C H A P T E R II
Biological and chemical weapons
Developments and trends, 2006
The Sixth Review Conference of the Biological Weapons Convention
(BWC) was held from 20 November to 8 December, subsequent to the Preparatory Committee held in April. The Review Conference succeeded in comprehensively reviewing the Convention, adopting a final document by consensus. It also decided on specific and concrete measures to strengthen the implementation of the Convention. The States parties adopted a detailed plan for promoting universal adherence, and decided to update and streamline the procedures for submission and distribution of the Confidence-Building Measures (CBMs). They also adopted a comprehensive intersessional programme spanning from 2007 to 2010. In a significant development, the Conference agreed to establish an Implementation Support Unit (ISU) to assist States parties in implementing the Convention.
Turning to chemical weapons, progress was made in implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and in activities of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). As of end 2006, an aggregate amount of approximately 17,000 metric tonnes of chemical agents had been verifiably destroyed.1
Six additional States joined the CWC in 2006, bringing the total number to 181 States parties, covering 98 per cent of the world's population. Only six signatory States remain to ratify and eight non-signatory States to accede to the Convention. The Eleventh Session of the Conference of States Parties to the CWC held from 5 to 8 December approved requests for extension of the final date for the destruction of the declared chemical weapons stockpiles from 29 April 2007 to 2012.
The United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) maintained its ongoing monitoring and verification system to ensure that Iraq does not reacquire those weapons prohibited by the Security Council.
Meanwhile, the Australia Group continued its efforts to strengthen national export control over dual-use biological and chemical agents and equipment. At its annual plenary in June, the Group agreed upon a number of important measures to deepen the implementation and enforcement of national export control systems. It also agreed to expand information on its website regarding controlled items in order to increase its usefulness as a reference tool for law enforcement officials.
"Over the last four years, [States parties] have created, developed and carried out an innovative work programme, drawing on the knowledge and experience of legal, scientific, security, public health and law enforcement experts from around the world. This programme has made a modest but practical contribution to the implementation of the Convention, and has reduced the risk of biological weapons being developed, acquired or used... This is multilateralism as it should be: flexible, responsive, creative, and dynamic; and above all, focused on overcoming obstacles and delivering results."2
Kofi Annan, United Nations Secretary-General
In accordance with the decision taken by the 2005 Meeting of States parties, the Sixth BWC Review Conference was held in Geneva from 20 November to 8 December. Prior to that, in April, a Preparatory Committee took place in Geneva.
Sixth Review Conference of the BWC Preparatory Committee
To prepare for the Sixth Review Conference, a three-day Preparatory Committee3
was held in Geneva from 26 to 28 April under the Chairmanship of Masood Khan (Pakistan). The Preparatory Committee unanimously elected Doru Costea (Romania) and Knut Langeland (Norway) as Vice-Chairmen. Seventy-eight States parties participated in this meeting.4
Six States that had signed the Convention, but had not yet ratified, participated in the Preparatory Committee without taking part in the decision-making.5
One State, neither Party nor Signatory to the Convention, participated as an observer in accordance with the rules of procedure.6
Two United Nations bodies attended the Committee.7
In accordance with its agenda, the Preparatory Committee discussed a variety of procedural issues for the Sixth Review Conference. The discussions resulted in a number of recommendations, including date and duration, the provisional agenda, the draft rules of procedure, background documentation, publicity, the Final Document, the appointment of a provisional Secretary-General and financial arrangements for the Preparatory Committee and the Review Conference. On 28 April, the Preparatory Committee adopted its Report.8
Sixth Review Conference of the BWC
The Sixth Review Conference was held in Geneva from 20 November to 8 December. One hundred three States parties to the Convention participated in the Conference.9
Ten States that had signed the Convention, but had not yet ratified, participated in the Review Conference without taking part in the decision-making.10
One State, neither Party nor Signatory to the Convention, participated as an observer in accordance with the rules of procedure.11
The United Nations and nine other international bodies attended the Review Conference.12
At its first meeting, the Conference elected by acclamation Masood Khan (Pakistan) as President, as well as 20 Vice-Presidents13
and the Chairmen and Vice-Chairmen of the Committee of the Whole,14
the Drafting Committee15
and the Credentials Committee.16
In accordance with its programme of work,17
