effective approaches that will increase women's social and economic status in the process to achieve sustainable development. Among IFAD's specific programmes for women are the small-holder development project focusing on protecting women's access to land (in Gambia); and the national extension project modifying the extension system to reach rural women (in Kenya). IFAD has an informal target to earmark at least 30 per cent farm credit for women. The UNCHS carries out country-based workshops on gender-awareness. these workshops involve NGOs and community based organizations and aim to develop strategies for gender-aware approaches to human settlements development. The information received from UNCHS indicates extensive information-based efforts including data-bases of women experts in the field, case studies of successful integration of gender issues in human settlements development, and training materials. UNCHS activities also include exchange visits for women in local governments and NGOs and collaborating in UN system-wide sharing of information on gender-awareness. The Centre conducts gender sensitization seminars for its staff and its staffing policy places a priority on the hiring of women candidates. UNIDO reports that its gender related focus is anchored in the fact that the global industrial sector at present involves 160 million women, half of whom are in the developing countries. UNIDO's programmatic focus is on improving the understanding of women's access and control of resources in the industrial sector. Programmes involve mainstreaming women into the programme target groups, removing obstacles to greater participation in industrial development and designing projects specifically for women.UNIDO recommends protective legislation, design and dissemination of labor saving technologies, training of women in resource management, increasing women's access to education and training and strengthening women's influence on industrial decision making. The Organization feels that its future work in this area will need more expertise in gender analysis and its application in development and delivery of programmes. The Agency reports also include information on inter-agency collaboration relevant to strengthening of women's role in programmes and projects. For example, FAO and UNFPA are currently collaborating to produce FAO's Country Specific Policy Guidelines on Women, Population and Environment for Asia for other regions. The World Bank, UNDP and FAO are undertaking a gender analysis training programme titled Socio-Ecomomic and Gender Analysis Training Program (SEGA). SEGA was initiated in 1992 and is aimed for country-level implementation. The collaborating agencies have produced a common theoretical perspective on SEGA, which process involved the stockholders. Some UN system bodies have a high level of participation by women's groups in project implementation. For example, in the case of UNFPA, women's groups act as executing agencies for the Fund. In 1992, these groups handled 16 per cent of the total funds allocated by UNFPA. Gender issues have a high priority among non-UN organizations as well. OECD's Development Assistance Committee (DAC), for example, feels that participation of women, is one of the most urgent areas relevant to participatory development and good governance. DAC considers both these concepts integral to the concept of sustainable development. The British Commonwealth also places a priority on gender oriented training in sustainable development. This organization is running programmes that train women to train others in waste management and water safety. NATIONAL EXPERIENCE Six countries mentioned women's groups specifically in their reports. Austria reported that it has supportive labor laws for equal pay, protection against sexual discrimination, and for extended family care and maternity leave. This country also has national frameworks that ensure access of women to decision-making functions and other measures aiming at the advancement of women and requirements for employers to submit affirmative action schedules and binding commitments to increase the percentage of women in the public sector. Austria provides public financial support for associations pursuing objectives of particular interest to women. Belgium mentioned the particular role of women, among other groups, in the national environment and development activities. Finland's input concentrated on the crucial role of women in health care, management of household waste and household consumption. This country also highlighted the important contribution of women to information dissemination and awareness raising in the context of sustainable development. Japan reported that it plans to promote the participation of women in national advisory councils. This country also reported that the Government supports women's participation at national and international sustainable development and other meetings, conferences and related events. This country particularly highlighted the importance of utilizing the knowledge and experience of women in sustainable development efforts. Spain mentioned specific programmes that address women's needs and roles in the field of health focusing on educational materials, and support for rural women and single-mothers. Tunis reported that representatives of the national union of women actively participate in the National Commission on Sustainable Development. Although little information was received from developing countries on the role of women and other Major Groups categories, some developing countries have included women in their Delegations to the CSD and are doing the same in the preparatory process of the Fourth World Congress of Women to be held in Beijing in 1995. MAJOR GROUP VIEWS Two relevant inputs were received from the International Federation of University Women (IFUW) and the International Center for Public Enterprises in Developing Countries (ICPE). IFUW is an international organization with 150,000 members in 59 countries. The Federation reported that it established an Environment and Development Programme as part of its contributions to the UNCED process. This Programme is the main focus of IFUW's follow up activities. The report highlights the importance of education to women's futures in the context of environmental sustainability. The Federation has established an Environment and Development Network consisting of members from developing and developed countries who are experts in environment and development issues. IFUW has also developed "Green Audit" which is a tool for the use of individuals to evaluate their commitment to sustainable development. The audit is being distributed through the UNESCO NGO Working Group on the Environment. National chapters of IFUW hold additional programmes on environment and development issues. For example, the Sierra Leone Association works with school children and women's groups on environment and development education. The Argentina Association holds series of three-day education and awareness meetings with teenage girls to help them become leaders in the environment and development area. The Russian Association is preparing an international symposium to take place in June 1994 on women, politics and environmental action. ICPE's input was a report on the "Social impact assessment of investment/acquisition of technology projects in developing countries, with particular reference to the position of women", jointly prepared with INSTRAW. This report proposes "social impact assessments" (SIA) as a precondition for authorization of new projects or development plans. ICPE feels that SIAs can balance the current predominance of economic models and legalistic solutions for development by focusing the attention on human rights, on vulnerable groups such as women and on the pressing social needs. The report suggests a preliminary SIA framework that take women as a base-group. Despite the lack of more written inputs to the CSD Secretariat from women's groups, these groups have a forceful and strong place in the UN's proceedings as well as in carrying out sustainable development projects in the field and developing practical tools. For example, the Women's Environment and Development Organization (WEDO) has developed the Community Report Card programme that help local women take part in independent evaluation of the local environment and development needs and progress. Local women's organizations also take Agenda 21 seriously as a guide for their work towards empowering local women through training, and innovative community generated financial mechanisms that enable sustainable economic activities. Among these is a grassroots organization of and for rural women, the Country Women's Association of Nigeria (COWAN). COWAN is currently involved in testing alternative banking strategies (such as the Responsive Credit System) that respond better to the financial needs of local women entrepreneurs. C. Chapter 25-- Children and youth in sustainable development INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE Activities suggested for inter-governmental bodies in this chapter focus on reviewing youth programmes and their coordination, promotion of the UN Trust Fund for International Youth Year (25.10); and UNICEF to cooperate with other UN organizations, governments and NGOs to develop programmes for children (25.15). No information was available on the UN Trust Fund for International Youth Year. A successful example of cooperation between UNICEF and other UN organizations as well as NGOs is the Children's edition of Agenda 21. This project was a collaborative effort of UNICEF, UNDP, UNESCO, and UNEP. The effort was led by the NGO, Peace Child International. The production of the Children's Edition, released in April 1994, involved youth from 40 countries. The volume articulates the views of children and youth on implementing Agenda 21. UNDP reports that it is taking steps to formulate ways to implement the Children's Edition. Among the other agencies that have reported on Youth related programmes are UNEP and WHO. UNEP's programmes in this area involve leaders from the Youth communities. UNEP reports that a Regional Youth Focal Points Round Table (December 1993) led the Programme to decide that its youth programmes need to be more proactive. To this effect, UNEP is currently working on putting a youth network in place through its Regional Youth Advisers. WHO's programmes focus on youth education and advocacy within the health sector. For example, WHO's programmes on sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS, focus on health education programmes for youth in schools as well as for youth out of school through formation of advocacy groups and peer education, as examples of long-term and proactive efforts in protecting and promoting the health of vulnerable groups such as the Youth. NATIONAL EXPERIENCE Five countries provided information on youth related programmes or mentioned this group as a particular focus group in overall sustainable development activities. Austria mentioned "protection, provision and participation" as the three main principles driving the national policy for enhancing the role and contribution of children and youth to sustainable development. Austria provides international assistance that is specifically focused on building vocational capacity among the Youth. Finland reported that the national Youth Cooperation Alliance has produced a booklet on sustainable development for NGOs and grassroots organizations as well as participated in international meetings and seminars. Japan also stressed the importance of providing education and awareness activities and opportunities to express their views on environmental conservation as a way of increasing the role of children and youth in sustainable development. Norway reported that priority is placed on activities that enhance knowledge and influence attitudes of children and youth. Norway has prepared a national "environmental education for all" strategy to be used by all education institutions. The United Kingdom mentioned the Green Brigade Programme which involves children in environmental action. MAJOR GROUP VIEWS One youth organization, Q2000 of Sweden, submitted a report to the CSD Secretariat. This input focuses primarily on consumption patterns, particularly in relation to energy use, transportation, and food production. Q2000 reported that much of it information originated from proposals of public and local authorities, NGOs, scientific institutions and others who responded to the circulation of Agenda 21 by the Government of Sweden to various social actors. A particular emphasis of the Q2000 report is the concept of "environmental space" which is originally introduced by an NGO, Friends of the Earth of the Netherlands. Environmental space allocates available environmental resources globally on a per capita basis using a number of criteria such as absorptive and regenerative capacity. Any use above the allocated "space" is a violation if sustainability is to be achieved. The concept enables quantifiable local profiles on which policies can be built. Q2000's report provides numerous examples of good practice or innovative approaches to making the environmental space concept