CHAPTER VIII

Studies, information and education


Introduction

Studies mandated by General Assembly Resolutions have given a deeper meaning to disarmament-related concepts and have often supported emerging or ongoing disarmament negotiations. With the assistance of governmental experts, appointed by the Secretary-General on the basis of equitable geographical distribution, they reflect a wide range of expertise and political views. Since 1981, thirty-four expert groups have examined topics as diverse as nuclear and conventional weapons, missiles in all its aspects, disarmament and development, the climatic and global effects of nuclear war, the role of the United Nations in the field of verification, and disarmament and non-proliferation education. Some studies have been considered a second and third time. (A list of studies carried out by the Secretary-General and published by the Department of Disarmament Affairs in the blue book series is reproduced in annex I of this chapter.)1

As focal point for disarmament and non-proliferation education (DNP) and pursuant to resolution 59/93 of 3 December 2004, DDA submitted a biennial report to the sixty-first session of the General Assembly on the implementation of the recommendations of the UN study on the topic.2 This chapter contains a selection of the activities carried out in 2005. The Department also continued to administer its largest annual training programme - the United Nations disarmament fellowship, training and advisory services - and awarded fellowships to thirty officials this year. (A detailed discussion of the programme is given in chapter VI.)

The Department carried out its Information Programme in the priority areas of weapons of mass destruction and conventional weapons, particularly small arms and light weapons.3 The Programme published print and electronic versions of The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook, the latter available on its web site, disarmament.un.org, and one issue of its Occasional Paper series. Its web site has grown exponentially in content and has become a parliamentary tool for conference participants and a reference source for UN documents and statements, including web casts.

DDA cooperated with other United Nations offices and disarmament-related organizations in their information and education efforts, particularly with the Department of Public Information (DPI). For its part, DPI highlighted disarmament and arms control issues, especially nuclear weapons and small arms and light weapons (SALW), in print, on the Internet, in film, television and radio, using its large network of worldwide information centres, along with its outreach capacity.

DDA also continued to facilitate participation by civil society organizations in disarmament-related meetings and conferences and collaborated closely with coalitions of NGOs that spearhead a large number of those organizations.

The United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR) maintained its research programme in the areas of global security and disarmament; regional security and disarmament; and human security and disarmament. On 23 November, the occasion of its twenty-fifth anniversary, and as part of its project "Disarmament as humanitarian action: Making multilateral negotiations work", the Institute organized a commemorative debate in which leading experts considered the notion that "human security should be the fundamental basis for multilateral disarmament and arms control negotiations".4 (See the UNIDIR section of this chapter.)

Disarmament Studies

Studies concluded in 2005

Group of Governmental Experts on developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security

By resolution 58/32 of 8 December 2003, the General Assembly requested the Secretary-General to consider existing and potential threats in the sphere of information security and possible cooperative measures to address them with the assistance of a group of governmental experts (GGE), and to report on the study's outcome to the sixtieth session of the General Assembly. The Group, however, concluded its work without agreement on a substantive report. For a discussion of the Group's work, see chapter VI. The composition of the GGE appears in annex II of this chapter.

Studies in progress

Panel of Governmental Experts on verification in all its aspects, including the role of the United Nations in the field of verification

By resolution 59/60 of 3 December 2004 on the above subject, the Secretary-General, with the assistance of a panel of governmental experts to be established in 2006 on the basis of equitable geographic distribution, was requested to explore the question of verification in all its aspects, including the role of the United Nations in that field, and to transmit the panel's report to the General Assembly for consideration at its sixty-first session. The Panel will hold three sessions in 2006 - 30 January to 3 February (New York), 8 to 12 May (Geneva), and 7 to 11 August (New York).

On 20 October, prior to the first session of the Panel, DDA and the Government of Canada hosted a panel discussion on Verifying disarmament and non-proliferation agreements tDDAy, to explore issues outside the normal range of thinking and to begin an informal "scoping exercise" on the subject. (See annex III of this chapter for the list of presentations made.)5

Studies mandated in 2005

Group of Governmental Experts on developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security

By resolution 60/45 of 8 December, the General Assembly requested the Secretary-General with the assistance of a group of governmental experts, to be established in 2009 on the basis of equitable geographical distribution, to continue to study existing and potential threats in the sphere of information security, possible cooperative measures to address them, and relevant international concepts aimed at strengthening the security of global information and telecommunications systems. The GGE will also submit a report on the results of this study to the General Assembly at its sixty-fifth session. The Group would hold one organizational session in Geneva in 2009 and three substantive sessions in New York in 2010. For the resolution and voting, see chapter VI.

Group of Governmental Experts on the illicit brokering in small arms and light weapons

By resolution 60/81 of 8 December, the General Assembly decided to establish a group of governmental experts, appointed by the Secretary-General on the basis of equitable geographical representation, commencing after the review conference in 2006, and no later than 2007, to consider further steps to enhance international cooperation in preventing, combating and eradicating illicit brokering in small arms and light weapons in three sessions of one week's duration each, and to submit its report to the General Assembly at its sixty-second session. The GGE is expected to hold three sessions - from 27 November to 1 December 2006 (Geneva) and 19 to 23 March 2007 and 4 to 8 June 2007 (New York). For the discussion of the resolution and the voting, see chapter IV.