on 20 to 21 November, the Conference was addressed by the United Nations Secretary-General and held a general debate in which forty States parties, two Signatory States and six international organizations made statements. Between 21 and 30 November, the Committee of the Whole held eleven meetings during which it reviewed the provisions of the Convention, article by article. It also considered issues identified in its review of the operation, including the question of the future review of the Convention. The Committee of the Whole adopted its report at its eleventh and final meeting on 30 November.18
Following the conclusion of the Committee of the Whole, the President conducted a series of informal consultations, and was assisted in his work by facilitators in the following areas: Solemn Declaration; Articles I-IV and XII; Articles V-VII and XI; Articles VIII-IX; Article X; Implementation Support Unit (ISU); Work of the 2003 to 2005 Meetings; Universalization; National Implementation; Topics for 2007 to 2010 Intersessional Meetings; CBMs; and Cross-Cutting Issues.19
The Drafting Committee held no formal meetings. Instead, the Chairman and Vice-Chairmen decided to assist the President with his informal consultations. The Credentials Committee held three meetings and adopted its report in which it agreed to accept the credentials of all participating States parties.20
In the course of its work, the Conference was able to draw on a number of resources, including background papers prepared by the Secretariat,21
working papers submitted by States parties, statements circulated during the Conference, as well as a series of informal papers prepared by the President, under his own responsibility and initiative, on elements for the draft Final Document. On 8 December, the Conference adopted its Final Document comprising three parts: organization and work of the Conference; a Final Declaration; and Decisions and Recommendations.22
The Final Declaration reaffirmed that the Convention was comprehensive in its scope, unequivocally covering all naturally or artificially created, altered microbial or other biological agents and toxins, as well as their components, regardless of their type, origin or method of production or their affect on humans, animals or plants and in quantities that had no justification for prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes. States parties agreed to ensure that biological agents and toxins relevant to the Convention were protected and safeguarded, including measures to control their access and handling. States parties were also encouraged to take the necessary measures to promote awareness amongst relevant professionals of the need to report activities that could constitute a violation of the Convention or a related national criminal law. All States parties also agreed to deal effectively with compliance issues.
In its Final Declaration,23
the Conference appealed to the States Parties to the 1925 Geneva Protocol to fulfil their obligations assumed under that Protocol and urged all States not yet party, to ratify or accede to it without delay. The Conference recalled that States parties had the legal obligation to facilitate and the right to participate in the exchange of equipment, materials and scientific and technological information for the use of bacteriological (biological) agents and toxins for peaceful purposes, and not to hamper the economic and technological development of States parties. The States parties further noted that Iran had formally presented a proposal to amend article I and the title of the Convention to explicitly include the prohibition of the use of biological weapons. The Conference also reaffirmed that the Convention was of unlimited duration, and expressed satisfaction that no State party had exercised its right to withdraw.
The decisions and recommendations of the Conference included, inter alia:24
(a) An endorsement of the consensus outcome documents from the 2003 to 2005 Meetings of States parties.
(b) The establishment of an ISU, until the Seventh Review Conference, consisting of three full-time staff members, to facilitate the exchange of information under the annual CBMs process and to provide administrative support for the Convention and its meetings, including:
- Providing administrative support to and preparing documentation for meetings;
- Facilitating communication among States parties and, upon request, with international organizations;
- Facilitating, upon request, States parties' contacts with scientific and academic institutions, as well as non-governmental organizations (NGOs);
- Serving as a focal point for submission of information by and to States parties related to the Convention; and
- Supporting, as appropriate, the implementation by the States parties of the decisions and recommendations of the Sixth Review Conference.
(c) The nomination of Masood Khan to chair the 2007 Meeting of Experts and Meeting of States parties, to be held from 20 to 24 August 2007 and from 10 to 14 December 2007, respectively.
(d) The creation of a 2007 to 2010 Intersessional Programme, composed of a series of annual meetings to discuss and promote common understanding and effective action on:
- Ways and means to enhance national implementation, including enforcement of national legislation, strengthening of national institutions and coordination among national law enforcement institutions.
- Regional and subregional cooperation on BWC implementation.
- National, regional and international measures to improve biosafety and biosecurity, including laboratory safety and security of pathogens and toxins.
- Oversight, education, awareness-raising, and adoption and/or development of codes of conduct aimed to prevent misuse in the context of advances in bioscience and biotechnology research with the potential of use for purposes prohibited by the Convention.