work both in the context of Sweden and globally. For example, the report provides case studies of renewable energy sources use and alternative transportation programmes in specific cities in Sweden and in Europe. Q2000 recommends (i) new partnerships with citizens through increased participatory consultations on policy and implementation, (ii) creation of new partnerships with developing countries through fair trade, and promotion of technology transfer; and (iii) new partnerships with the younger generations by integrating sustainable development in the curricula of schools at all levels including practical experience in finding local solutions to environmental problems. Q2000 also suggests that a Youth representative is included in the Swedish Delegation to the CSD. There are a number of other Youth initiatives that also relevant to UNCED follow up. For example, the Model UN programme that has been an on-going part of high-schools and some universities, primarily in North America, is focusing on Agenda 21, the CSD and sustainable development in 1994. Youth groups also show a high level of interest in the "UN reform process" particularly in the context of the newly established organs such as the CSD. For example, a Youth Conference on UN Reform (September 1993, New York), brought together hundreds of Youth representatives from nearly 50 developing and developed countries. The participants reviewed the workings of a range of UN institutions including the CSD. Most participants at this meeting showed a good understanding of the background of the CSD and seemed to hold high expectations for the CSD in terms of assuring inter-generational equity. Assuring the rights of children and youth for a healthy environment is a fundamental part of the sustainable development concept. In this regard, there appears to be greater need both to increase interactions between national and international decision-makers and the children and youth and integrate their concerns and expectations into the relevant programmes. Such a focus may bear the proof that both the governmental and inter-governmental bodies are coming to grips with the inter-generational aspect of the sustainable development concept. D. Chapter 26-- Recognizing and strengthening the role of indigenous people INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE Activities relevant to international organizations within this chapter suggest that the General Assembly adopt a declaration on the rights of the indigenous (26.4); that each organization appoint focal points, hold an annual coordination meetings, assist governments to inform indigenous people and incorporate their views into policy and program design, provide technical assistance for capacity building, and use data collection/analysis to support resource management efforts of indigenous groups(26.5); and that agencies assist in education and training of indigenous peoples for sustainable development (26.9) The Sub-Committee on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities of the Commission on Human Rights reviewed the Draft Declaration on the Rights of the Indigenous Peoples in August 1993. The subsequent decisions of the Sub-Committee agreed on the use of "Peoples" as opposed to "People"; decided to consider the draft at the 46th session of the Commission in 1994; and requested the Secretary-General to submit the Draft Declaration to the Commission for technical revision. The Subcommittee also requested the Secretary-General to transmit the text to indigenous peoples and organizations as well as to Governments, inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations after the completion of the technical review. Among the Sub-Committee's decisions, was the recommendation to the Commission on Human Rights and the Economic and Social Council that they take special measures to enable indigenous peoples to participate fully and effectively, without regard to consultative status, in the consideration of the draft declaration. The draft Declaration may be submitted to the Commission on Human Rights in 1995. Numerous UN system bodies that have programmes related to indigenous groups including UNDP, UNEP, ILO, IFAD, and FAO. UNDP and ILO report that they have a focal point/staff specifically assigned to work on issues related to indigenous peoples. Along these lines, the CSD Secretariat has a standing joint proposal with the ILO, made during the Cry of the Earth meeting (November 1993.)The proposal involves engaging a Junior Professional Officer, selected from within the indigenous groups, to function as the CSD Secretariat's focal point in this area. UNDP's programmes, coordinated by a focal point at the Headquarters, encourage national consultations with indigenous peoples and focus on indigenous knowledge preservation, promotion and strengthening. Particular focus is on the nexus between indigenous knowledge and the implications of the dynamics of intellectual property rights. UNDP's training programmes emphasize the value of traditional knowledge. the Programme views training as a "mutual exchange of knowledge rather than a uni- directional flow with indigenous people merely as the receiver". UNDP also acknowledges the merits in indigenous resource and community management systems and emphasize their further strengthening. ILO's work is guided by two conventions on indigenous people. For example, the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention of 1989 (No. 169) recognizes the right of the indigenous peoples to participate in the management of natural resources. More recently, ILO has organized consultations with indigenous peoples in collaboration with the UNCHR. The consultations focused on identifying the ways and means to increase indigenous and tribal peoples' access to and participation in decision-making at the national and international levels. Another recently launched effort is the Inter-regional Programme to Support Self-reliance of Indigenous and Tribal Communities through Cooperatives and other Self-Help Organizations (INDISCO) This programme is initially developed in India and in the Philippines and focuses on natural resource management among other things. Indigenous peoples are one of the target groups for IFAD. The relevant programmes of this organization concentrate in Latin America and Asia. For example, IFAD is financing tribal development projects in India emphasizing food security. IFAD has initiated 17 projects for indigenous peoples in Latin America for a total of US$ 176 million. It is currently funding a technical assistance grant to the Andean Development Corporation for the Regional Program in Support of the Indigenous Peoples in the Amazon Basin. According to the information received from FAO, its programmes also have a component of empowerment and self-development. FAO's input does not indicate new programmes that are specifically in response to Agenda 21. However, its prior programmes have led to institutions with long-term implications for Agenda 21 follow up. For example, FAO organized a series of international workshops on pastoral populations and their associations based on indigenous structures between 1990-1992 (in Mongolia, Jordan and Kenya). The workshop in Mongolia in 1990, has led to setting up a research network there through FAO's assistance. The network coordinates regional work on animal husbandry in the context of indigenous people and pastoral development. Regional commissions are also involved in programming to assist indigenous people. ECLAC, for example, is formulating a programme to inventory the policies, community and private solutions to the main problems of indigenous groups in South and Central America. The programme aims to generate social indicators, information on designing poverty alleviation programmes and collection of good management experiences. It will also propose areas of action and objectives for international cooperation. ECLAC's ultimate goal in this programme is assuring the well-being of indigenous groups through full participation in sustainable development including legal, cultural and economic issues. NATIONAL EXPERIENCE Four countries reported on their activities related to indigenous peoples. Austria and Japan referred to their international development cooperation/assistance programmes that focus on the needs of indigenous peoples' in the developing countries. Austria's programmes involve health-care and training, protection of indigenous cultures and lifestyles and financial support on protection of tropical forests where most inhabitants are indigenous peoples. Japan reports that it provides financial support to the UN Voluntary Fund for Indigenous Populations. Canada and the United States mentioned indigenous people specifically in the context of protecting and promoting the health of "vulnerable groups" under chapter 6 on health. Canada also mentioned participation of indigenous peoples' organizations in national round-table's and in the national advisory boards. The United States mentioned its plans to utilize the experiences it has gathered through its overseas development assistance programmes in national programmes for vulnerable groups such as the indigenous peoples. MAJOR GROUP VIEWS The CSD Secretariat received no written reports from indigenous peoples' organizations. However, the Secretariat was made aware and/or invited to take part in a number of meetings organized by indigenous peoples. One such meeting was the Cry of the Earth held at the United Nations Headquarters in New York, in November 1993, which focused on sustainable development in its broad context. There were also meetings that focused on specific Agenda 21 themes such as freshwater. Among the latter was the International Conference on Indigenous Peoples and Water Resources Development Projects, held in Montreal, Canada, in April 1994. For indigenous peoples, adoption of a Declaration on their rights appears to be the necessary first step to increasing their role and contribution to sustainable development in particular and to the global community in general. E. Chapter 27-- Strengthening the role of non-governmental organizations: Partners for sustainable development INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE The activities requested from international organizations within this chapter focus on supporting greater NGO participation in implementing Agenda 21. The activities suggest a number of support functions including greater financial and administrative support for NGOs. More specifically, the activities include NGO participation in UN system procedures, assuring their inputs into reporting and providing NGOs with timely information (27.9, 9b, 9c, 9d, 9e and 9g); and increasing financial and administrative support for NGOs, particularly in developing countries (27.12) Some of the information provided under the review of the Preamble, such as the NGO Committee of the World Bank, is relevant for this section as well. UNDP's Capacity 21 programme involves local communities, community service organizations and local assemblies in the design and implementation of its programmes. It has also initiated regional networking projects in Africa and in Asia Pacific regions. The Africa 2000 Network provides support to grassroots organizations through small grants in 11 counties. Similarly, its Asia-Pacific 2000 network supports urban NGOs and grass-roots organizations in their efforts to provide affordable environmental services, as well as in strengthening local organizations and networking in 5 countries. These activities of UNDP, especially its Capacity 21 programme, are direct responses to Agenda 21. IFAD has a Consultative Group to facilitate closer work with NGOs. This Group meets annually and has helped increase the flow of information between IFAD and the NGOs. A number of NGOs are also part of the IFAD/NGO Core Group which sets the agenda for the Consultative Group. IFAD reported that, in 1992, 74 NGOs participated in 59 IFAD projects. A majority of these NGOs were from Sub-Saharan Africa (64 per cent). IFAD provides grants to NGOs (for up to US $ 75, 000) through its IFAD/NGO Extended Cooperation Programme established in 1987 with the objective of funding grassroots pilot innovative approaches to poverty alleviation. FAO's input indicates that the organization has been working with NGOs in rural agricultural development since 1981. FAO lists the Asian Coalition for Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (ANGOC) which represents 23 national networks in nine Asian countries involving 3,000 grassroots organizations, among its primary NGO partners. The Organization's collaboration with NGOs aims to empower the rural poor through people's participation, and to poverty alleviation and sustainable development. Providing timely NGO access to information on UN sustainable development programmes (paragraph 27.9g) is crucially important for increased NGO participation. One of the most successful information dissemination and access system is housed in the UN-NGLS, a service created and funded by multiple UN system agencies including UNDP, UNEP and FAO. NGLS provides information to thousands of NGOs around the world (including those working on environment and development issues). NGLS also assists the