C H A P T E R IV

Regional disarmament


"It has long been recognized that the United Nations is not equipped to handle every crisis in the world on its own. It is acknowledged that a partnership between the United Nations and regional and other intergovernmental organizations should be developed if peace and security are to be maintained."1
Kofi Annan, United Nations Secretary-General

Developments and trends, 2006

Throughout the year, efforts were pursued at the regional and subregional levels to address arms control and disarmament issues. These efforts included initiatives to halt the spread of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), to strengthen and consolidate nuclear-weapon-free zones (NWFZs), to tackle the illicit trade of small arms and light weapons (SALW), to undertake confidence- and security-building measures, and to destroy surplus stocks of conventional armaments. In a significant achievement, the five Central Asian States2 signed the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia (CANWFZ) in September, creating the world's fifth NWFZ, and the first located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere.
The Seventh High-level Meeting between the United Nations and Regional and Other Intergovernmental Organizations took place in New York on 22 September.3 At the meeting, the Secretary-General presented a report outlining joint efforts and discussions between the United Nations and a number of regional and intergovernmental organizations.4 The meeting reviewed partnerships between the United Nations system and regional organizations, and focused on ways to strengthen the capacity to expand cooperation in other areas, including counter-terrorism, to maintain international peace and security.
Within the framework of the High-Level Meeting, the Department for Disarmament Affairs (DDA) chaired the Working Group on Disarmament and Non-Proliferation. Among other things, the Working Group recommended further pursuit of SALW-related activities, promotion of multilateral disarmament treaties, and implementation of United Nations Security Council resolution (UNSCR) 1540 (2004) with a focus on regional and subregional initiatives. On SALW, it proposed that joint programmes help with the technical assistance and international cooperation requested by States in executing the 2001 United Nations Programme of Action (PoA). Furthermore, joint efforts should be made by the United Nations, through the Coordinating Action on Small Arms (CASA) mechanism and, regional and other inter-governmental organizations (IGOs) to strengthen implementation of the PoA. To prevent non-State actors from accessing WMD-related materials and technology, the Working Group recommended that the United Nations, regional and other IGOs work collaboratively to raise awareness through outreach activities at the regional and subregional levels, including through UNSCRs 1540 (2004)5 and 1673 (2006),6 and to assist States in implementing their obligations, when appropriate.

Security Council ministerial-level meeting on regional-global security partnership

In a further development, on 20 September, the Security Council held a ministerial-level meeting on maintaining international peace and security through cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations. The meeting considered the Secretary-General's report,7 which assessed progress achieved in this area since the adoption of UNSCR 1631 (2005),8 as well as a background document prepared by the Council President,9 which described the important role regional organizations have played in maintaining international peace and security.
During the meeting, the Secretary-General described ongoing policy and operational activities that had resulted from United Nations engagement with regional organizations. He also stressed the need to develop new ways to further enhance such cooperation in the interest of creating a collective global security mechanism to protect populations and promote peace.10
Following the high-level debate, the Security Council adopted a presidential statement.11 Stressing the benefits of closer cooperation with regional and subregional organizations in the maintenance of international peace and security, the Council agreed to expand consultation with such bodies by: inviting, when appropriate, relevant organizations to participate in public and private meetings of the Council; continuing to consult with such organizations when drafting, inter alia, resolutions, presidential statements and press statements, as appropriate; and drawing the attention of representatives of these organizations to actions taken by the Council. Specifically, in regard to disarmament issues, the Council urged regional and subregional organizations to assist States, as appropriate, in implementing existing agreements and enhancing efforts to eradicate the illicit trade in SALW.

Nuclear-weapon-free zones

Central Asia

The signing of the Central Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone (CANWFZ) Treaty12 on 8 September by the five Central Asian States in Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, represented a significant achievement in the field of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. During the signing ceremony, the Foreign Ministers of the five Central Asian States issued a joint statement that called on the NPT nuclear-weapon States (NWS) to become parties to its Protocol, and urged States and international organizations, with experience and expertise in radiation decontamination, to assist Central Asia in remedying the environmental effects of uranium mining and nuclear-weapon production and testing.13
In his message to the ceremony, the Secretary-General underscored the general role of NWFZs in promoting nuclear disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation, highlighting their contribution to regional stability.14 He recognized that some NWS remained concerned about aspects of the Treaty, and urged the Central Asian States to engage with them to resolve those differences to ensure effective implementation. Before it was signed, the three NWS - France, United Kingdom and United States - expressed their opposition to the text, indicating that their primary concern was with the Treaty's ambiguity regarding both the transit of nuclear weapons within the zone, as well as its relationship with existing agreements.
The geographic scope of the new Treaty covers land territories, all waters - harbours, lakes, rivers and streams - and the air space above the five States parties. Within this established zone, research on development, stockpiling, acquisition, possession, manufacture or control of nuclear weapons or any nuclear explosive device is prohibited. The disposal of radioactive waste from other States in the territories of the States parties is also forbidden. In signing the Treaty, the five Central Asian States agreed to conclude and bring into force an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards agreement along with an Additional Protocol, and to maintain standards of physical protection of nuclear material, facilities and equipment at least as effective as those established by the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM)15 and by the recommendations and guidelines developed by the IAEA16 for physical protection.17

Disarmament and arms regulation at regional levels

Africa

During the year, much of Africa's regional activities regarding disarmament and non-proliferation focused on SALW. Important developments towards universal standards for SALW control took place subregionally, including the adoption of two legally-binding instruments. The Nairobi Protocol for the Prevention, Control and Reduction of Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa was adopted in May,18 and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Convention on Small Arms, Light Weapons, Their Ammunition and Other Associated Material in June.19
The Nairobi Protocol built upon commitments of the politically binding Nairobi Declaration (March 2000), and obligated Member States to establish controls over civilian possession of arms. The Protocol also addressed other related issues such as manufacturing; marking and tracing; brokering; the transfer of SALW; and the enforcement of arms embargoes.
The ECOWAS Convention, once it enters into force, will replace the voluntary 1998 ECOWAS Moratorium, and may, inter alia, impose sanctions on Member States that fail to comply with its restrictions on the manufacturing, importation and exportation of SALW.
In June 2006, ECOWAS and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) launched the Small Arms Control Project (ECOSAP) as the successor to the Programme for Coordination and Assistance for Security and Development (PCASED).20 Strongly supported by the Government of the Netherlands, this five-year programme will address the trafficking of small arms in West Africa, help build the capacity of the region's national Small Arms Commission and provide technical support to the Small Arms Unit of ECOWAS secretariat.21 ECOSAP has established an implementation capacity in Mali, which aims to reduce regional armed violence along with its impact on stability, security and human development.22
In regard to the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Protocol on Firearms, Ammunition, and other Related Material, 10 States had submitted their instruments of ratification.23 Efforts continued to encourage the remaining SADC Members to ratify as well.24
African participation in the UN Register of Conventional Arms and the standardized instrument for international reporting of military expenditures has been generally weak.25 However, efforts continued to establish National Commissions or National Focal Points for the control of SALW in more African States, as recommended by the Bamako Declaration26 on an African Common Position on the Illicit Proliferation, Circulation and Trafficking of Small Arms and Light Weapons and the PoA.