- With a view to enhancing international cooperation, assistance and exchange in biological sciences and technology for peaceful purposes, promoting capacity building in the fields of disease surveillance, detection, diagnosis, and containment of infectious diseases: (1) for States parties in need of assistance, identifying requirements and requests for capacity enhancement, and (2) from States parties in a position to do so, and international organizations, opportunities for providing assistance related to these fields.
- Provision of assistance and coordination with relevant organizations upon request by any State party in the case of alleged use of biological or toxin weapons, including improving national capabilities for disease surveillance, detection and diagnosis, as well as public health systems.
(e) Improvements in CBMs, including the development of an electronic format for the existing forms, and a consolidated mechanism for requests for, and offers of, assistance in submitting timely returns of information.
(f) The creation of a Plan of Action to promote universalization through concerted efforts by States parties to persuade States not parties to join the Convention.
In his concluding remarks, the President of the Sixth Review Conference, stating that it was an historic moment for the BWC and for multilateral security and disarmament, underscored that the Conference had unequivocally reaffirmed that the Convention applied to all relevant scientific and technological developments, and effectively prohibited the use
of biological weapons. The President asserted that the need for effective national implementation of the Convention and for measures to promote the development of the peaceful uses of biological agents and toxins had been re-emphasized, and that a specific and detailed plan to promote universal adherence to the BWC had been adopted. He recalled that a full and comprehensive intersessional programme had also been adopted for 2007 to 2010. The President noted that, perhaps most significant of all, there had been the agreement to establish an Implementation Support Unit to assist in implementing the decisions of the Conference.
International efforts towards the complete elimination of chemical weapons (CW) continued throughout the year. During 2006, the OPCW continued to consolidate its programme delivery and make progress towards its mission of achieving a world free of chemical weapons and the threat of their proliferation or use. As of the end of 2006, the Organisation verified the aggregate destruction of approximately 17,000 metric tonnes of declared chemical-warfare agents. One hundred per cent of the declared chemical weapons production facilities in the world had been inactivated. Over 2,700 inspections in seventy-six Member States were completed, and a total of 180 industry inspections achieved. Six additional States25
joined the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) in 2006, bringing the total number to 181 States parties, covering 98 per cent of the world's population.
Eleventh Session of the Conference of States Parties
At the Eleventh Session of the Conference of States Parties26
held in The Hague from 5 to 8 December, Alfonso Dastis (Spain) was elected as the Chairperson. A total of 122 Member States participated. Other participants included, one signatory State,27
three non-signatory States,28
eight international organizations, specialized agencies, and other international bodies,29
and ten NGOs.30
Among other decisions, the Conference, based on the recommendations made by the Executive Council, approved six requests for extensions of the 29 April 2007 date for the destruction of the declared chemical weapons stockpiles. The Convention accords the Conference the authority to grant extensions of the destruction deadline, and stipulates that each State party shall eliminate all declared chemical weapons by no later than 29 April 2012. The Conference's extension decisions specify the following deadlines for complete destruction: India, 28 April 2009;31
the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, 31 December 2010;32
the Russian Federation33
and the United States, 29 April 2012;34
and another State party, 31 December 2008.35
The Conference also granted Albania36
an extension of the intermediate destruction deadlines.
The Conference further adopted the annual report of the OPCW on the implementation of the Convention in 2005 and approved the latter's programme and budget for 2007. The budget totalled an expenditure of EUR 75 million, with a nominal decrease in costs from the 2006 budget, amounting to EUR 75.6 million.
On 27 April, the OPCW held a commemoration ceremony to mark the inaugural observance of the Remembrance Day of all victims of chemical warfare, and various other activities were planned throughout the year to prepare for the 29 April 2007 commemoration of the forthcoming tenth anniversary of the entry into force of the CWC.
Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)37
The mission of the OPCW is to implement the provisions of the CWC to "exclude completely the possibility of the use of chemical weapons". Its mandate covers the elimination of all declared chemical weapons, the prevention of the proliferation of such weapons, assistance to Member States in the event of an attack with chemical weapons, and the promotion of peaceful uses of chemistry.
Universal adherence to the Convention is essential to fulfil the goal of ridding the world of chemical weapons. Under the 2003 Action Plan38
on national implementation, the OPCW sought to achieve universality of the CWC ten years after its entry into force.