NGOs to coordinate their activities during official meetings, and provides a well-organized and effective means to increase access to documentation. Another wide reaching and UN-based information dissemination mechanism is the UN-Department of Public Information (DPI). DPI has assigned staff to deal with information needs related to NGOs and sustainable development. The information outreach of the CSD Secretariat is based on an information nodes system started in September 1993. The "nodes" concept involves non-governmental and inter-governmental contact points who agree to disseminate the Secretariats special bulletins for Major Groups. The concept allows for a wide outreach on the basis of existing networks. The NGLS and the UNDPI were early collaborators of the Secretariat in this context. UNICEF, FAO and UNFPA have also responded to the Secretariat's request for contact points for further outreach through their information networks. The nodes also involve the generous support of a number of non- governmental organizations and groups. Among these are the Center for Our Common Future, the International Network for Environmental Management (INEM), the Third World Network, and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). The Secretariat hopes to increase the number of nodes to expand its outreach in the coming years. Awareness raising and information programmes that increase participation of NGOs are areas that involve UNDP and UNEP. UNDP focuses on working with the media and the NGOs to facilitate public participation in decision-making and policy formulation, particularly in Asia and the Pacific. UNEP reports that it is currently preparing an action guide for organizations and individuals. A number of inter-governmental bodies responded to the issue raised in paragraph 27.12: increasing financial and administrative support for NGOs including provision of training for NGOs in developing countries. The GEF's small grants programme, which involves 30 countries, is one example of access to financial resources. These grants are for community based activities on biodiversity, land degradation and desertification, global warming and pollution of international waters in accordance to the GEF's mandate. UNDP's Partners in Development Programme and the Grassroots Initiatives Support Funds are other sources for financial support for NGOs. IFAP, UNFPA, and UNESCO are among the other agencies who have financial support programmes for NGOs. There are also opportunities for linkages between larger international NGOs and smaller groups in developing countries in terms of mobilizing financial resources. Large international NGOs supply 16 per cent of the total annual official development assistance and thus make up a substantial funding source often channeled through international agencies. Through inter-agency coordination this resource can be channeled more effectively to assist local NGOs working on sustainable development. This type of financial support may need to be covered in more detail under the annual review of chapter 33 on finance by the CSD. Outside the UN system, the European Community has direct grants that are specifically earmarked for NGOs (amount unknown). The British Commonwealth reports that it has established an NGO Desk to serve as a focal point for coordination, especially with those NGOs dealing with economic and social issues at the grassroots level. The Commonwealth has also agreed on criteria for accreditation of NGOs to increase their participation in the Commonwealth's meetings, including those at the Head of Government level. And, the OECD has research programmes that include NGO consultations on trade and environment issues as well as on promoting participatory development through local institutions. NATIONAL EXPERIENCE Sixteen national reports mentioned NGOs in general or under specific programmes. The information ranged from general references to the important role played by NGOs in sustainable development to detailed information on special supportive governmental programmes for NGOs. Austria reported that NGO representatives participate in the political decision making-process and in the practical implementation of the decisions taken by various governmental bodies. This country provides financial support for the activities of the NGOs. The same is also the case in Austria's development cooperation programmes particularly focusing on supporting self- help and community groups. Belgium reported that NGOs are full participants in the national sustainable development activities. Bolivia mentioned the technological potentials that exist in the NGO domain (that most environmentally sound technologies rest with the NGOs) and acknowledged the contributions of NGOs in tackling the problem of chemical products and toxic wastes. Canada indicated the participation of NGOs in various national round-table's and advisory committees. This country also involves NGOs in programme implementation and design including the international development cooperation programmes. NGOs are official partners in this country's national Agenda 21 implementation process. The Czech Republic mentioned that two particular NGOs (Society for Sustainable Living and the Green Circle) have been participating in national efforts. No details on the type of participation were available. This country indicated that NGOs have been increasingly active since 1989. Ecuador mentioned that a representative of the national organization, NGOs for the Protection of the Environment, will be a participant in the national advisory environmental committee. Ecuador also mentioned the contributions of the Natura Foundation to the draft law on Natural Protected Zones. Finland reported that national NGOs are major implementation partners in regional and overseas development cooperation programmes. This country also indicated having an NGO support center particularly focusing on NGOs working with/in developing countries. The report of Finland also included information on the success of the NGO-led "Percentage Movement" which aims to increase the country's allocation of GNP percentage to development cooperation to 0.7 per cent with the additional .3 per cent to be allocated specifically to international environmental cooperation. Iceland mentioned the long national tradition of consulting with interest groups and NGOs during the development of major governmental policies. This country also mentioned that it has established seven task forces in follow up to UNCED and one on environmental education has the specific responsibility to find ways to increase participation of NGOs and major groups in general. Japan reported that governmental bodies take into account the views of NGOs in the process of policy formulation. This country stated that is assists national and international NGOs through funding, training courses and support for conference participation. Myanmar mentioned that its activities focus on environmental education and awareness raising as well as securing the involvement of community groups in national efforts. The Netherlands mentioned NGOs as the most important among community-based groups active in the implementation of Agenda 21 and reported that several national advisory bodies involve NGOs and other major groups. Norway mentioned the particular contributions and initiatives of NGOs on the issue of consumption patterns. Spain reported that NGOs will participate in the debate on the National Strategy Project for the Conservation of Biodiversity and listed several sector specific programmes that promote cooperation with NGOs. Tunis reported that NGOs actively participate in the national Commission for Sustainable Development, as well as in the sectoral committees established by the Ministries of the Environment and Land Management. The United Kingdom reported that it has a "thriving" voluntary sector with an estimated membership of 4.5 million people. This country also indicated that it is reviewing the need for new initiatives to encourage and help smaller groups and non- environmental NGOs to be more involved in sustainable development efforts. This process includes representatives of large national NGOs. The United States mentioned NGO involvement under most of the sectoral and cross-sectoral programmatic information included in its report. NGOs in this country participate in the national consultative processes through a local and central environmental councils created as part of national follow up to UNCED, including the President's Council for Sustainable Development. MAJOR GROUP VIEWS The CSD Secretariat received inputs from 14 organizations of which three were from developing countries. Six NGOs (1 from a developing country) submitted reports specific to the sectoral themes before the CSD in 1994. The rest submitted information on general sustainable development issues and/or description of their environment and development activities related to Agenda 21. The six thematic reports were submitted by the following organizations: Greenpeace (international group), People's Forum 2001 (coalition of Japanese NGOs), Small Earth (of the Netherlands), Sustainable Development Network (of Pakistan), Wemos (of the Netherlands) and the World Wide Fund for Nature (international group). These organizations submitted a total of 17 reports. The Greenpeace report, which was submitted for the Intersessional Ad Hoc Open Ended Workshop on Technology Transfer (February 1994), covered technology transfer, hazardous waste and toxic chemicals. Under hazardous wastes, Greenpeace reported that there have been some success in reducing trade in hazardous waste. The Greenpeace report called on the CSD to recommend that all countries join the growing international consensus to ban all waste trade from OECD to non-OECD countries including those exports slated for recycling and recovery. Under the toxic chemicals topic, The Greenpeace report focused on the phasing out of a number of banned substances particularly organochlorines and heavy metals. The report indicates that Greenpeace has compiled information on such substances and proposes to use this list as a model to expand global efforts to reduce the use of banned toxic substances. The report suggests an export ban on nationally banned pesticides. Under technology transfer, the report indicates a list of hazardous technologies that should not be transferred. Greenpeace will provide a more detailed list of these technologies to the second session of the CSD. Among relevant recommendations of Greenpeace are (i) funding for technology assessment capacity and (ii) encouragement of NGOs to participate in technology assessment centers and clearinghouses. The Greenpeace report also provides a case study on an available substitute (natural hydrocarbons) to ozone depleting substances. The input of the People's Forum 2001 is a critique of the national action plan for Agenda 21 and includes sections on energy, trade, health, international assistance, women and decision-making. Under health, this organization asserts that pollution victims need greater protection and that preventive measures should be emphasized. In addition, the People's Forum 2001 suggests that a national framework to restore polluted media should be instated. An overall recommendation is to increase the involvement of NGOs and other community groups in the national evaluation and design of sustainable development action plans. Particular emphasis in this context is placed on the role of women, particularly in decision- making. The need for greater emphasis on education, information disclosure, and support for community based organizations and NGOs are also mentioned. The People's Forum 2001 is planning to prepare a citizen's action plan for Agenda 21. Small Earth of the Netherlands focuses on the human settlements issue. The input suggests an eco-city campaign that would link the existing initiatives on environmentally sound urban management and thus strengthen awareness and cooperation. An eco-city award is suggested on the basis of evaluation of city submissions on a sustainability index. The suggestion aims to provide a tangible incentive for local people to participate in Agenda 21 implementation. Special emphasis is on increasing coordination and cooperation between existing efforts by international and local organizations. The Sustainable Development Network of Pakistan submitted information on the Network's efforts related to the five sectoral themes before the second session of the CSD.SDN-Pakistan reports that its activities demonstrate the benefits of electronic communications in achieving sustainability. This organization has provided information on disposing off toxic materials and has assisted the National Tariff Commission to assess environmental impact of toxic chemicals through its access to international networks. The SDN-Pakistan is currently in the process of establishing a data centre on human settlements as part of its advisory work for the Ministry of the Environment and Urban Affairs. This NGO suggests that enhancing information access, particularly through electronic networks, needs to be further supported by Governments and inter-governmental organizations rather than be left to market forces alone. Wemos is a Dutch