United Nations Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Africa (UNREC)

A consultative mechanism for the reorganization of UNREC was established pursuant to General Assembly resolution 60/86,27 aimed at enabling the Centre to effectively fulfil its mandate in responding to the demands and needs of Africa in the field of peace and disarmament. Open to all interested States, the Consultative mechanism held three meetings in New York during 2006, on 5 May, 5 June and 12 June.28 Representatives of Member States and regional organizations, such as the AU and the EU, exchanged views on the basis of an informal paper presented by the Chairman, which suggested a series of approaches and possible recommendations.
The discussion focused primarily on the mandate, programme of work, staff and funding of the Regional Centre. Bilateral consultations were also conducted by the Chairman on the margins of the First Committee. Several delegations agreed that the Centre should align its work programme with the disarmament and security issues of the African countries. To regenerate funding for the financially suffering Centre, support might be forthcoming with more meaningful projects. Participants also felt that improved staffing would augment the Centre to better meet the needs of the African countries.
While two specific proposals were put forward - (a) that two regular budget posts be added; and (b) that an annual subvention from the regular budget be allocated to cover the difference between the host country's contribution and the Centre's operating costs - the discussions were inconclusive. Therefore, the General Assembly agreed to request the Consultative mechanism to continue its work to identify concrete measures to revitalize the Centre. See discussion of resolution 61/93 on page 1.
The Centre was involved in the organization of the 24th Ministerial Meeting of the UN Standing Advisory Committee for Security Questions in Central Africa, held from 26 to 29 September in Kigali, Rwanda. The meeting discussed, among other issues, the promotion of disarmament programmes; the implementation of the PoA; the participation of Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) in the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms and in the standardized instrument for reporting military expenditures; the implementation of UNSCR 1540; and the establishment of a subregional disarmament mechanism.
In addition, the Centre continued to implement the Small Arms Transparency and Control Regime in Africa (SATCRA), including the publication of the National Inventory Reports on arms production capacities29 and the maintenance of the Small Arms and Light Weapons Register in Africa (SALWR).30

Americas

In order to better respond to regional security needs, the Organization of American States (OAS) underwent a structural reorganization, including the creation of the Secretariat for Multidimensional Security and the Public Security Department.31 This shift in focus from traditional defence and security issues to a multi-dimensional security approach was also reflected in the Seventh Conference of Defense Ministers of the Americas, held from 1 to 5 October in Nicaragua, resulting in the adoption of the Managua Declaration. Recommendations included modernizing hemispheric defence and security institutions, strengthening the Inter-American Security System, fighting all forms of terrorism, joining forces for peacekeeping missions, combating the proliferation of small arms, and confronting transnational crime threats. Likewise, Ministers proposed closer collaboration at the subregional level to achieve common goals.
The European Union-Latin American Countries (EU-LAC) reinforced their biregional strategic relationship through the Vienna Declaration.32 It was adopted at the fourth EU-LAC Summit of Heads of State and Government, which took place on 12 May in the city that bears its name. In the declaration, the EU-LAC leaders reiterated their commitment to a multilateral approach to current disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control challenges, in particular with respect to WMD. They also agreed to further pursue the implementation, universalization and strengthening of disarmament and non-proliferation regimes, and to reinforce the role of the United Nations in these areas.

Latin America and the Caribbean

The Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL)33 held the eighteenth Special Session of its General Conference on 23 November, in Mexico City, which was devoted to administrative and financial matters. In his report to the Conference, the OPANAL Secretary-General indicated that the interpretations of NWS regarding Protocols I and II of the Treaty would be included on the agenda of the fortieth anniversary celebration of the Treaty's signing in 2007. This decision was intended to address the concerns of OPANAL Member States that the interpretation of some NWS regarding the use of nuclear weapons as a legitimate means of self-defence was contrary to international law.34 The Secretary-General's report also addressed the difficult financial situation of the Agency and indicated that the Conference would need to adopt special measures to correct it.
In order to address the Agency's financial condition, the Conference adopted a resolution, which called on all Member States in arrears of their payments to the Agency to bring them up to date in the first two months of 2007.35 With specific regard to those States furthest in arrears, the resolution authorized the Committee on Contributions and Administrative and Budgetary Matters (CCAAP) and the Council of OPANAL to accept a portion of their payment while making special arrangements to bring the remainder up to date, in accordance with the criteria contained in resolution CG/E/Res.463 (E-XVII) entitled "Discount Program for the Strengthening of OPANAL" adopted in November 2004.36 In addition, the resolution authorized the General Secretariat to convene an extraordinary session of the General Conference in February 2007 to assess the situation regarding payments to the Agency and to take decisions to allow the Agency's work to continue in accordance with the assessment of the financial situation at that time.

United Nations Regional Centre for Peace, Disarmament and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (UN-LiREC)

Throughout the year, the UN-LiREC focused its efforts on providing platforms for States to discuss disarmament-related issues and treaty implementation requirements; sustaining technical assistance for capacity-building initiatives for the law enforcement community; and preparing the foundation for the development of peace, disarmament and non-proliferation education initiatives in the region.
With respect to WMD, the Centre assisted regional States in advancing the development of the Chemical Weapons-Regional Assistance and Protection Network (CW-RAPN).37 This resource platform is intended to facilitate the collection of information on the training, equipment, medical support and staff capacities of States in preparedness for the event of a chemical weapons attack.
In the area of SALW, the Antigua Declaration38 was signed in La Antigua, Guatemala, by representatives from 28 Latin American and Caribbean States during their Regional Preparatory Meeting, from 2 to 4 May, for the PoA Review Conference (New York, 26 June to 7 July). The Declaration represented a common position for the region on the prevention of illicit firearms trafficking.39 (See chapter III for further details on the Review Conference of the PoA.)
In related events, the Centre carried out seven national firearms technique courses aimed at assisting States to improve controls over the legal firearms trade and prevent illicit firearms trafficking. In addition, several States in the region elaborated on their respective national reports on the implementation of the PoA through UN-LiREC's Small Arms and Light Weapons Administration System (SALSA) - an Internet-based resource tool which allows States to monitor the movement of SALW and ammunition throughout the region.40
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in Brazil, led an initiative to promote citizen security and protect against violence and firearms among MERCOSUR Member States.41 In a cooperative effort between UNDP-Brazil and UN-LiREC, a comparative legislative analysis was made on the implementation and promotion of the UN Firearms Protocol42 by the MERCOSUR States.

Asia and the Pacific

The Second East Asia Summit was scheduled to take place on 13 December, but owing to the arrival of tropical typhoon Utor, was rescheduled for 15 January 2007.