States parties are required to implement the provisions of the CWC at the national level. This includes enacting penal legislation with respect to prohibited activities. The OPCW intensively supports States parties in this area in the context of the 2003 Action Plan on national implementation. The Organisation provides assistance to National Authorities of States parties, which are the national focal points for liaison with the OPCW and other States parties, and are key actors in the adoption of domestic implementing measures. Throughout the year, the OPCW organized and participated in legal training courses, workshops, technical-assistance visits, and other events related to the implementation of the Convention. The Organisation also reviewed 64 drafts of legislation submitted by 45 members, and provided proposals on draft legislation to other States parties upon their request.
Implementation support was further provided to States parties in the framework of six regional and subregional meetings for National Authorities, the Eighth Annual Meeting of National Authorities, and eleven specialized workshops on various implementation-related matters, as well as five training courses for personnel of National Authorities.
The Technical Secretariat continued to be active in the area of assistance to Member States in the event of an attack with chemical weapons and in the field of international cooperation for peaceful uses of chemistry. During the year, along with the new edition of the Associate Programme - aimed at facilitating capacity-building and industry-related national implementation of the Convention - the Technical Secretariat organized five courses on the development of analytical skills and nineteen laboratory assistance programmes, and supported 55 research projects. It also organized 59 events involving various States parties which included courses, workshops, capacity-building projects and various other assistance activities on, inter alia, methods to improve national protection and emergency response capacities, as well as the promotion of regional cooperation and networking in this field.
Cooperation between the United Nations and the OPCW was also enhanced through the coordination of activities in a wide range of areas within the framework of the relationship agreement signed in October 2000. The Director-General of the OPCW, Rogelio Pfirter, participated in the Seventh United Nations High-level Meeting with regional and other intergovernmental organizations, and addressed the First Committee and later the General Assembly. On 23 October, the First Committee unanimously adopted a resolution on the implementation of the CWC, which called for universal adherence and stressed the Convention's contribution to the counter-terrorism efforts of the United Nations.39
The OPCW further continued to interact and cooperate with the Committee established pursuant to United Nations Security Council resolution (UNSCR) 1540.40
In particular, the Organisation contributed to regional seminars organized by the United Nations and sponsored by Member States on the implementation of UNSCR 1540, which were held in Beijing, Accra and Lima.
The Executive Council of the OPCW held four regular sessions in March, May, July and November. At the end of the March session, the Council elected Hlengiwe Buhle Mkhize (South Africa) as its new Chairperson for a term of office ending in May 2007. At its forty-fifth session, the Executive Council established an open-ended working group for preparations for the second Review Conference of the Convention, which is scheduled to take place from 7 to 18 April 2008. The Working Group is chaired by Lyn Parker of the United Kingdom.
The United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC or the Commission), established pursuant to UNSCR 1284 (1999), continued the mandate to verify Iraq's compliance with its obligation to destroy its chemical and biological weapons and missiles with a range of more than 150 km. The Commission continued to operate with respect to those parts of its mandate that can be implemented outside of Iraq.
In accordance with the requirement of resolution 1284, every three months in 2006, the Acting Executive Chairman submitted implementation reports and, after consulting the College of Commissioners, briefed the Security Council on a quarterly basis.
On 28 February, the Acting Executive Chairman, Dimitri Perricos, submitted to the Security Council its first quarterly report of 2006, covering the period from 1 December 2005 to 28 February 2006.41
The Commission reported that UNMOVIC experts carried out a review of its information on the items and materials of the former chemical warfare production plant at Muthanna, Iraq as a follow-up measure to address the concerns about the security and safety of the site. During this period, the Commission initiated an internal review and discussions of its substantive records to identify issues that will need to be addressed should those records eventually be transferred to the United Nations archives.
On 30 May, the second quarterly report of 2006 was submitted to the Council, covering the period from 1 March to 31 May.42
At the request of the Government of Iraq, on 30 May, the Commission, in close consultation with the Security Council, transmitted relevant sections of the December 2002 declaration by Iraq's National Monitoring Directorate to the Permanent Representative of Iraq. The material sought was in connection with Iraq's stated intention to join the CWC. As for the redeployment of the assets of the Commission in Iraq, the Canal Compound was emptied and the equipment was either sent to the international (green) zone in Baghdad, or the United Nations Compounds in Kuwait and Cyprus or trans-shipped to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna.