NGO working on health and development issues. It has submitted three reports (on health, breast-feeding and use of medical drugs). This organization's recommendations on health is summarized in the report on chapter 6 on health. Wemos' report on breast-feeding focuses on risks from exposure to chemicals by nursing mothers. The report summarizes the environmental benefits of breast-feeding but indicates that there needs to be drastic pollution reduction efforts to make the process safer. In the paper on rational use of medical drugs, the report focuses on trade in pharmaceuticals and suggests greater use of "prior informed consent" (PIC) procedures. Wemos suggests that existing legislation in France and Germany show that the PIC principle can be successfully applied to legislation relevant to trade in pharmaceuticals. WWF submitted ten reports ranging from a cross-sectoral overview report to technology transfer, transnational corporations and toxic chemicals. The cross-sectoral overview highlights the issues and areas that are missing or inadequately treated in Agenda 21. Among these WWF lists the issues of trade, consumption patterns, financial resources, technology transfer and the role of transnational corporations. A criticism WWF forwards is that the deliberations of the CSD, so far, have not been structured enough to promote an exchange of programmatic, project or field experiences relevant to issues or the clusters of Agenda 21 chapters. The WWF reports makes dozens of recommendations to the CSD and to the UN institutions in general related to Agenda 21 and sustainable development. For example, under technology transfer, WWF calls on the CSD to (i) call on the UN agencies to help develop technology assessment capacities (ii) encourage local development of detailed plans to use environmentally sound technologies (iii) identify the means to improve capacity to develop and manage environmentally sound technologies and (iv) promote model national programmes for research and development. Similarly, under toxic chemicals, WWF calls on the UN institutions to adopt PIC as a legally binding procedure in the context of international trade in banned or severely restricted chemicals and to establish a system to monitor illegal traffic in toxics. WWF also reports its ongoing collaborative work on sustainable development indicators and calls on the CSD and its Secretariat to (i) initiate a broad consultation process to define a pilot set of indicators (ii) ensure widespread agreement on a common approach by November 1994 (iii) incorporate recommended indicators into the review of chapter 8 scheduled for 1995 and (iv) review thematic clusters to define appropriate targets and measures in the process of assessing progress. In addition to the above, a number of NGOs provided information on their on-going activities for various environmental sustainability issues. For example, the Urban Ecology Institute of Australia provided information on the Halifax eco-city project. The New Economics Foundation of the United Kingdom shared several papers and project frameworks on developing "sustainable development indicators". The NEF has been participating with a number of other NGOs, such as WWF, on the indicators work. The Nayudame Centre for Development Alternatives of India submitted information on a "solar water heater on wheels" that the Centre has developed and is disseminating in India. The Center for Research in Rural and industrial Development of India shared a list of its on-going local projects that focus on reducing poverty and violence among other things. The Society for International Development (SID) shared a summary of the proceedings of its task force meeting on sustainable development and subsequent plans for UNCED follow-up. The World Conservation Union (IUCN) submitted a brief input on chapter 36 on education including a number of proposals for future activities such as holding regional meetings that focus on national education and communication experiences; expanding regional networks; and building on the lessons learned. The United Nations Environment and Development of United Kingdom (UNED-UK) shared information on its national activities under Agenda 21 chapters. Some of UNED-UK's activities have provided inputs to the national reports. This organization also submitted a number of papers on freshwater issues. UNED-UK also helps enhance participation at the national level by organizing round-table's that include a wide range of actors from among the Major Groups. UNED-UK is among NGOs that are already planning activities to generate information along the themes of the 1995 CSD session. NGOs were also active in the intersessional meetings held in preparation for the second session of the CSD. For example, 2 NGOs participated in the preparation of the Ministerial conference on Drinking Water and Environmental Sanitation, 19-23 March 1994, Noordwijk, the Netherlands. Twenty NGOs were present at the meeting where they distributed a position paper (in five languages) and made interventions on the issues of water and peace; water and people; water, health and the environment; water and finance and water and equality. NGOs at this meeting also participated in the deliberations of the working groups and promoted a number of ideas for action proposed by the Ministers. NGO participation at the two Intersessional Ad Hoc Open Ended Expert Group meetings of the CSD on finance and technology transfer (February 1994, New York) was less than expected. Nevertheless, the NGO statement on finance was well-appreciated for its tangible proposals on innovative methods to raise funds. These proposals ranged from consumption taxes on unsustainable products and processes to channeling repatriated tariffs on developing country products into a fund to help industries in the South and consideration of a global "Marshall plan" for sustainable development. In addition, 53 NGOs, who could not be present at the Intersessionals in New York submitted a letter to the CSD Secretariat and to the CSD Bureau. This communiqu expressed the following concerns regarding technology and finance transfers: (i) the imbalances in global financial and other resource flows; (ii) the need to direct financial and technological support to projects that are developed by, and build upon the interests, concerns and capacities of local communities; (iii) the need to build upon and strengthen indigenous and traditional technological knowledge; and (vi) the need to support the flow of best available technologies to Southern and Eastern European with a focus to apply precautionary principles to all hazardous technologies. During the course of the year, many NGOs organized numerous conferences that brought together hundreds of non-governmental organizations from developed and developing countries to focus on a range of sustainable development issues. For example, the Environment and Development Research Centre, based in Brussels, organized two international conferences. "Striking A Green Deal" (November 1993, Brussels) focused on trade and environment and involved 200 people representing NGOs, international organizations, and governmental institutions. The Conference made recommendations to the European Community as well as to the GATT and the CSD, among other international institutions. The second conference, titled "Down To Earth: Between the Summits" (December 1993, Copenhagen), focused on the broader issue of the linkage between the environment, development and social agendas. Between the summits referred to the mid-point between the Earth Summit of 1992 and the Social Development Summit of 1995. This conference involved over 100 NGO and international organization representatives and produced a set of "how-to" books for use of NGOs in pursuing sustainable development objectives. In addition, many participated in the intersessional meetings on the 1994 themes, when it was possible. Many other NGOs and individuals in their personal capacity submitted articles, information and other materials to the CSD Secretariat. These inputs were utilized to the extent they were applicable to the thematic reports. A sizable number of NGOs indicated that they would require more information from the Secretariat and from other UN Agencies regarding the type and scope of information required. Others, took the initiative to disseminate information about UNCED follow up and the work of the CSD through their networks, organized regional nodes of information and contact points and called for more NGO and major group participation in the CSD process. There was a particularly low level of NGO involvement among the NGOs accredited to the CSD, through their involvement in UNCED. As the embodiment of what came to known as the "spirit of Rio" these NGOs may have a particular responsibility in being involved in the CSD process. Such continued participation will not only honor the inherent NGO commitments made at Rio but also indicate that their participation at Rio was not a one-time shot and signal the up- coming international conferences that the NGOs that are currently active in their processes will be reliable partners in the follow up period. The CSD and its Secretariat may need to take more direct measures to encourage and recognize the participation of NGOs. For many NGOs the uncertainty of how their inputs would be utilized and the lack of criteria for information and other more participatory types of involvement were disincentives to prepare reports which invariably require allocation of scarce resources on the part of the NGOs. Although this report has summarized the inputs as much as possible, it appears to be insufficient in the eyes of the organizations who wish to make a contribution to the process along with the reports that are part of the process. The CSD Secretariat as well as the UN system as whole have learned useful lessons from the first year's experience of monitoring activities under Agenda 21 and are likely to improve the process in the following years. However, it seems necessary to tackle the problem areas such as defining clear criteria and clarifying the specific use of NGO inputs to the CSD, more directly and through consultative processes with NGOs. This is especially pertinent for the CSD and its Secretariat. Unlike many UN Agencies and bodies with long histories and established mechanism the CSD and its Secretariat are new institutions assigned to carry out tasks that do not have many precedents. Thus it is particularly important for the CSD to identify and establish self-specific mechanisms that better concentrate NGO attention on Agenda 21 follow up. F. Chapter 28-- Local authorities' initiatives in support of Agenda 21 INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE Activities of this chapter focus on three areas in which the UN system agencies are to play a role. These are forging partnerships among international organizations in support of local authority programs (paragraph 28.4); particular reference to Habitat in strengthening information gathering on local authorities' strategies and their needs for support (paragraph 28.4a); and establishing a consultation process with developing countries to mobilize support for local authorities (paragraph 28. 4b). The partnership in paragraph 28.4 involves UNDP, Habitat, UNEP, World Bank, regional banks, IULA, World Association of the Major Metropolises, Summit of Great cities of the World, and the United Towns Organization. Information on this and on paragraph 28.4(a) regarding UNCHS (Habitat) strengthening its information gathering on local authorities' strategies and needs, are covered and presented in detail in the report on Human Settlements prepared under the management of UNCHS (Habitat). Additional examples on this issue have been received from the regional Economic Commissions. The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, for example has supported the establishment of CITYNET which is a regional network of local authorities and NGOs. CITYNET was a partner of ESCAP in preparing for the regional Ministerial Conference on Urbanization in Asia and the Pacific (November 1993). CITYNET also provides advisory services, training, services as well as undertakes applied research and shares information on urban development issues. Under consultation processes with local authorities, UNDP and UNEP have been active in addition to UNCHS (Habitat). UNEP's support was instrumental in the formation of the International Council on Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) which is currently active in promoting local authorities' involvement in sustainable development. UNDP has initiated the Local Initiative Facility for Urban Development (LIFE) which is now in its pilot phase. LIFE is an interregional small-scale grants programme to promote local- local dialogue among municipalities, NGOs, community based organizations and groups and to improve the quality of the urban environment. It is a consultative process involving Majors, NGO networks, Cities' Associations and international agencies. Programmes on local government strengthening, planning and administration make up 32 per cent of UNDPs projects, implemented through LIFE and the Urban Management Programme (UMP). The latter is an