United Nations Regional Centre for Peace and Development in Asia and the Pacific (RCPD)

The Centre organized the Eighteenth United Nations Conference on Disarmament Issues in Yokohama, Japan from 21 to 23 August, with approximately 50 participants from Governments, academic institutions, the media, international and regional organizations, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Discussions were held on the challenges and risks facing the international community today. Topics included the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) nuclear issue, Iran's nuclear activities, increasing energy needs and the role of the nuclear fuel cycle, and global nuclear black market networks. Practical approaches to effectively cope with pressing security and disarmament issues were explored and new ideas exchanged. Several scenarios were considered in the DPRK's rejection of UNSCR 1695 (2006),43 refusal to return to the Six-Party Talks and nuclear testing. With respect to Iran's nuclear programme, a view was expressed that wise diplomacy was necessary to keep that regime in the right direction.44
The Fifth Joint Conference between the United Nations and the Republic of Korea (ROK) took place from 13 to 15 December in Jeju, ROK. The Conference discussed ways and means to revitalize efforts to curb the proliferation of WMD and addressed the proliferation challenges facing the international community. It focused on proposals for nuclear fuel supply assurances, the DPRK's nuclear tests, and preparations for the 2007 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) PrepCom. Participants attended in their personal capacity from academic and research institutes, Governments, and non-governmental organizations, mainly from the Asia and the Pacific region, as well as international organizations.
Regarding SALW proliferation, the Centre organized a seminar in Bangkok, from 17 to 19 May for South and Southeast Asian countries to prepare for the PoA Review Conference.45 The seminar endeavoured to assist States in gaining a better understanding of the PoA and of the requirements necessary to prepare the national reports. It concluded with the adoption of two reports of the Working Groups on the implementation of the PoA, which were then presented to the Review Conference. Among other things, the Working Group of South Asian countries, committed itself to establish or strengthen national coordination agencies or bodies to coordinate national efforts to tackle the problems related to the illicit trade in SALW; and agreed to promote increased regional and subregional dialogue and cooperation, including information exchange on national experiences and, where possible, the development of joint initiatives to promote implementation of the PoA. In the Working Group of Southeast Asian countries, each State that had done so, reported on its implementation status, with all States aiming to submit reports by the time of the Review Conference. They underlined the importance of assistance, including technical and financial assistance, for implementation of the PoA.

ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF)

The Thirteenth Meeting of ARF46 was convened on 28 July in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. According to the Chairman's Statement,47 the Foreign Ministers of all ARF participants reaffirmed the importance of this forum as the main multilateral political and security forum in the region. Among other security issues, the statement emphasized that the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula was essential to maintaining regional peace and stability.48

Southeast Asia

During the 39th Ministerial Meeting of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in Kuala Lumpur on 25 July,49 the Ministers issued a joint communiqué reaffirming the importance of strengthening cooperative efforts toward the implementation of the Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone (SEANWFZ), also known as the Bangkok Treaty.50 They urged the nuclear-weapon States to become parties to the Protocol of the Treaty as soon as possible.51 The Ministers further recalled Article 20 of the Treaty, which stated that "Ten years after this Treaty enters into force, a meeting of the Commission shall be convened for the purpose of reviewing the operation of the Treaty." To this effect, they directed the Executive Committee of SEANWFZ to consider the implementation of Article 20.

Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)

The SCO52 held its sixth summit on 15 June in Shanghai. At its conclusion, Members reaffirmed in a Declaration53 and Joint Communiqué54 that combating the threats posed by terrorism, separatism and extremism, as well as illegal drug trafficking remained the organization's top priority. Further, the Heads of States signed a cooperation programme for 2007 to 2009 to address these issues. They also committed to enhancing strategic stability and strengthening the international non-proliferation regime.55

Mongolia's nuclear-weapon-free status

The Secretary-General's report to the General Assembly entitled "Mongolia's international security and nuclear-weapon-free status", highlighted Mongolia's continued efforts to implement its domestic legislation regarding its nuclear-weapon-free status.56 In line with these efforts, in May 2006, Mongolia established an inter-ministerial working group to review the progress achieved in the implementation of its nuclear-weapon-free status and on resolution 19 of the State Great Khural (Mongolian Parliament) regarding measures to be taken in connection with the adoption of the relevant legislation.57
Mongolia also continued to receive support for its efforts to consolidate and strengthen its nuclear-weapon-free status. On 9 May, a joint statement issued by Mongolia and the Republic of Korea expressed support for Mongolia's endeavours to institutionalize this status and highlighted the State's role in fortifying the non-proliferation regime and contributing to confidence-building measures (CBMs) in North-East Asia and beyond. In addition, the Final Document of the Ministerial Meeting of the Coordinating Bureau of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), held in May 2006 in Malaysia, stated that Mongolia's nuclear-weapon-free status was a positive step towards strengthening global nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation.58

Middle East

During the tenth plenary meeting of the General Conference of the IAEA held on 22 September, a resolution entitled "Application of International Atomic Energy Safeguards in the Middle East",59 was adopted. It called upon all concerned parties to seriously consider taking practical and appropriate steps towards establishing a mutually and effectively verifiable NWFZ in the Middle East. Through the General Assembly's annual resolution,60 calls continued to be made for the establishment of a zone, free of nuclear weapons and other WMD, in the Middle East.61

League of Arab States

With respect to WMD, the Arab League62 held the 23rd and 24th meetings of the Experts Committee to draft a treaty that would establish a WMD-free zone in the Middle East. In this context, two resolutions were adopted.63 The Ministerial Council took note of the Committee's report stating that its work in drafting the treaty had been completed. Specifically in regard to nuclear issues, relevant sectors of the Arab League were developing a regional capability for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in order to sustain the development of Arab States.
In regard to conventional arms, within the framework of the Arab Coordination to Combat the Illicit Trade in SALW, the Council of the League of Arab States (LAS) adopted resolution 6625,64 to entrust the Arab League regional focal point to convene annual meetings of national focal points to coordinate and share their experiences, assess relevant regional and international developments and examine ways to deal with such issues.