On 21 June, the summary of Iraq's compendium of proscribed weapons programme in the chemical, biological and missile areas was released.43
It provided a broad view of the establishment, evolution and operation of the Commission in Iraq with due regard to proliferation concerns about sensitive information. It covered the history of the proscribed Iraqi programmes in the chemical, biological and missile areas, the links between them, as well as the organizational structure and systems of procurement that supported these programmes. Included were lessons that could be drawn from both the nature of the programmes and the experiences gained in the process of verification by United Nations inspectors.
On 30 August, the Acting Executive Chairman of UNMOVIC submitted the third quarterly report of 2006 to the Security Council, covering the period from 1 June to 31 August.44
On 21 June, the United States Director of National Intelligence declassified key parts of a National Ground Intelligence Centre report on the recovery of approximately 500 chemical munitions that contained degraded mustard or sarin nerve agent. It also indicated that, while agents degrade over time, chemical warfare agents remain hazardous and potentially lethal. Given that quantities of chemical weapons produced by Iraq prior to the 1991 Gulf War were dispersed to many locations throughout the country and the possibility that those unused during the war were buried, lost or mixed with conventional munitions, it is expected that they would not be totally accounted for. Recently, some have been discovered in various locations.
On 22 November, the fourth quarterly report of 2006 was submitted to the Security Council, covering the period from 1 September to 30 November.45
In consultation with the Council, the Commission, as requested by Iraq's Permanent Representative, provided to the mission copies of destruction certificates, the handover protocol and fifty-four documents regarding unresolved disarmament issues. In Baghdad, inspection-related equipment recovered, as a result of the closure of the United Nations Canal Compound, was relocated to the UNMOVIC field office warehouse in Larnaca, Cyprus. The two remaining UNMOVIC national staff, presently co-located with the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) in the international zone, maintained the Commission's equipment in Baghdad.
The College of Commissioners held three sessions in 2006. During its final session in November, presentations were made by UNMOVIC staff on recent imagery of Iraqi sites and on relevant open-source information involving Iraq. Additionally, an introduction to the training manual for inspectors was under preparation. The College also welcomed progress on an edited version of the compendium and on the continuing work on indicators of possible proscribed activities. Given the continuing uncertainty of UNMOVIC's mandate, the College recognized the difficulties faced by the Commission in planning an annual work programme.46
The College noted UNMOVIC's assistance with regard to Iraq's planned accession to the CWC.
Throughout the year, UNMOVIC continued training experts from the roster on technologies used in the areas of missiles and biology, and on the operation of refineries and petrochemical plants.
The Australia Group47
is an informal arrangement which aims to strengthen national export control systems over dual-use biological and chemical agents and equipment. The Group48
has met annually since 1985 to discuss ways in which national export licensing measures can collectively be made more effective to stop the spread of chemical and biological weapons.
The Group held its annual plenary from 12 to 15 June in Paris. The plenary recognized the important role of the Australia Group in forging responses to new and emerging proliferation threats, including those from terrorists. Participants also considered and agreed upon a number of important measures for deepening the implementation and enforcement of national export control systems.
Participants shared information on the development and spread of new technologies that pose a potential proliferation threat of biological and chemical weapons. The plenary agreed to introduce controls on niobium, an increasingly key element in chemical manufacturing equipment suitable for the production of chemical weapons, as well as several biological agents capable of producing biological weapons.
The Group welcomed the renewed mandate of the Committee established by UNSCR 1540, and affirmed its commitment to support the Committee in promoting the robust global implementation of export control systems.
Acknowledging the effectiveness of targeted, regional approaches to outreach, participants agreed on various strategies for the coming year, and exchanged ideas on planned activities to disseminate information. The Participants also agreed to hold a seminar to discuss best-practice measures to control brokering activities and to explore the possibility of "labelling" controlled equipment to help address the challenge of managing trade in second-hand equipment.
The meeting agreed to expand on its website information on controlled items in order to increase its usefulness as a reference tool for enforcement officers. Further agreed upon, were developments to the Australia Group Information System to promote sharing of secure electronic information among Group members.
Discussions on information sharing and enforcement provided practical measures for responding to proliferation behaviour by States and non-State actors. Controlling the transfer of know-how and technical information relevant to the production of chemical and biological weapons without impeding legitimate scientific research was recognized as an important challenge. Participants reiterated their commitment to continue to ensure that non-proliferation export controls did not hinder legitimate trade and technical cooperation in the chemical and biological sectors.
General Assembly, 2006
Measures to uphold the authority of the 1925 Geneva Protocol.