on-going joint programme of the World Bank and Habitat since the early 1980s. NATIONAL EXPERIENCE Seven reports particularly mentioned the role of local authorities in Agenda 21 implementation. Austria mentioned the "subsidiarity" principle as the framework for local authority participation and particularly referred to the success of the Climate Alliance project which links many European cities and towns with each other and with their counterparts in the developing world. Finland mentioned the collaboration of local authorities with relevant international associations such as ICLEI in developing and implementing pilot projects aiming to improve dialogue and division of responsibilities between the central and local governments. Japan attributed the success of national environmental conservation efforts to the involvement of local authorities. This country reported that it supports Local Agenda 21 design and implementation process internationally and suggests that experience gained from this process for use at the inter- governmental level. Myanmar and Sri Lanka mentioned local education, awareness and local Agenda 21 programmes as best ways to share the overall sustainable development responsibilities of the public sector. These countries also indicated their need for assistance from international funding institutions and large international NGOs for improving the capacity of local authorities particularly to deal with sustainable human settlements infrastructure and promotion of health of local populations. Tunis mentioned local authorities among target groups of the national programmes that promote effective partnerships. The United Kingdom reported that the local governments are extremely active in developing environmental management tools such as local sustainability indicators and eco-audits. This country reported that the central and local governments are working on a voluntary scheme for eco-management and eco-audits. The scheme is expected to be in place by 1995. MAJOR GROUP VIEWS The CSD Secretariat received three sets of inputs from local authorities: two from local authorities and related organizations in the UK and one from the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI). The inputs made by the Scottish Academic Network on Global Environmental Change (SANGEAC) provides a mini-case study of local environmental problems and policies of the city of Glasgow in the context of Agenda 21, particularly, the sectoral themes before the CSD in 1994. The SANGEAC report highlights poverty alleviation as the top priority. Although the report acknowledges the importance of other issues relevant to sustainable human settlements development, such as infrastructure development and community empowerment, it emphasizes that these efforts have limited success if poverty remains. SANGEAC believes that efforts must aim to empower municipal administrations, train for sustainable technology and integrate the health and social costs of poverty into policies. In other words, the current paradigm has a limited vision and should be substantially transformed if sustainability is to become an achievable goal. The second input from the UK local authorities was a joint report of five local authority associations in England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. These associations are also part of the International Union of Local Authorities (IULA) and have programmatic links with both IULA and ICLEI. A Steering Group, composed of representatives of the five associations, design and monitor the relevant work programme. A number of individuals from national organizations representing workers,. business and industry, environment and development NGOs and women have also been invited to be on the Steering Group. The Steering Group has formulated a work programme, through 1995, specifically on Agenda 21 activities relevant to the leadership of local authorities. Among the Programme's activities are developing sustainable development indicators, training programmes for local government staff, and round table series aiming to formulate practical guidelines for local sustainable development activities. The Steering Committee has published guides on eco-management and auditing, local Agenda 21, and examples of good practice. The round-tables have focused on community participation, North-south linking for sustainable development, greening of the local economy, education and awareness raising, transport/planning interface, green purchasing and on rural sustainability. The Steering committee's priorities for 1995 are producing a design guide for sustainability, holding five round tables (on issues ranging from environment and health to energy and coastal issues), following up and monitoring the previous initiatives, and producing training materials. Overall, the groups from the UK constitute a model major group response to Agenda 21. Their approach is clearly anchored in Agenda 21 as well as in the local priorities and the work programme is participatory and practical. Furthermore, collaboration between local authorities through international organizations and the cooperation with other local major groups enable a forceful voice ICLEI's report focuses on chapter 7 on human settlements and the relevant policy suggestions. It particularly emphasizes the crucial role of local authorities in bridging the spheres of local needs and national policies as well as linking local communities with international organizations and institutions. The report also emphasizes the shifting of environmental responsibility from the national/federal to local governments both in developed and developing country cities. ICLEI calls on the CSD to join in the preparations for the 1996 Habitat II conference in order to further integrate Agenda 21 and sustainable development objectives into human settlements and local management agendas. ICLEI's proposals are summarized in more detail in the report on Chapter 7 on human settlements. The Global Forum 1994 may help increase participation of and consultation with local authorities. The 1994 Forum focuses on the theme of "Cities" and its programme involves representatives from 50 cities from around the world. The Forum will host panels on issues ranging from urban transportation to partnership and governance. The Forum is assisted by a number of NGOs and other major groups. For example, ICLEI is assisting in the organization of one of the key sector meetings on local authorities and local Agenda 21 implementation. The 45th World Congress of the International Union of Local Authorities (1995) is another Major Group forum that will focus on local authorities and Agenda 21 among other things. The particular focus of the Congress is on municipalities and the experience of decentralized international cooperation. Outcomes of this and other local authorities programmes are likely to produce substantial inputs to future CSD sessions. G. Chapter 29-- Strengthening the role of workers and their trade unions INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE The activities relevant to inter-governmental bodies in this chapter relate to involving trade unions in the sustainable development activities of the UN and other international organizations (Paragraph 29.10); and assessing the need for enhanced worker training programmes (Paragraph 29.11). FAO indicates that it holds joint consultations with rural workers' organizations. It has on-going collaboration with the International Federation of Agricultural Producers (IFAP) to promote national policies and activities directed to small agricultural producers including the strengthening of their organizations, management capacities and participation. However, financial constraints have negatively affected some of the earlier initiatives. For example, FAO's biannual consultations with major international labor unions have been temporarily stopped, since 1990, for financial reasons. Workers' organizations play an active and equal role with employers' organizations and governments in the development of all ILO International Labour standards, policies and programmes related to the achieving sustainable development objectives within the mandate of the organization. ILO's environmental support for workers and their organizations place a particular emphasis on occupational health and safety and health training aimed at improving the working environment. An inter-regional effort, which ILO initiated in 1990, on workers' education and environment involved 16 national workshops and has produced seven booklets (on workers' education and environment) which are being widely disseminated. NATIONAL EXPERIENCE There were few responses on the role of workers and trade unions. The three specific reports relevant to this group were made by Austria, Finland and Japan. Austria reported that national policies focus on preventive measures to reduce occupational health and safety. This country reported that workers and trade unions participate in the elaboration of relevant laws and regulations and hold semi-annual regional meetings on occupational health safety with governmental and business representatives. Verification of compliance with regulations is reported as the most important tasks of worker representatives at the plant level. Finland reported that the central organization of trade unions prepared an information package on company-based environmental agreements and conducted environmental education activities. Japan reported that workers and trade unions have developed the eco-union concept and that they are involved in collaborative efforts with industry and NGOs. This country reported that it supports the participation of workers in decision making and in various environmental education campaigns by and for workers and their associations. MAJOR GROUP VIEWS The CSD Secretariat received one report from the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. The report's main focus is on eco-audits as a mechanism that can link "local and workplace actions to meet global goals". The report calls on the UN in general, and the CSD in particular, to support the growing interest in the use of eco-audits. ICFTU has adopted policies that support sustainable development in 1992, and has held an international conference on eco-auditing in 1993. It is also one of the coordinators of the panels on the Global Forum 1994. For this event, ICFTU is coordinating the participation of 120 trade unions from 50 countries as well as preparing documentation on eco-auditing in the urban context. ICFTU calls on the CSD to actively encourage the eco-auditing related items of Agenda 21 through consultation processes that involve a broad range of social partners, defining industry targets and monitoring of relevant activities. A relevant set of efforts involve the development of environmental guidelines, business charters (such as that prepared by the ICC), and other business based environmental codes of practice. These have often include issues of worker health and safety as well as in-house training and assessment of further training needs. H. Chapter 30-- Strengthening the role of business and industry INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE This chapter focuses on various avenues of cooperation and support between international organizations and business and industry. The activities include: education, training and awareness and information dissemination (30.15 and 30.16) on cleaner production methods and technologies; financial and other support for small entrepreneurs and small firms in developing countries engaged in activities that contribute to environmental sustainability (30.21 and 30.28); and ensuring input of business and industry in the UN policy process (30.28). UNEP and UNIDO, both mentioned in paragraph 30.16, report that their networks continue to support the efforts of business and industry. UNIDO reports extensive activities in the area of environmental information systems targeting business and industry in developing countries. The Industrial and Technological Information Bank (INTIB) network supports new technology development, supplemented by technical assistance and expertise provided in the field. The Energy and Environment Information System (EEIS) is designed to assist small and medium sized industries in developing countries. UNIDO also carries out technical assistance programmes in developing countries focusing on a range of environmental issues from waste minimization (in India) to establishment of cleaner production centers, to effluent reduction and control projects (in Myanmar, Egypt and China). UNEP's International Cleaner Production Clearing House (ICPIC) continues to evolve as a collaborative effort between this agency and various industrial sectors. A recent development that may help increase access to ICPIC's information is its availability on diskette for the use of other UN agencies and clients. Another UNEP initiative in collaboration with UNIDO is a two-year programme (1994-1996) to establish National Cleaner Technology Centers in seven developing countries. The Environment and Industry Office of UNEP, in Paris, is producing guidebooks and manuals on financing cleaner production, audits and emission reduction, environmental reporting and