Europe

A number of regional organizations continued to engage in efforts to address security and disarmament issues in Europe, including the EU, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE),65 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)66 and its Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC),67 the Stability Pact,68 the South-Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SEESAC),69 and the Regional Arms Control Verification and Implementation Assistance Centre (RACVIAC).70

European Union

The EU's activities in the field of non-proliferation had expanded further in 2006. The basis for this work was the overarching European Security Strategy (ESS)71 adopted by the European Council, and two specific EU strategies: one covering WMD non-proliferation (adopted in December 2003),72 the other combating the illicit accumulation and trafficking of SALW and their ammunition (adopted in December 2005).73
In the area of WMD proliferation, the EU supported the implementation of UNSCR 1540 and 1673 (2006)74 by co-financing three regional workshops in Asia and the Pacific, Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean, in partnership with DDA and the 1540 Committee. The workshops were intended to raise awareness of the obligations under these resolutions and to address the assistance needs of States in these regions.75 For further discussion, see pages 2-3 of this volume.
The EU continued to financially support the IAEA nuclear security fund, aimed at preventing acts of nuclear terrorism. In this framework, the EU developed three main types of assistance projects for South-Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Mediterranean, as well as for States outside the region in Africa, Central Asia and the Middle East. These projects included improving the physical protection of nuclear material and facilities; enhancing the protection and control of radioactive sources; and taking measures against the illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials. For further discussion, see chapter I.
The EU also provided support to the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) Preparatory Commission by financing a project aimed at enhancing the performance of its monitoring and verification system. The key objective was to develop an adequate training capacity for the operators of the CTBTO monitoring stations and national data centres, as their expertise and performance were crucial for the effective functioning of the monitoring and verification system. For further discussion, see chapter I.
Since 2004, the EU has been providing financial support to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) to finance projects in the areas of universalization, national implementation and international cooperation. In 2006 this support included the organization of a workshop held in Rome from 25 to 27 October for the promotion of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) among States in the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and neighbouring regions.76 The EU also worked with the OPCW to enable further bilateral visits to assist national authorities on all CWC-related matters, including capacity-building projects implemented by the national authorities, international cooperation through training and the provision of necessary equipment for designated laboratories. For further discussion, see chapter II.
During the year, the EU discussed further support for the destruction of chemical weapons in the Russian Federation, with a view to the adoption of a Council Joint Action on the Shchuch'ye Chemical Weapons Destruction Facility.77 For further discussion, see chapter II.
The EU continued to support the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) both through diplomatic actions and cooperation projects. At the political level, the EU encouraged States to ratify or accede to the Convention either bilaterally or through regional seminars in Southern and Eastern Africa, Asia and Oceania. For further discussion, see chapter II.
With respect to export controls over dual-use goods, the EU proceeded implementing best practices. This was done by reviewing the national implementation of the Council Regulation for the control of exports of dual-use items and technology, which was completed in 2004. Some recommendations were implemented at the national level, while other actions at the EU level were considered in a new proposal to recast Council Regulation on dual-use items. This proposal also took into account the obligations under UNSCR 1540. The Council is currently examining the Commission's proposal.78
Regarding conventional arms control efforts, the EU continued its work on harmonizing its Member States' national arms export control policies in accordance with the 1998 EU Code of Conduct on Arms Exports. The implementation of the Code in 2006 was documented in the Eighth Annual Report published on 16 October. Priorities for the near future included coordinating outreach efforts (directed in particular, but not exclusively, to Western Balkan countries and other immediate neighbours); promoting the Code's principles and criteria; and providing practical and technical assistance for this purpose.79
The EU contributed to combating the illicit accumulation and trafficking of SALW and their ammunition, as well as anti-personnel landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERW). The EU SALW Strategy,80 adopted in December 2005, and the EC Multi-annual Strategy on Mine Action 2005-200781 present, respectively, the main operational and political frameworks for common EU policies and objectives in these areas.
The EU provided financial support to projects across the world targeting different aspects of political, legislative processes as well as the humanitarian and developmental impact resulting from the illicit spread, proliferation, uncontrolled use and misuse of these weapons.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

NATO coordinated conventional arms control efforts via the High-Level Task Force (HLTF),82 the Verification Coordinating Committee (VCC),83 the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council's (EAPC) Ad Hoc Working Group on SALW and Mine Action,84 and the Political-Military Steering Committee. Issues concerning WMD are coordinated through the Senior Political Military Group on Proliferation (SGP) and the Senior Defense Group on Proliferation (DGP).
During the year, conventional arms control experts of the NATO-Russia Council (NRC) held a number of meetings to discuss arms control issues and explore the expansion of its agenda. The NRC Ad-Hoc Group of Proliferation Issues, along with the SGP and DGP, discussed WMD non-proliferation, with each group's respective partner countries.
Through the Partnership for Peace Trust Fund,85 NATO provided practical support to nations seeking to implement the PoA and the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-personnel Mines and on Their Destruction (the Mine Ban Convention).86 This support entailed projects to destroy and/or secure, as needed, SALW, munitions, landmines and man-portable air defence systems (MANPADS).
The accuracy of the information in NATO's VERITY XXI database was verified twice throughout the year. This system was open to all 30 States Parties to the Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty, and retained copies of data exchanges, notifications and inspection reports for the CFE Treaty as well as the 1999 Vienna Document. Moreover, the NATO School in Oberammergau, Germany, conducted eleven courses on arms control, disarmament, proliferation and confidence- and security-building measures.87

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)

The primary task of the OSCE in the area of regional security remained the implementation of confidence- and security-building measures. However, the organization was increasingly engaged in addressing new threats and security-related concerns such as the illicit trafficking, uncontrolled proliferation and surpluses of SALW, in addition to those posed by WMD.
In November 2006, the OSCE Forum for Security Cooperation (FSC)88 held a Workshop in Vienna on the Implementation of UNSCR 1540. Participating States agreed to provide, as appropriate, additional information to the 1540 Committee on national implementation, including OSCE Partners for Co-operation outside the region,89 with the goal of furthering United Nations efforts by promoting lessons learned, sharing experiences and facilitating the identification of assistance needs. For further discussion, see page 4 of this volume.
Furthermore, the OSCE continued to contribute to the implementation of the PoA as well as maintain its efforts to eliminate or reduce threats posed by the trafficking of SALW and surplus conventional ammunition. It initiated a discussion on possible activities aimed to counter illicit transfers by private cargo companies, which form a major part of the illegal transportation of SALW. To this end, FSC decided to hold a special meeting to explore initiatives that could be significant in combating illicit SALW trafficking by air, such as the development of a best practice guide and an information exchange on national legislation, including regulations regarding import and export controls that relate to the air transport sector.
Bearing in mind the risks posed by proliferation of MANPADS, the OSCE adopted Annex C to the Best Practice Guide on National Procedures for Stockpile Management and Security of the OSCE Handbook of Best Practices on SALW. This document was presented at the PoA Review Conference.90 The FSC also adopted Best Practice Guides on Stockpiles of Conventional Ammunition.91 For further discussion, see chapter III.
According to the 2006 reports of OSCE Participating States on the implementation of the PoA, the total amount of SALW destroyed in the period 2001 to 2005 amounted to 5,292,209 weapons, of which 4,241,611 were deemed surplus, and 1,050,598 were seized from illegal trafficking. Moreover, 32 participating States updated the required information on their national small arms marking system, control procedures, exports and imports, relevant legislation, stockpile management and security procedures, as well as techniques and procedures for the destruction of small arms. To further the implementation of OSCE Documents on SALW and Stockpiles of Conventional Ammunition (SCA), the OSCE's Conflict Prevention Centre co-organized one regional and three national workshops for the countries of Central Asia, the Caucasus and South-East Europe.