The draft resolution was introduced by Indonesia on behalf of the States members of the United Nations that are members of the Non-Aligned Movement on 12 October. It was adopted by the First Committee on 23 October (163-2-0), and on 6 December by the General Assembly (173-0-4). For the text of the resolution and voting pattern, see pages 1
This biennial resolution called upon those States that continued to maintain reservations to the Geneva Protocol to withdraw them; and requested the Secretary-General to submit to the General Assembly at its sixty-third session a report on the implementation of the present resolution.
Implementation of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction.
The draft resolution was introduced by Poland on 12 October. The orally revised draft was adopted without a vote in the First Committee on 23 October and in the General Assembly on 6 December. For the text of the resolution, see page 3
The resolution urged all States parties to the Convention to meet their obligations under the Convention and to support the OPCW in its implementation activities. Operative paragraph 14 added a new element to the resolution by drawing attention to the tenth anniversary of the Convention's entry into force, on 29 April 2007, which would provide a special occasion to publicly renew commitment to the multilateral treaty system and to the objective and purpose of the Convention.
Before action was taken on the draft, Poland informed the Committee that the Central African Republic was the sixth country to accede to the CWC in 2006, and requested that the text be revised to reflect the change.
Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction.
The draft resolution was introduced by Hungary on 12 October. It was adopted without a vote in the First Committee on 23 October and in the General Assembly on 6 December. For the text of the resolution, see page 4
The resolution welcomed the convening of the Sixth Review Conference in Geneva from 20 November to 8 December 2006, pursuant to the decision reached by the Preparatory Committee of the States Parties to the Convention;49
and requested the Secretary-General to continue to render the necessary assistance to the depositary Governments of the Convention and to provide the services required to implement the decisions and recommendations of the Review Conferences.
Before joining the consensus, Finland, on behalf of the EU, said it would actively work towards a successful outcome of the Review Conference later that year by contributing to a full review of the operation of the Convention, promoting efforts to enhance transparency through an increased exchange of information among States parties and supporting further intersessional work until the Seventh Review Conference, which should be held no later than 2011.
In 2006, multilateral efforts towards the total elimination of biological and chemical weapons continued. Addressing the threat of weapons of mass destruction terrorism remained a priority on the international disarmament agenda.
The Preparatory Committee and the Sixth Review Conference of the BWC took place during the year and achieved a major breakthrough. It comprehensively reviewed the Convention and adopted by consensus a final document with concrete measures to strengthen implementation of the Convention. The Review Conference also reaffirmed that the BWC applied to all relevant scientific and technological developments and effectively prohibited the use of biological weapons. Most importantly, an agreement was reached to establish an ISU to assist in implementing the decisions of the Review Conference.
Further progress was achieved in both the implementation and strengthening of the CWC. By the end of the year, a total of 181 States parties had ratified. In April 2007, the Convention will mark its tenth anniversary. Advances on the implementation of the Convention were made, particularly in connection with the destruction of declared chemical arsenals. The Eleventh Session of the Conference of States Parties to the CWC, held in December, approved requests to extend the final date for destruction of the declared chemical weapons stockpiles from 29 April 2007 to 29 April 2012.
UNMOVIC continued to operate with respect to those parts of its mandate that can be implemented outside of Iraq. In June, it also released a summary of Iraq's compendium of proscribed weapons programmes in the chemical, biological and missile areas.
The Australia Group continued its efforts to strengthen national export control over dual-use biological and chemical agents and equipment, and agreed upon a number of important measures for enhancing the implementation and enforcement of national export control systems during its annual plenary held in June.
Secretary-General's remarks to the Sixth Review Conference of the BWC.
See BWC/CONF.VI/PC/2. This and all subsequent documents of the Preparatory Committee and the Sixth Review Conference are available at http://www.unog.ch/bwc
Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bhutan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Holy See, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Lithuania, Malaysia, Malta, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Venezuela, Viet Nam and Yemen.
Egypt, Madagascar, Myanmar, Nepal, Syrian Arab Republic and United Arab Emirates.
Burundi, Côte d'Ivoire, Egypt, Haiti, Madagascar, Myanmar, Nepal, Syrian Arab Republic, United Arab Emirates, and Tanzania.
DDA, FAO, ICRC, Interpol, LAS, OIE, OPCW, UNIDIR, UNMOVIC and WHO.