on partnerships with industry and non-governmental organizations. It has also prepared a questionnaire on the basis of Chapter 30 which will be distributed annually. This effort is likely to generate substantial information on the progress achieved under the chapter and to motivate and mobilize private and public sector partners for sustainable development UNEP has also identified a number of constraints in the area of business and environment. These include lack of (i) awareness (of Agenda 21 and on-going sustainable development activities as well as generic environmental issues); (ii) access to information and expertise; (iii) capital for cleaner production investments; (iv) regulatory framework and enforcement systems; (v) economic incentives for environmental excellence; and, (vi) a focus on a life-cycle approach to cleaner production. UNEP's near-future plans include looking at the role of multinational companies in developing countries in relation to knowledge transfer and environmental awareness. This would involve joint training workshops for partnerships between public and private sectors at .national and local levels, and development of technology assessment and cleaner production activities. Several UN agencies provide training and education programmes involving business and industry. A joint project of UNEP, WHO and ILO, initiated in 1993, is especially relevant to endogenous capacity building through the training of trainers. ILO has been carrying out various environmental support programmes for employers' organizations, including "training the trainers" programmes. ILO finds that regional training of trainers seminar and study tours have been particularly useful tools in spreading awareness and skills among employers and enterprises. In terms of financial support, UNIDO has identified three fundamental investment promotion factors that influence sustainable development efforts in industry: incentives for adopting cleaner production practices, awareness of industry related environmental issues, and awareness of available technological solutions. The examples of UNIDO's investment promotion programmes do not indicate a particular environmental/sustainable development perspective. However, investments promoted through the Trust Funds include environmental consulting as a form of assistance relevant to sustainable development. Both UNDP and UNEP focus on promoting public-private partnerships. UNEP's efforts in this area are integral to the programmes summarized above. UNDP's focus is on concrete and repeatable solutions to environmental problems that affect urban and peri- urban dwellers. Its specific emphasis is on water, sanitation, waste management and energy. It has an on-going partnership arrangement with the Business Council for Sustainable Development (BCSD) in these efforts. Inputs from ECLAC indicated that its programmes also have a business and environment focus, particularly on the link between consumption patterns, competitiveness, demand side management, natural resource use by business and industry, and linkages between small and large enterprises in transfer of technology. ECLAC's input does not indicate current programmes or allocations of resources but rather express the above as planned regional activities. OECD reports that it has programmes on enhancing the role of the private sector, coping with environmental threats, trade and environment, rural development programme, management development, national innovation systems and the link between industrial and environmental policies at the regional level. NATIONAL EXPERIENCE Similar to the earlier major groups category, there were few specific inputs on the role of business and industry. Relevant information was available from Austria, Finland, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. Austria reported that its national environmental standards for business and industry are stricter when compared with international standards in general. This country reports intensive training and counseling of enterprises by the Economic Promotion Institutes of the national Chambers of Commerce which also serves to encourage environmentally sound development practices. Austria provides environmental subsidies as incentives to adopt clean technologies. Further improvements are expected through voluntary agreements between the Government and individual private sector operations. Finland reported that its businesses supports the Business Charter for Sustainable Development (formulated by the International Chamber of Commerce) and that they conduct a national Responsible Care programme (formulated by the Chemical Manufacturers Association of the United States of America). The national confederation of industry and employers provide publications and training and support the improvement of environmental management in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). This country reported that voluntary energy efficiency is a national competitiveness factor. Japan reported that it provides economic and institutional assistance for technology development, energy conservation and environmentally sound manufacturing processes. This country also indicated a particular focus on supporting small and medium-sized enterprises. Japan reported that it will participate in harmonizing environmental audit methods and integrate such methods into business activities and regulatory frameworks that affect business and industry. The United Kingdom reported that national businesses have adopted voluntary environmental management practices and are engaged in consultations with the government on environmental management issues. Current focus of this country's support focuses on small businesses. The United States also mentioned voluntary initiatives by national business and industry groups. Many of the currently environmentally pro-active international business associations have roots in this country. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has numerous programmes that provide incentives to business and industry to develop energy efficient products such as the "Energy Star" programme for the computer industry. The United States recently announced a number of new incentive programmes and other initiatives to enlist greater support of the private sector in national and international sustainable development efforts. For example, the United States will provide guarantees for a fund to direct private capital to environmental businesses working in developing countries. MAJOR GROUP VIEWS The Secretariat received information from three business and industry groups; Appropriate Technology International based in the United States, the Confederation of Indian Industries (CII) and the International Network for Environmental Management (INEM- international). ATI's input was primarily information regarding its on-going work in international diffusion of technologies and systems to small producers. INEM is a network of national and regional industry associations aiming to promote environmental management and sustainable development. In 1993, INEM initiated the "Industrial Agenda 21" programme. Industrial Agenda 21 is a document in which individual companies set quantified environmental performance targets to be reached by certain dates. The formulation of this document is seen as the next logical step to adopting voluntary company-wide environmental codes, standards or principles. The member association of INEM endorsed the concept which will be fully launched in the 1994-1995 period. The INEM Secretariat provides advisory assistance to its members and others who wish to formulate an Industrial Agenda 21. INEM collaborates with a number of inter- governmental bodies including UN agencies such as UNEP. UNIDO, UNCTAD and UNESCO as well as with bilateral development agencies.. The CII indicates that its initial response to Agenda 21 was the creation of the Environment Management Division whose objectives come directly from paragraph 6 of chapter 30. Through this Division, the overall activities of the CII focus on enabling public-private partnerships to improve the eco-efficiency of Indian business and industry. Among the specific initiatives aiming at cleaner production are promoting a mix of regulatory and economic incentive measures; catalyzing the process of best-performance reporting by industries; technology cooperation for cleaner production; environmental management training and awareness programmes for workers; and collaboration with international organizations (UNIDO, UNDP and EEC), bilateral agencies (USAID, NORAD, and CIDA) and other business associations (BCSD). CII's programmes under promoting responsible entrepreneurship involve encouraging the establishment of sustainably managed enterprises, catalyzing environmental venture capital funds, supporting research and development for environmentally sound technologies; acting as an information bridge between small and medium sized businesses and the international financial institutions; promoting environmentally responsible foreign investments and supporting developing country SMEs for resource conservation and waste minimization.. No written inputs was received from the business and industry associations accredited as NGOs to the CSD. The International Chamber of Commerce, which is in consultative status with the ECOSOC, has participated in the Intersessional meetings of the CSD. ICC also participated in some of the intersessional workshops and other meetings organized by member Governments such as the meeting on transfer of technology organized by the Governments of Columbia and the United States, in Cartagena, November 1993. The ICC has indicated that it will submit a report to the CSD separately. The Business Council on Sustainable Development (BCSD), which was created for a period of three years during the UNCED process, has decided to continue its work. Secondary sources indicated that the Council is working on establishing partnerships with the International Finance Corporations (IFC), the UNDP, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and the Confederation of Indian Industries (CII). The partnership is to create new businesses (jointly owned by public and private authorities) to develop sustainable municipal infrastructure projects in cities.Other key policy areas of focus for the BCSD are internalizing environmental costs to increase eco-efficiency; providing improved information for the financial markers; and accelerating sustainable development in Central/Eastern Europe. National Business Councils are also being established, including in developing countries. A BCSD chapter has been formed in Mexico and is expected to be fully operational in May 1994. I. Chapter 31 -- Scientific and technological community INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE The activity that involves the UN system in this chapter is in paragraph 31.4d on strengthening science and technology advice at the highest levels of the UN and other organizations. Relevant progress is covered, to some extent, in the Secretary General's report on the work of the Commission on Science and Technology for Development for 1994. Networks of academic and research institutions are part of most UN system agencies. FAO for example works with colleges and universities focusing on agricultural issues. It is also working to improve agricultural extension services to strengthen the role of farmers in local environmental conservation and protection as well as management, in collaboration with the South East Asian Ministries of Education Organization (specifically its Regional Centre for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture), and the Asian Association of Agricultural Colleges and Universities. Most agencies have advisory boards and experts bringing the scientific knowledge and experiences into the decision making of the agencies. UNDP has a network cooperation programme, coordinated by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which is part of the organization's capacity building efforts. This collaboration aims to expand UNDP's work in capacity building into universities in developing countries. NATIONAL EXPERIENCE Four countries mentioned the role and contribution of the scientific and technological communities in their reports. Austria mentioned that it has a technology policy strategy developed in 1989 which gives top ranking to the environmental relevance of proposed projects. This country also lists other relevant priority targets in environmental research including development of environmentally sound technologies and technological assessment, research on ecosystems particularly related to deforestation; and bioengineering and genetic engineering. Education in science and technology is part of this country's international development assistance programmes. Japan reported that two priorities in this area are (i) improving communication and cooperation among scientific and technological communities, the decision makers and the public and (ii) promoting codes of practice and guidelines related to science and technology. This country supports international cooperation relevant to the above overall priorities. The Netherlands mentioned that universities and research institutes play an