Stability Pact

In 2006, the activities of the Stability Pact92 in the field of disarmament were primarily conducted through two of its initiatives in South-Eastern Europe: The Regional Arms Control Verification and Implementation Assistance Center; and South-Eastern and Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons.
Regional Arms Control Verification and Implementation Assistance Centre (RACVIAC)
Throughout 2006, RACVIAC93 continued working to contribute to stability in the region by offering a regional platform for politico-military seminars, providing trainings for arms control verification inspectors and facilitating regional cooperation by addressing the social and economic consequences of security sector reform. RACVIAC carried out a total of 27 seminars, courses and workshops with 652 participants and 117 lecturers.
RACVIAC also organized, in cooperation with OPCW, one course on the implementation of the CWC, and one seminar on export controls over dual-use goods in cooperation with the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). It continued facilitating and assisting the countries in South-Eastern Europe to fulfil their arms control implementation commitments and supported them in preparing for accession to other arms control agreements.
Furthermore, RACVIAC organized activities of three working groups on key aspects of defence conversion: resettlement of military personnel, conversion of former military bases and restructuring of defence industries. RACVIAC's efforts were focused on helping relevant institutions in South- Eastern Europe to develop national strategies corresponding to their needs; to stimulate international and regional cooperation, project development and inter-institutional cooperation; and to offer assistance on project implementation.94
South Eastern and Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SEESAC)
SEESAC95 continued to assist Governments in the region to build capacity in the area of SALW control. In this regard, the Stability Pact Regional Implementation Plan to combat the proliferation of SALW was revised in May. It aimed to guide the development of a comprehensive and coherent approach towards harmonization with EU security policies in the field of SALW, thus preparing the countries of South-East Europe for EU membership, while also expanding the technical mandate of SEESAC.
The regional activities of SEESAC included outreach to Governments and civil society on small arms issues, formulating national strategies for SALW control, providing technical support to programmes, developing standards and guidelines and incorporating SALW issues into UNDP development planning.
At the national level, SEESAC made major contributions to the development and implementation of UNDP-SALW control projects in line with technical methodologies developed by SEESAC with a wide range of partners. These methodologies required continual revision and updating as SALW control projects matured and lessons learned were fed back into the development process.
In addition, the mandate of SEESAC broadened during 2006 to include the provision of technical advice on the development of heavy weapon demilitarization projects, on a case-by-case basis and within current resources, as part of the Stability Pact Defense Conversion initiative.96

General Assembly, 2006

Nuclear-weapon-free zones

61/56
Establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region of the Middle East. Egypt introduced the draft resolution on 19 October. It also called for universality of the NPT and wished for intensified efforts to ensure that the six-party talks regarding the Korean Peninsula resulted in the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone there. The draft was adopted without a vote by the First Committee on 23 October, and on 6 December by the General Assembly. For the text of the resolution, see page 5.
The resolution called upon all countries of the region that have not done so, pending the establishment of the zone, to agree to place all their nuclear activities under IAEA safeguards. It also requested the Secretary-General to continue to pursue consultations with the States of the region and other concerned States, and to seek their views on the measures outlined in the study annexed to his report of 10 October 199097 or other relevant measures, in order to move towards the establishment of an NWFZ, and to submit to the General Assembly's sixty-second session a report on the implementation of the present resolution.
First Committee
Before joining the consensus, Iran felt that due to Israel's non-adherence to the NPT and its refusal to place its unsafeguarded clandestine nuclear facilities under the IAEA verification system, an NWFZ would not be achieved in the region.
After action was taken, Israel recalled that its very existence was constantly under threat, which was exacerbated by the irresponsible behaviour of certain States that export WMD and related technology, and noted the discrepancy between their stated commitments and actual behaviour.
61/69
Nuclear-weapon-free southern hemisphere and adjacent areas. The draft resolution was introduced by Brazil, on behalf of the sponsors (see p. 6 for sponsors), on 10 October. It was adopted by the First Committee on 26 October as follows: as a whole (168-3-7), op. para. 5 - "and South Asia" (160-2-11), op. para. 5 (161-1-9) and on 6 December by the General Assembly as a whole (167-3-9), op. para. 5 - "and South Asia" (162-2-9), op. para. 5 (164-1-9). For the text of the resolution and voting pattern, see pages 7 and 8.
The resolution called upon all concerned States to work together to facilitate adherence to the protocols to NWFZ treaties by all relevant States that have not yet adhered to them; and affirmed its conviction of the important role the zones play in strengthening the nuclear non-proliferation regime. It welcomed the signing of the Treaty on an NWFZ in Central Asia, in Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, on 8 September 2006; and encouraged the competent authorities of the NWFZ treaties to provide assistance to the States parties and signatories to those treaties to facilitate the accomplishment of the goals.
First Committee
Explaining its abstention after the vote, Spain continued to believe that paragraph 8 introduced the qualitatively different new concept of an international conference, which meant moving away from existing consensus on NWFZs. As there was no mention in the Disarmament Commission's 1999 report,98 which established the foundation of NWFZs, Spain saw no political or legal elements to justify holding such a conference. After voting against the resolution, the United Kingdom spoke on behalf of itself, France and the United States. These countries continued to question whether the goal of the resolution was, in fact, to establish an NWFZ that covered the high seas. The resolution remained, therefore, ambiguous and not sufficiently clarified. India reiterated its abstention as a whole on the basis that the call for the establishment of an NWFZ in South Asia did not reflect the principle that NWFZs must be established on the basis of arrangements freely arrived at among States of the region concerned, which was also why it voted against the last three words in paragraph 5, "and South Asia", along with that paragraph as a whole. Pakistan abstained from voting as a whole, as well as on paragraph 5, for it continued to hold the view that the resolution failed to acknowledge the reality on the ground. Citing the nuclear explosions of 1998 in South Asia, it viewed the objective of establishing an NWFZ there as already defeated and voted against the last three words in paragraph 5.
61/87
Mongolia's international security and nuclear-weapon-free status. The draft resolution was introduced by Mongolia on 20 October. It was adopted without a vote by the First Committee on 26 October, and on 6 December by the General Assembly. For the text of the resolution, see page 9.
The resolution invited Member States to continue to cooperate in taking the necessary measures to consolidate and strengthen Mongolia's independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity, the inviolability of its borders, its independent foreign policy, its economic security and its ecological balance, as well as its nuclear-weapon-free status; and requested the Secretary-General and relevant United Nations bodies to continue to provide assistance, and to report to the General Assembly at its sixty-third session on implementation.
First Committee
After joining consensus, India fully respected the choice made by Mongolia and was willing to respond, whenever required, with every possible support and commitment to Mongolia's nuclear-weapon-free status.
61/88
Establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in Central Asia. The draft resolution was introduced on 20 October by Uzbekistan, on behalf of the five Central Asian States. Those States regarded the nuclear-weapon-free zone in Central Asia as an important contribution to strengthen the international nuclear non-proliferation regime and to establish machinery to prevent nuclear terrorism. It was adopted by the First Committee on 30 October (128-3-36), and on 6 December by the General Assembly (141-3-37). For the text of the resolution and voting pattern, see pages 10 and 11.
The resolution welcomed the signing of the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia in Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, on 8 September 2006; and noted the readiness of the Central Asian countries to continue consultations with the nuclear-weapon States on provisions of the Treaty.
First Committee
Before the vote, five States explained their support of the resolution. Mexico, as a founding member of the first NWFZ, felt that such zones represented not an end, but a means to attain the objective of general and complete disarmament, particularly nuclear disarmament. Chile thought that every State had the sovereign right to negotiate peace and security in its own region, and that the establishment of an NWFZ reflected the freedom of any independent State to determine the best living conditions for its population. Dominican Republic considered the CANWFZ a resolute and important step towards complete nuclear disarmament. Venezuela believed that the initiative would contribute to the elimination of nuclear weapons and their proliferation, and underlined the need for nuclear-weapon States to guarantee NWFZs against the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons. Cuba considered the zone as an effective contribution to the strengthening of regional and international peace and security.
The six States that explained their support after the vote lauded the resolution's effort to strengthen peace, security and stability in the region; and its contribution to nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. Japan, on behalf of a number of countries,99 pointed out that the region would not only be the first NWFZ in the northern hemisphere but would also encompass an area in which nuclear weapons previously existed. China and Brazil respected the efforts of the States in the region to establish the zone based on consultations and agreement freely reached by the States concerned. Egypt hoped that there would be an NWFZ in the Middle East to preserve the NPT and achieve lasting and comprehensive peace in that region. Indonesia reaffirmed that it was up to the States concerned to decide on the terms governing the zone, and that the nuclear-weapon States might choose whether or not to offer further assurances contained in the protocols to the NWFZ treaty. Russia recognized the significance of the Treaty in terms of averting the threat of a nuclear weapon falling into the hands of international terrorists and offered to help in ensuring the practical implementation of the Treaty.
After the vote, six of the States that abstained explained their positions. Netherlands and Spain considered that an NWFZ would not be formally established until consultations with the five nuclear-weapon States were finalized, and called for further consultations in accordance with the 1999 Disarmament Commission guidelines.100 Canada believed that more work was needed before the NWFZ could be fully realized. Article 12 of the Treaty raised concerns over the impact of pre-existing security arrangements on the Treaty and its core purpose. Italy recalled article VII of the NPT which stated that nothing in that Treaty affected the right of any group of States to conclude regional treaties in order to assure the total absence of nuclear weapons in their respective territories; and encouraged the five States parties to continue consultations on the Treaty and on article 1 of its protocol. Australia was aware that some countries had significant reservations over the final text and believed it would have been imprudent to support the resolution without more fully studying all aspects of the agreement. Germany expressed disappointment that the sponsors had not considered suggestions to bridge the differences between the parties concerned, which might have led to an internationally recognized NWFZ.
The United Kingdom, speaking on behalf of France, the United States and itself, explained their vote against the resolution, stating that their primary reservation remained with article 12, which indicated that existing treaty obligations of the States parties would not be affected by the new Treaty. In their view, a satisfactory rationale for that article was never given. If provisions of the new Treaty did not take precedence over pre-existing obligations it would have little meaning. They were also concerned over the inadequacy of consultations in developing the Treaty and would have preferred to resolve substantive questions and issues before it was signed by the five Central Asian States.