Austria, Belarus, Chile, China, Finland, Germany, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Mali, Mexico, Nigeria, Peru, Russian Federation, Slovakia, South Africa, Turkey and Ukraine.
Chairman: Doru Costea (Romania); Vice-Chairmen: Paul Meyer (Canada) and Boometswe Mokgothu (Botswana).
Chairman: Knut Langeland (Norway); Vice-Chairmen: Vladimir Bundin (Russian Federation) and Pedro Luiz Dalcero (Brazil).
Chairman: Philip Richard Owade (Kenya); Vice-Chairman: Jürg Streuli (Switzerland).
Respectively, Paul Meyer (Canada), Doru Costea (Romania), Knut Langeland (Norway), Muhammad Shahrul Ikram Yaakob (Malaysia), Ben Steyn (South Africa), Marcelo Valle Fonrouge (Argentina), Knut Langeland (Norway), Enrique Ochoa (Mexico), Craig Maclachlan (Australia), Jayant Prasad (India), Jean-François Dobelle (France), John Duncan (United Kingdom).
See BWC/CONF.VI/INF.1, BWC/CONF.VI/INF.2, BWC/CONF.VI/INF.3, BWC/CONF.VI/INF.4, BWC/CONF.VI/INF.5 and BWC/CONF.VI/INF.6.
Central African Republic, Comoros, Djibouti, Haiti, Liberia and Montenegro.
See the report of the Eleventh Session of the Conference of the States Parties 5-8 December 2006, 8 December 2006, C-11/05. For this and all subsequent documents related to the Eleventh Session, see http://www.opcw.org, Official documents > Conference of the States Parties > 11th Session (accessed 8 June 2007).
Egypt, Iraq and Lebanon.
CTBT PrepCom, EU, International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), International Organization for Migration (IOM), League of Arab States (LAS), NATO, United Nations Office at Geneva (UNOG), United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC).
Defence College of Management and Technology, Green Cross International (GCI) Legacy Programme, Harvard Sussex Program (HSP), International Federation of University Women (IFUW), Organisation for Defending the Victims of Chemical Weapons (ODVCW), Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affaire, Scientists Working Group on Biological and Chemical Weapons, Society for Chemical Weapons Victims Support (SCWVS), Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) and T.M.C. Asser Instituut.
See "Decision: Request by India for an Extension of the Deadline for Destroying All of Its Category 1 Chemical Weapons", 8 December 2006, C-11/Dec.16.
See "Decision: Proposal by the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya for the Establishment of Specific Dates for Intermediate Destruction Deadlines, and Its Request for an Extension of the Final Deadline for the Destruction of Its Category 1 Chemical Weapons", 8 December 2006, C-11/Dec.15.
See "Decision: Proposal by the Russian Federation on Setting a Specific Date for Completion of the Destruction of Its Stockpiles of Category 1 Chemical Weapons", 8 December 2006, C-11/Dec.18.
See "Decision: Request by the United States of America for Establishment of a Revised Date for the Final Deadline for Destroying All of Its Category 1 Chemical Weapons", 8 December 2006, C-11/Dec.17.
See "Decision: Request by a State Party for an Extension of the Final Deadline for Destroying All of Its Category 1 Chemical Weapons", 8 December 2006, C-11/Dec.12.
See "Decision: Extensions of the Intermediate Deadlines for the Destruction by Albania of Its Category 1 Chemical Weapons", 8 December 2006, C-11/Dec.19.
For more information on OPCW, see http://www.opcw.org.
Adopted at the 23rd Meeting of the Executive Council, on 24 October 2003, the Action Plan was designed: (a) to further encourage, in a systematic and coordinated manner, adherence to the Convention; and (b) to assist States ready to join the Convention in their national preparations for implementing it.
For a description of the General Assembly action on "Promotion of multilateralism in the area of disarmament and non-proliferation", A/RES/61/68, see page xcv
See the Secretary-General's note entitled "United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission", 28 February 2006, S/2006/133. This and all subsequent United Nations documents are available at http://ods.un.org.
Ibid., 30 May, 2006, S/2006/342.
Ibid., 21 June, 2006, S/2006/420.
Ibid., 30 August, 2006, S/2006/701.
Ibid., 22 November, 2006, S/2006/912.
For more information on the Australia Group, see http://australiagroup.net (accessed 8 June 2007).
Participants of the Australia Group include the European Commission and 39 Members States: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom and United States.