important role in the national sustainable development efforts as well as in the country's development cooperation work. Tunis listed academic scientific community, researchers and professional organizations as partners in central and regional governmental efforts in sustainable development. MAJOR GROUP VIEWS The Secretariat received inputs from six organizations based in the following countries, Bangladesh, India, Japan, Russia and the United States. Of these, only one, the Japanese Scientists Association (JSA), made inputs directly relevant to the themes before the 1994 CSD session. JSA indicated that it would submit two thematic papers on health and toxic chemicals along with a critique of the national environmental policies although only the paper on health was received at the time of drafting of this report. The recommendations of JSA under the theme of health are summarized in the report on Chapter 6 on Health. An organization based in the United States, the Chicago Area Sigma Xi (CASX) submitted information on its Sustainable Development Forum which is a follow up to Agenda 21 focusing on networking scientists around Agenda 21 activities at the national and international level. The remaining inputs were received from Centre for Development Research of Bangladesh, the People's Science Institute of India, the African Environmental Research and Consulting Group (offices in the United States and Ghana), and the Future Generation Problems Research Centre of Russia. The first three inputs summarized the work of the organizations. These inputs did not specify if the organizations had taken Agenda 21 follow up activities. All three appeared to have on-going local environmental and developmental work and/or potential to provide significant service to national and regional sustainable development activities as partners. The Research Centre of Russia submitted a paper emphasizing the welfare of future generations as the most fundamental issue in sustainable development research, policy and overall efforts. J. Chapter 32-- Strengthening the role of farmers INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE The activity that involves the UN system Agencies in this chapter is contained in paragraph 32. 9 on involving farmers in the programmes of FAO, IFAD, WFP, and development banks. FAO is closely involved with farmers associations in its overall programme. FAO's Plan of Action on People's Participation in Rural Development emphasizes active participation of rural people and their organizations as a "key ingredient to achieving agricultural and rural development". FAO has been working with the International Federation of Agricultural Producers (IFAP). IFAP has 82 affiliated member organizations in fifty countries and is FAO's main non- governmental partner in implementing the aforementioned Plan of Action. FAO estimates that it reaches over half a million small farmers, forest dwellers and "fisher-folk" on a regular basis through the People's Participation Programme. FAO's programmes promote cooperation among farmers, NGOs, national agricultural research and extension services through its regional NGO Cooperation programmes in Asia, Latin America and Africa. It also consults regularly with several major farmer's organizations through the Inter-agency Committee for Promotion and Advancement of Cooperatives. Among these organizations are the IFAP, the International Cooperative Alliance (ICA), the World Council of Credit Unions (WCCU), and the International Federation of Plantation and Allied Agricultural Workers (IFPAAW). IFAD's projects are geared toward assisting small farmers in the transition to sustainable agriculture. In this context, IFAD collaborates extensively with farmers' associations and cooperatives. The programmes have a participatory planning approach throughout the stages of a project-cycle. A milestone for this approach was IFAD's International Consultation on Environment and Sustainable Development and the Role of Small Farmers held in 1988 which formulated the evolving strategies that IFAD follows today.. UNDP is working on creating a Farmers-Sustainable Agriculture Network and Extension (SANE) to support developing countries in applications of agro-ecology to rural development. UNDP's programmes in this area aim to facilitate sharing of experiences, demonstration of local solutions, institutional capacity building and networking local institutions in relation to farmers. Its Farmer Centered Agricultural Resource Management programme (FARM) is one such programme that focuses on enhancing capacity for conservation, management and use of natural agricultural resources through increasing local participation. NATIONAL EXPERIENCE Three provided information specific to farmers. Austria reported that it focuses on networking agricultural objectives with regional, social and environmental goals. This country believes that changes in consumer purchasing habits is a precondition to enable food produced by environmentally sound methods obtain fair prices in the market. In addition, Austria takes the view that the use of renewable sources of energy derived from regional production needs to be awarded to encourage environmentally sustainable farming practices. This country also has several measures supporting ecological management of agriculture including caps for animal stock, duties on fertilizers, promotion of crop rotation and subsidies for organic farmers. Finland indicated that it has a specific environmental programme for rural areas which involves agricultural producers and their organizations in the implementation process. Japan reported that it provides funding support for training programmes for Asian farmers and shares national experiences in land conservation internationally. MAJOR GROUP VIEWS One relevant organization submitted information: the International Federation of Agricultural Producers (IFAP). Environment has been a priority for IFAP particularly since the establishment of an Environment Committee, in June 1992, shortly before the Rio conference. This committee's three regional meetings (in Europe late 1992, America April 1993 and Asia September 1993) have led IFAD's activities in follow-up to UNCED.IFAP's relevant initiatives involve (i) ensuring priority is given to environment in the Federation's overall work, (ii) maintaining and strengthening contacts with multilateral agencies and international research centres; (iii) increasing dialogue with groups and organizations active in environment and development; and (iv) reinforcing the Federation's programmes in capacity and institution building particularly in developing countries. IFAP's report indicates relationships with numerous regional and international inter-governmental organizations and programmes including the Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development programme (SARD) of FAO, the Sustainable Agriculture Network and Extension programme (SANE) of UNDP. The Federation is also seeking ways to collaborate with the EC in the region of Latin America and with the OECD in the area of rural development. Dialogue with other major groups' organization is also part of IFAP's efforts. These contacts range from formal to informal arrangements as well as information-based exchanges through publications of NGOs and other major groups. The Federation is also in continuing consultation process with a number of international agricultural research institutes such as the African National Agricultural Research, the international Institute of Tropical Agriculture, and the International Rice Research Institute. Capacity-building is an area of particular importance to IFAP. The Federation feels that "the main obstacles to solving environmental problems are not in the technical field but rather in the political, economic and social domain". The Federation places particular emphasis on building institutional capacity of farmers in developing countries. IFAP has launched a world-wide programme to address this area of need in October 1993. III. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The fundamental idea behind requests of progress review reports that combine information from governments, inter-governmental bodies and major groups was to compare evidence for and against progress and thus identify the gaps or bottlenecks that need to be overcome in the coming years. This process, however, appears to need comprehensive information from all the three sectors. Such comprehensiveness has not been the case particularly in terms of information received on Major Groups chapters. Inputs received from the Governments was spotty or had little information on the involvement of major groups at the national level. The few exceptions were inputs made by less than a handful of developed countries, which provided information on each major group in some detail. However, the degree of detail between countries, as well as lack of information made comparison very difficult. At the inter-governmental level, there was a greater response rate to the information requests of the CSD Secretariat. The UN Agencies, in particular, appear to be have a great deal of activity that involves NGOs and other major groups, including various support programmes. One clear area of need appears to be establishing reliable and stable mechanisms that enable major groups participation in the decision-making process of the international organizations. The need is especially emphasized, by NGOs, in the case of international financing and development institutions. Major Groups, particularly those that are accredited to the CSD, appear to be less involved in the CSD than they were in the UNCED process where they were accredited initially. However, other major groups entities have made inputs to the CSD which is a positive trend indicating that lack of accreditation does not necessarily prevent commitment to the CSD's work. A number of inputs received from major groups included innovative and/or new approaches to sustainable development, including financial mechanisms, developing indicators, tools for local sustainable development implementation and evaluation, and so forth. If governments and inter-governmental bodies are to benefit from ideas emerging from the major groups sphere, as suggested by the partnership spirit of Agenda 21, there needs to opportunities to discuss and consider these ideas in more detail. The following recommendations could be suggested on the basis of the information above: 1- There is a clear need to improve the quantity and the quality of information relevant to the role and contributions of major groups. The CSD may wish to request that the Governments and inter- governmental bodies provide information on the extent of involvement of major groups organizations. This information may include, among other things, the following areas: (a) involvement of major groups organizations in sustainable development activities including participation in project design, implementation and evaluation at the national, regional and international levels. (b) the new and innovative ways that increase and enhance the quality and quantity of consultations with the major groups organizations (c) the relevant indicators such as financial and other resource allocations, and the success and failures related to the institutional and/or technical assistance provided. (d) identification of bottlenecks and suggestions for future needs to overcome them 2- The CSD may wish to commission detailed and periodic surveys of the sphere of major groups in sustainable development to identify the specific actors, assess needs and collect innovative suggestions. 3- The CSD might also consider requesting the production of a coordinated series of "success stories" related to major groups' involvement in sustainable development efforts of the UN Agencies as well as of Governments. Such a series can be managed by the Secretariat and might be coordinated through the Inter-Agency Committee on Sustainable Development. 4- The CSD might consider a more proactive role with respect to the role and contribution of major groups to Agenda 21 implementation. This might include holding seminars and round- tables on the thematic topics of each year as well as co-sponsoring relevant conferences with major groups and UN Agencies. 5- The CSD may wish to discuss how best to utilize inputs from major groups in the reports and other information, discussion and negotiation processes. An annual or biannual publication composed of major groups inputs could be a beginning to signaling the major groups that their efforts and inputs are not ignored 6- The CSD may wish to urge those UN agencies with field offices and other national or regional presence to increase efforts to create and enhance local environmental support institutions for major groups organizations. Such support could include institutional, technical, managerial, and financial aspects of community involvement in sustainable development. 7- The CSD may wish to suggest that the member governments, to the extent possible and feasible, include representatives of national Major Groups in their Delegations to the CSD, in order to increase Major Groups participation. 