Conventional disarmament at regional levels

61/80
Regional disarmament. The draft resolution was introduced by Pakistan, on behalf of the sponsors (see p. 13 for sponsors), on 17 October. It was adopted without a vote by the First Committee on 25 October, and on 6 December by the General Assembly. For the text of the resolution, see page 14.
The resolution called upon States to conclude agreements, wherever possible, for nuclear non-proliferation, disarmament and confidence-building measures at the regional and subregional levels; and welcomed the initiatives towards disarmament, nuclear non-proliferation and security that had already been undertaken at those levels. It also supported and encouraged efforts aimed at promoting confidence-building measures, easing regional tensions and furthering disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation at the regional and subregional levels.
61/81
Confidence-building measures in the regional and subregional context. The draft resolution was introduced by Pakistan, on behalf of the sponsors (see p. 15 for sponsors), on 20 October. It was adopted without a vote by the First Committee on 25 October, and on 6 December by the General Assembly. For the text of the resolution, see page 16.
The resolution called upon Member States to refrain from the use or threat of use of force in accordance with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and to pursue confidence- and security-building measures through sustained consultations and dialogue. It also urged States to comply with all bilateral, regional and international agreements, including arms control and disarmament agreements, to which they are party; and encouraged the promotion of bilateral and regional confidence-building measures.
61/82
Conventional arms control at the regional and subregional levels. The draft resolution was introduced by Pakistan, on behalf of the sponsors (see p. 16 for sponsors), on 20 October. It was adopted by the First Committee on 25 October (165-1-1), and on 6 December by the General Assembly (177-1-1). For the text of the resolution and voting pattern, see pages 17 and 18.
The resolution decided to give urgent consideration to the issues involved in conventional arms control at the regional and subregional levels and requested the Secretary-General to seek the views of Member States on the subject and to submit a report to it at its sixty-second session.
First Committee
After voting against the resolution, India explained its persistent belief that the Conference on Disarmament was already mandated to negotiate global disarmament instruments, negating further need to formulate principles on the same subject. Moreover, as India believed that security concerns of States extended beyond defined regions, the idea of preserving a balance in defence capabilities in the regional or subregional context was unrealistic and unacceptable.
61/96
Regional confidence-building measures: activities of the United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa. The draft resolution was introduced by Rwanda, on behalf of the sponsors (see p. 19 for sponsors), on 20 October. It was adopted without a vote by the First Committee on 25 October, and on 6 December by the General Assembly. For the text of the resolution, see page 20.
Among other things, the resolution reaffirmed its support for efforts aimed at promoting confidence-building measures at the regional and subregional levels in order to ease tensions and conflicts in Central Africa and to further sustainable peace, stability and development in the subregion; and encouraged the States members of the Economic Community of Central African States to pursue their efforts to promote peace and security in their subregion. The resolution also requested the Secretary-General to continue to provide States members of the Advisory Committee with assistance to carry on their efforts.
First Committee
Before joining consensus, Cameroon stated that confidence-building measures could contribute to regional, and international, peace and stability. It welcomed the Committee's work in promoting these measures that, by adopting a non-aggression pact and establishing the Council for Peace and Security in Central Africa, had laid the groundwork for a regional security system.
61/101
Strengthening of security and cooperation in the Mediterranean region. On 20 October, the draft resolution was again introduced by Algeria, on behalf of the sponsors (see p. 21 for sponsors). A new preambular paragraph was included to highlight the first Euro-Mediterranean Summit, which took place on 27 and 28 November 2005, where the Euro-Mediterranean Code of Conduct on Countering Terrorism was adopted - an additional milestone in the activity of the international community to establish a comprehensive unified multilateral cooperative framework to fight this transnational scourge. It was adopted without a vote by the First Committee on 25 October, and on 6 December by the General Assembly. For the text of the resolution, see page 22.
The resolution reaffirmed that security in the Mediterranean was closely linked to that of Europe, as well as to international peace and security; and called upon all States of the Mediterranean region that have not yet done so to adhere to all the multilaterally negotiated legal instruments related to the field of disarmament and non-proliferation. It encouraged all States of the region to strengthen confidence-building measures by promoting openness and transparency on all military matters, by participating, inter alia, in the United Nations system for the standardized reporting of military expenditures and by providing accurate data and information to the UN Register of Conventional Arms.
First Committee
Before joining consensus, Finland on behalf of the EU, reiterated the importance of transforming the Mediterranean into a sea of peace, security, stability, cooperation and development. It welcomed the Euro-African Ministerial Conference on Migration and Development held in Rabat, in July, as an opportunity to strengthen regional cooperation on migration and development, and reaffirmed the need, through political dialogue and judicial and police cooperation, to combat human trafficking.

Conclusion

Efforts to address disarmament and non-proliferation challenges continued to be pursued by regional and other intergovernmental organizations and the United Nations. This cooperation continued to receive political support by both the General Assembly and the Security Council through the adoption of a variety of resolutions on regional approaches to arms controls, and presidential statements supporting further joint efforts to promote international peace and security. Reports of the Secretary-General on the issue of cooperation with regional organizations highlighted the importance of collaboration to address proliferation concerns.
The finalization of the CANWFZ Treaty was a significant contribution not only to peace and security in the Asian region but also towards a nuclear-weapon-free world. However, the negative votes on the General Assembly resolution welcoming the signing of the Treaty and the reasons given for those positions were an indication that the C-5 States parties needed to continue their efforts towards universal recognition of the zone.101 This underlined the importance of the General Assembly's noting the readiness of the Central Asian countries to continue consultations with the NWS.102
In terms of national implementation, awareness-raising and assistance, regional and subregional initiatives to address the illicit trafficking of SALW remained a key component in effectively implementing the PoA. The crucial role of these initiatives was highlighted in the build-up to and during the PoA Review Conference. Efforts to combat the spread of SALW continue to be as multi-faceted as the issue itself, and the United Nations pursued them in the context of conflict resolution and prevention, peacebuilding and post-conflict measures, as well as the struggle against organized crime, drug and human trafficking.