8- The CSD may wish to take note of some of the conceptual and practical sustainable development tools developed and proposed by the Major groups such as the use of social impact assessments targeting particular groups, environmental space, eco-audits and green audits, local agenda 21 frameworks, community report cards and consolidated lists of hazardous and toxic substances.. ANNEX I Extracts of Agenda 21 activities in Section III, on Major Groups Activities requested from Inter-governmental bodies Women (Chapter 24) (paragraph 24.9) The Secretary-General should strengthen all UN institutions with a focus on women. (Paragraph 24.10) UN bodies should increase the number of women in senior policy-level posts. (Paragraph 24.11) UNIFEM, UNICEF, and UNDP should strengthen participation of women in development through their programs. Youth and Children (chapter 25) (paragraph 25. 10) Review youth programs, and their coordination; promote UN Trust Fund for International Youth Year. (Paragraph 25. 15) UNICEF to cooperate with other UN organizations, governments, and NGOs to develop programs for children. Indigenous People (Chapter 26) (paragraph 26.4) Adopt a declaration on indigenous rights in the UNGA. (Paragraph 26.5) Appoint focal points on indigenous peoples in each organization; hold annual coordination meetings. (Paragraph 26.5) Assist governments to keep indigenous people informed and incorporate their views in policy/program design. (Paragraph 26.5) Provide technical and financial assistance for capacity-building for indigenous people. (Paragraph 26.5) Use data collection and analysis to support Agenda 21 programs aiding indigenous people in resource management. (Paragraph 26. 9) Assist in education and training of indigenous peoples for sustainable development. Non-Governmental Organizations (Chapter 27) (paragraph 27.9) Report on ways to enhance NGO contributions to UN system decision making. (Paragraph 27.9b) Enhance procedures of all UN agencies to include the views of NGOs. (Paragraph 27.9c) Review UN financial and administrative support for NGOs with a view to augmenting their role. (Paragraph 27.9d) Design effective means to achieve NGO participation in UN implementation of Agenda 21. (Paragraph 27.9e) Promote and allow NGOs and their self-organized networks to contribute to evaluation of UN programs to implement Agenda 21. (Paragraph 27. 9f) Take into account NGO findings in reports of the Secretary-General and UN agencies on implementation of Agenda 21. (Paragraph 27.9g) Provide timely NGO access to information on UN sustainable development programs. (Paragraph 27.12) Increase financial and administrative support for NGOs; provide training for NGOs in LDCs. Local Authorities (Chapter 28) (paragraph 28.4) Forge partnerships among international organizations (UNDP, Habitat, UNEP, World Bank, regional banks, IULA, World Association of the Major Metropolises, Summit of Great cities of the world, United Towns Organization) in support of local authority programs. (Paragraph 28.4a) Habitat to Strengthen information gathering on local authorities' strategies and their needs for support. (Paragraph 28. 4b) Establish a consultation process with developing countries to mobilize support for local authorities. Workers and Trade Unions (Chapter 29) (Paragraph 29.10) Involve trade unions in sustainable development activities of the UN and other international organizations. (Paragraph 29.11) Assess need for enhanced worker training programs. Business and Industry (Chapter 30) (Paragraph 30.15) Collaborate with industry to increase education, training, and awareness activities to achieve cleaner production. (Paragraph 30.16) Disseminate information on cleaner production methods by cooperatively using UN and industry association databases. (UNEP/ICPIC, UNIDO/INTIB and ICC/IEB) (Paragraph 30.21) Support small entrepreneurs engaged in sustainable activities through financial aid. (Paragraph 30.28) Ensure business community input into UN policy process to improve environmental aspects of foreign investment. (Paragraph 30.29) Support research to improve technology and management in small firms in LDCs. Science and Technology (Chapter 31) (Paragraph 31.4d) Strengthen science and technology advice to the highest levels of the UN and other organizations. Farmers (Chapter 32) (Paragraph 32. 9) Involve farmers in FAO, IFAD, WFP, and development bank programs. ANNEX II Extracts of Agenda 21 activities in Section III, on Major Groups Activities requested from Governments Women (Chapter 24) (Paragraph 24.3a) Establish policies to increase the proportion of women as decision makers. (Paragraph 24.3b) Strengthen women's non-governmental organizations. (Paragraph 24.3c) Eliminate illiteracy among females and promote universal access to primary and secondary education. (Paragraph 24.3d) Promote day care facilities, equal sharing of household tasks, and other measures to reduce women's drudgery. (Paragraph 24.e) Establish facilities with reproductive health care and family planning. (Paragraph 24.3f) Strengthen equal employment opportunities, remuneration, and support facilities. (Paragraph 24.3g) Establish rural banking systems to increase rural women's access to credit. (Paragraph 24.3h) Design consumer awareness programs that appeal to women. (Paragraph 24.3i) Eliminate negative attitudes and prejudices against women. (Paragraph 24.3j) Prepare a report to the 1995 world conference on women. (Paragraph 24.4) Ratify and enforce all relevant conventions pertaining to women. (Paragraph 24.5) Strengthen the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women. (Paragraph 24.6) Avert environmental and economic degradation. (Paragraph 24.8) Develop gender-sensitive databases and information systems. (Paragraph 24.8b) Undertake research on the effects on women of structural adjustment. (Paragraph 24.8d) Conduct research on linkages among gender relations, environment, and development. (Paragraph 24.8e) Develop accounting mechanisms to integrate value of unpaid work to better capture the economic contribution of women. (Paragraph 24.8f) Monitor the gender impact of policies and programs. (Paragraph 24.8g) Create training, research, and resource centers to disseminate environmentally sound technologies to women. Youth and Children (Chapter 25) (Paragraph 25.9a) Establish procedures for consultation with youth in decision making. (Paragraph 25.9b) Consult youth organizations regarding programs on environment and development. (Paragraph 25.9c) Consider incorporating into policy the recommendations of youth conferences. (Paragraph 25.9d) Ensure access for all youth to a wide range of educational opportunities. (Paragraph 25.9e) Implement strategies to create employment opportunities. (Paragraph 25.9f) Establish task forces to develop educational and awareness programs to reach young people. (Paragraph 25.9g) Encourage their involvement in project identification, design, implementation and follow up. (Paragraph 25.9h) Include youth representatives in delegations to international meetings in accordance with UNGA resolutions. (Paragraph 25.14a) Implement programs for health, education, and poverty alleviation. (Paragraph 25.14b) Ratify the Convention on the Rights of the Child. (Paragraph 25.14d) Expand educational opportunities for children and youth. (Paragraph 25.14e) Use schools and health centers to educate communities about environmental issues. (Paragraph 25.14f) Incorporate children's concerns into policies for environment and development. Indigenous People (Chapter 26) (Paragraph 26.4a) Ratify and apply all existing conventions relevant to indigenous people. (Paragraph 26.4b) Protect indigenous intellectual and cultural property and customary (including economic) practices. (Paragraph 26.6a) Improve capacity to assimilate technology and soundly manage resources through research and education programs. (Paragraph 26.6b) Consult with indigenous people to incorporate their values and traditional knowledge into development programs. (Paragraph 26.8) Incorporate the rights and responsibilities of indigenous people in legislation. (Paragraph 26.9) Commit resources to education and training for indigenous people. Non-governmental Organizations (Chapter 27) (Paragraph 27.8) Allow the participation of NGOs in conception, establishment and evaluation of official mechanisms and formal procedures to review Agenda 21 (Paragraph 27.10a) Enhance dialogue with NGOs to channel their input into policy processes. (Paragraph 27.10b) Encourage partnerships between local NGOs and local authorities. (Paragraph 27.10c) Involve NGOs in national programs to carry out Agenda 21. (Paragraph 27.10d) Consider findings of non-governmental monitoring of Agenda 21. (Paragraph 27.10e) Expand the role of NGOs in education and public awareness. (Paragraph 27.10f) Provide access for NGOs to timely information. (Paragraph 27.12) Provide more bilateral financial and administrative support for NGOs to evaluate Agenda 21. (Paragraph 2713) Strengthen legislation to ensure the legal rights of NGOs to protect the public interest through legal action. Local Authorities (Chapter 28) There are no activities specifically requested from Governments in this chapter. Most activities indicate activities for Local Authorities and the inter-governmental bodies. Workers and Trade Unions (Chapter 29) (Paragraph 29.3a) Ratify ILO conventions. (Paragraph 29.4) Promote workers' rights to freedom of association and to organize. (Paragraph 29.5) Promote participation of workers and unions in sustainable development policies and programs. (Paragraph 29.6) Promote the cooperation of unions, employers, and governments in sustainable development. (Paragraph 29.7) Use collaborative employee/employer mechanisms to deal with safety, health, and environmental issues. (Paragraph 29.8) Ensure that workers are provided with all relevant information to participate in decision-making. (Paragraph 29.12) Provide workers with training in environmental awareness, safety, health, and employable skills. Business and Industry (Chapter 30) (Paragraph 30.7) Strengthen government and business partnerships for sustainable development. (Paragraph 30.8) Employ an appropriate policy mix to promote cleaner production. (Paragraph 30.9) Develop methodologies cooperatively to internalize environmental costs into accounting and pricing. (Paragraph 30.11) Promote technology cooperation among enterprises. (Paragraph 30.19) Encourage sustainably managed enterprises through economic instruments, regulation, and administrative streamlining. (Paragraph 30.20) Encourage establishment of venture capital funds for sustainable projects. (Paragraph 30.21) Support training in environmental aspects of enterprise management. (Paragraph 30.22) Encourage transnational firms to establish worldwide policies on sustainable development. Science and Technology (Chapter 31) (Paragraph 31.4a) Review national scientific and technology activities re adequacy for sustainable development needs. (Paragraph 31.4b) Promote cooperative mechanisms to address regional needs of science and technology for sustainable development. (Paragraph 31.4c) Improve scientific input to negotiating international agreements. (Paragraph 31.4e) Improve programs for disseminating research, including transfer of skills, sharing data, and non-technical publications. (Paragraph 31.4f) Improve cooperation between government and private research sectors. (Paragraph 31.4g) Promote the role of women in science and technology. (Paragraph 31.4h) Enhance technologies for the dissemination of information. (Paragraph 31.10b) Establish national advisory groups on ethics to develop common values between scientific communities and society. (Paragraph 31.10c) Integrate development and environmental ethical issues into education curricula and research priorities. Farmers (Chapter 32) (Paragraph 32.6a) Implement all Agenda 21 programs related to sustainable rural development. (Paragraph 32.6b) Promote sound farm-level decisions through economic instruments and trade policies. (Paragraph 32.6c) Involve farmers and their organizations in policy formulation. (Paragraph 32.6d) Recognize women's rights to land tenure, credit, technology, and inputs. (Paragraph 32.6e) Support farmers' organizations with adequate legal conditions. (Paragraph 32.8a) Document and disseminate local agricultural experience as a basis for new policies/projects. (Paragraph 32.8b) Establish information networks on resource conservation, use of chemicals and farm wastes. (Paragraph 32.8c) Develop pilot projects and extension services that address needs and knowledge of women farmers. (Paragraph 32.12a) Develop environmentally sound farming technologies. (Paragraph 32.13) Develop ecological curricula for agricultural colleges. (Paragraph 32.14a) Create legal mechanisms to ensure land tenure for farmers. (Paragraph 32.14b) Strengthen rural institutions through credit systems, technical assistance, etc. (Paragraph 32.14c) Improve the capability of farmers to ensure food security.
This document has been posted online by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). Reproduction and dissemination of the document - in electronic and/or printed format - is encouraged, provided acknowledgement is made of the role of the United Nations in making it available.
Date last posted: 1 December 1999 12:18:30