1See the report of the Secretary-General entitled "A regional-global security partnership: challenges and opportunities", 28 July 2006, A/61/204. This and all subsequent United Nations documents are available at http://ods.un.org.
2 Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
3The following regional and other intergovernmental organizations attended the meeting: Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN); African Union (AU); Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Secretariat; Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS); Council of Europe; Commonwealth Secretariat; Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP); Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO); Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS); Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS); European Union (represented by the European Commission, the Council and the Presidency of the Council of the EU); Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD); International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol); League of Arab States (LAS); North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO); Organization of American States (OAS); Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC); Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF); Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW); Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE); Pacific Islands Forum (PIF); Southern Africa Development Community (SADC); and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO).
4See the report of the Secretary-General on cooperation between the United Nations and regional and other organizations, 16 August 2006, A/61/256.
5 S/RES/1540 (2004).
6 See chapter I, annex I on p. lix.
7See the report of the Secretary-General entitled "A regional-global security partnership: challenges and opportunities", 28 July 2006, A/61/204.
8See S/RES/1631 (2005), adopted by the Security Council at its 5282nd meeting, on 17 October 2005.
9See S/2006/719, Letter dated 6 September 2006 from the Permanent Representative of Greece to the United Nations, addressed to the Secretary-General.
10 See S/PV.5529.
11 See the statement by the President of the Security Council of 20 September 2006, S/PRST/2006/39.
12 See appendix II on p. cccxix for Treaty.
13See the statement by the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Republic of Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Republic of Uzbekistan, 8 September 2006, A/61/344.
14Available at http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2006/sgsm10622.doc.htm.
15The CPPNM requires that States parties make specific arrangements and meet defined standards of physical protection for international shipments of nuclear material for peaceful purposes. See http://www-ns.iaea.org/security/default.htm.
16The IAEA recommendations for the physical protection of nuclear facilities and nuclear material are contained in INFCIRC/225/Rev4 (corrected). See http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Documents/Infcircs/1999/infcirc225r4c/rev.4_content.html.
17Support for the finalization of the Treaty was provided by DDA, through its Regional Centre for Peace and Development in Asia and the Pacific (RCPD). For background information, see http://disarmament.un.org/rcpd/centasia.htm.
18See http://www.recsasec.org/kenya.htm (accessed 5 July 2007).
19See http://www.ecowas.int (accessed 5 June 2007).
20PCASED was established in 1999 to control the proliferation of small arms in West Africa. It led to the creation of National Small Arms Commissions in 12 of the 15 ECOWAS countries.
21Other partners include EU, Finland, France, Japan and Sweden.
22For more information on ECOSAP, see http://content.undp.org/go/newsroom/june-2006/undp-ecowas-small-arms.en.
23The Member States of SADC are Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, Swaziland, South Africa, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
24Treaty available at http://www.sadc.int (accessed 5 July 2007).
25 See chapter III, p. cxlvi of this volume, see also the UN Register on Conventional Arms Transfer, http://disarmament.un.org/cab/register.html.
26 See the annex to the letter dated 8 January 2001 from the Presidents of Mali and Togo to the United Nations, A/CONF.192/PC/23.
27See "United Nations Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Africa", 11 January 2006, A/RES/60/86.
28The meetings were held under the chairmanship of Mr. Chuka Udedibia of Nigeria.
29The participating States were Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Djibouti, Gabon, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa and Togo.
30See http://www.unrec-satcra.org.
31Declaration available at http://www.oas.org (accessed 2 July 2007).
32Declaration available at http://www.europa-eu-un.org/articles/de/article_5957_de.htm (accessed 5 June 2007).
33The Agency was established in 1967 by the Treaty that bears the same name, also known as the Treaty of Tlatelolco.
34CG/E/606 Rev. the report of the Secretary General is available at www.opanal.org/Docs/cg/doc/CGE18_606Rev.pdf (accessed 4 June 2007).
35CG/E/Res.492, available at http://www.opanal.org/index-i.html (Spanish only).
36Resolution CG/E/Res.463 (E-XVII) encouraged (on a one-time basis) those countries furthest in arrears of their contributions to the Agency to bring their payments up to date through discount incentives. See CG/585, "Report of the Secretary General", 20 October 2005, para. 50, available at http://www.opanal.org/Docs/cg/doc/CG19_585i.pdf (accessed 21 June 2007).
37See article X of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), available at http://disarmament.un.org/TreatyStatus.nsf.
38 See annex V of chapter III for the Declaration.
39 See the annex to the letter dated 25 May 2006 from the Permanent Representative of Guatemala to the United Nations, A/60/876.
40 See http://www.salsa-system.org (accessed 5 June 2007).
41 Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezeula.
42See "Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime", 8 June 2001, A/RES/55/255.
43For text of the resolution, see chapter I, annex II on p. 30.
44 See http://disarmament.un.org/rcpd/2006.htm.
45 Ibid.
46The ARF is the principal forum for security dialogue in Asia. It draws together 23 countries which have a bearing on the security of the Asia Pacific region.
47The Meeting was chaired by Dato' Seri Syed Hamid Albar, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Malaysia.
48See http://www.aseansec.org/ARF (accessed 5 June 2007).
49See http://www.aseansec.org/18561.htm (accessed 9 July 2007).
50Treaty available at http://disarmament.un.org/TreatyStatus.nsf.
51The Protocol to the SEANWFZ Treaty is open to signature by China, France, Russian Federation, United Kingdom and United States. Parties to the Protocol undertake not to contribute to any act which would violate the Treaty, and not to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against any State Party to the Treaty. Due to reservations regarding the area of the application of the Treaty, and the binding nature of the negative security assurances, none of the five NWS have signed the Protocol.
52The SCO is an intergovernmental international organization founded in Shanghai in 2001 by: China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
53See http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-06/15/content_4703117.htm (accessed 3 July 2007).
54See http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-06/15/content_4703142.htm (accessed 3 July 2007).
55For more information, see http://english.scosummit2006.org (accessed 5 June 2007).
56See the report of the Secretary-General on Mongolia's international security and nuclear-weapon-free status, 19 July 2006, A/61/164.
57The working group comprised representatives from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs, Ministry of Fuel and Energy, Ministry of Nature and Environment, Ministry of Defense, Nuclear Energy Commission, State Specialized Inspection Agency, National Emergency Management Agency, General Intelligence Authority, Customs General Authority and Blue Banner, a non-governmental organization (NGO).
58See the letter from the Permanent Representative of Malaysia to the Secretary-General of the Conference on Disarmament, 28 June 2006, CD/1788.
59GC(50)/RES/16, available at www.iaea.org (accessed 1 June 2007).
60See "Establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region of the Middle East", 6 December 2006, A/RES/61/56.
61See the report of the Secretary-General on the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region of the Middle East, 13 July 2006, A/61/140.
62 The members of the Arab League are: Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.
63 Resolutions 6623 and 6685 were adopted.
64See http://www.mena-small-arms.org/MENAResources.html (accessed 10 July 2007).
65See http://www.osce.org (accessed 5 June 2007).
66See http://www.nato.int (accessed 5 June 2007).
67See http://www.nato.int/issues/eapc/index.html (accessed 5 June 2007).
68See http://www.stabilitypact.org (accessed 5 June 2007).
69See http://www.seesac.org (accessed 5 June 2007).
70See http://www.racviac.org (accessed 5 June 2007).
71See http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/78367.pdf (accessed 9 July 2007).
72See http://register.consilium.europa.eu/pdf/en/03/st15/st15708.en03.pdf (accessed 11 July 2007).
73See http://register.consilium.europa.eu/pdf/en/06/st05/st05319.en06.pdf (accessed 11 July 2007).
74For text of the resolution, see chapter I, annex I on p. lix.
75See DDA Occasional Papers, nos. 11 and 12, available online at http://disarmament2.un.org/OccassionalPapers.html.
76See "Rome Workshop on Chemical Weapons Ban in the Middle East opens", OPCW Press Release, 26 October 2006, http://www.opcw.org/pressreleases/2006/PR72_2006.html (accessed 5 June 2007).
77See http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/cfsp/fin/actions/ap_russia_shchuchye0205.htm (accessed 5 June 2007).
78See http://ec.europa.eu/trade/issues/sectoral/industry/dualuse/index_en.htm (accessed 5 July 2007).
79Official Journal of the European Union, C 250 Vol. 49, p. 1.
80See http://register.consilium.europa.eu/pdf/en/06/st05/st05319.en06.pdf (accessed 5 June 2007).
81See http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/mine/docs/strategy_0507_en.pdf (accessed 5 June 2007).
82The HLTF was established in 1986 and meets about six times a year to develop policy and coordinate the Alliance's participation in conventional arms control negotiations.
83The VCC was chartered in 1990 to coordinate verification activities of Alliance members focusing on implementation of the Vienna Document of 1999 on the Negotiations on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures and the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe.
84The EAPC's Ad Hoc Working Group on SALW and Mine Action was established in 1999 to provide a forum for addressing the impact of the proliferation of SALW on Alliance joint peacekeeping operations.
85See http://www.nato.int/pfp/trust-fund.htm (accessed on 5 June 2007).
86Convention available at http://untreaty.un.org.
87 Op. cit., footnote 66.
88The FSC was established in 1992 and receives its mandate from the Helsinki Document 1992. It meets weekly in Vienna to discuss and make decisions regarding military aspects of security in the OSCE area, in particular confidence- and security-building measures. See http://www.osce.org/fsc.
89Afghanistan, Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Mongolia, Morocco, Republic of Korea, Thailand and Tunisia.
90A/CONF.192/15, available at http://disarmament.un.org/cab/poa.html.
91FSC decision 9/06, available at http://www.osce.org/documents/fsc/2006/11/22310_en.pdf (accessed 3 July 2007).
92On 10 June 1999, at the EU's initiative, the Stability Pact for South- Eastern Europe was adopted in Cologne. In the founding document, more than 40 partner countries and organizations undertook to strengthen the countries of South-Eastern Europe "in their efforts to foster peace, democracy, respect for human rights and economic prosperity in order to achieve stability in the whole region". Euro-Atlantic integration was promised to all the countries in the region. At a summit meeting in Sarajevo on 30 July 1999, the Pact was reaffirmed.
93RACVIAC is a multinational centre which was created in 2000 with its twofold aim: to be a forum for regional dialogue and cooperation on arms control and confidence- and security-building measures and to provide assistance in all matters of arms control and its implementation. It is comprised of: Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Germany, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, Sweden, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey and United Kingdom.
94Op. cit., footnote 70.
95SEESAC has a mandate from UNDP and SCSP to further support all international and national stakeholders by strengthening national and regional capacities to control and reduce the proliferation and misuse of SALW, and thus contribute to enhanced stability, security and development in South-Eastern and Eastern Europe.
96 Op. cit., footnote 69.
97See the Secretary-General's report on the study for the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East, 10 October 1990, A/45/435.
98See the report of the Disarmament Commission, annex I, entitled "Establishment of nuclear-weapon-free zones on the basis of arrangements freely arrived at among the States of the region concerned", 1990, A/54/42.
99Austria, Ireland, Liechtenstein, Malta, New Zealand, Sweden and Switzerland.
100 Op. cit., footnote 98.
101Voting against were the three permanent Security Council members. Among the large number of abstentions were the Western European and Other Group.
102See A/RES/61/88, op. para. 2, p. cccxix.