Group of Governmental Experts on the continuing operation of the Register and its further development

By resolution 60/226 of 23 December, the General Assembly requested the Secretary-General, with the assistance of a group of governmental experts to be convened in 2006, within available resources, on the basis of equitable geographical representation, to prepare a report on the continuing operation of the Register and its further development. To that end, the GGE will take into account the work of the Conference on Disarmament, the views expressed by Member States and the reports of the Secretary-General on the continuing operation of the Register and its further development, with a view to taking a decision at its sixty-first session. The Group will hold three sessions in New York, from 27 February to 3 March, 8 to 12 May and 17 to 28 July. For the discussion of the Register of Conventional Arms, the resolution and voting, see chapter IV.

Disarmament and non-proliferation education

By resolution 59/93, the Secretary-General was requested to report on the implementation of the recommendations of the 2002 United Nations study on disarmament and non-proliferation education (DNP).6 This section provides a selection of activities carried out in 2005 and brought to the attention of the Department by governments, UN organizations and agencies and civil society.7 The relevant recommendations made in the UN Study are reproduced in full for ease of reference.

Implementation of the recommendations by Member States

Recommendation 1. Member States are encouraged to accord importance to disarmament and non-proliferation education and training in their programmes and policies, consistent with their national legislation and practices, taking into account present and future trends. They are also encouraged to use, designate or establish public advisory bodies, where appropriate, whose responsibilities include advising on disarmament and non-proliferation education and training practices. Member States are encouraged to share their experience in disarmament and non-proliferation education and training with other Member States, international organizations, civil society and DDA.

Recommendation 13. Member States, in cooperation with the United Nations and relevant international organizations, are encouraged to sponsor training, fellowships, and awareness programmes, on as wide a geographical basis as possible, for researchers, engineers, scientists and other academics in areas of particular relevance, but not limited to treaties and agreements on weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery. They are also encouraged to give special emphasis to training customs, licensing and law enforcement officers for the purpose of fulfilling international obligations of Member States in the disarmament and non-proliferation fields.

Recommendation 28. Member States are encouraged to ensure that their military staff colleges include disarmament and non-proliferation elements in their curricula.

Bangladesh: Lectures on DNP topics at higher military training institutions related to a conceptual understanding of DNP among commanders and senior officers, raising awareness at that level. A wide institutional DNP education has not yet been imparted on a regular basis at lower levels (Recommendations 1, 13, 28).

Bolivia: Courses, workshops and seminars in order to disseminate information on disarmament processes and Bolivia's role in their implementation for various sectors of civil society, including the academic community, educational institutions, researchers and experts, parliamentarians, entrepreneurs, government institutions, NGOs, the media and others (Recommendations 13 and 28).

Recommendation 20. The United Nations, relevant international organizations, Member States, and corporate and private donors are encouraged to provide assistance, including funds, educational material and equipment to NGOs in different regions of the world and to universities to establish or expand their disarmament and non-proliferation libraries with free and open public access to their resources. Member States should be encouraged to fund research institutes that focus on disarmament and non-proliferation and offer scholarships for advanced university students to carry out research on disarmament and non-proliferation and its pedagogy. The United Nations should make greater efforts to tap the financial resources of private enterprises in the fields of information and communications technology.

Canada: Courses by the Canadian Centre for Treaty Compliance on arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation treaties concerned with weapons of mass destruction, and research on how treaty compliance is monitored and verified and the methods for encouraging, facilitating and enforcing compliance (Recommendations 13 and 20.)

Japan: A two-day seminar on disarmament and non-proliferation at the Centre for the Promotion of Disarmament and Non-Proliferation in Japan, in September 2005, to deepen understanding on recent DNP trends, for those considering future work in this field (Recommendation 13.)

Recommendation 14. DDA, in cooperation with UNU and UPEACE, should be encouraged to organize a programme of training for educators and trainers in disarmament and non-proliferation. These programmes may be implemented cooperatively with international organizations such as IAEA, OPCW and the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

Mauritius: A "train the trainers" programme in DNP education (Recommendation 14.)

Recommendation 31. Member States are encouraged to designate a focal point for disarmament and non-proliferation education and training and to inform the Department of Disarmament Affairs on steps taken to implement the recommendations contained in the present report.

New Zealand: Designation of the Disarmament Division of the New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade as focal point for DNP education and training (Recommendation 31.)

First Committee

Recommendation 33. Member States and the Under-Secretary-General for Disarmament Affairs are encouraged to include in their remarks to the First Committee of the General Assembly information on the results of the implementation of the recommendations in this study.

In a first of its kind and with the approval of the First Committee, its Chairman, Ambassador Choi (Republic of Korea) invited two disarmament educators to make presentations to a formal session of the Committee on 21 October 2005: one on a classroom demonstration of the firepower of the current nuclear arsenals;8 the other a detailed curriculum on small arms and human rights created by teachers in training, aimed at high school and early university students. (Recommendations 1 and 33.)

2005 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

A working paper entitled "Consideration of DNP education", presented by Main Committee I" was presented by Egypt, Hungary, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Poland and Sweden.9 (Recommendations 1, 13 and 31.)

Conference of States Parties and Signatories to Treaties that Establish Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones, Mexico City, 26 to 28 April 2005

Participating States parties or signatories to the Treaties of Tlatelolco, Rarotonga, Bangkok and Pelindaba adopted a Declaration of the Conference of Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones, which included a provision on DNP education.10 (Recommendations 1 and 13.)

Implementation of the recommendations by civil society and non-governmental organizations

Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS)

Recommendation 6. DDA should examine, accumulate and make public and easily accessible the different disarmament and non-proliferation curricula and programmes that States have developed for their formal school systems and university courses as well as for informal training.

CNS offers the Certificate in Nonproliferation Studies, awarded by the Graduate School of International Policy Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies - the only one of its kind in the United States of America. (Recommendation 6).

University of Malaga

The university has entered an agreement with OPANAL concerning cooperation on developing disarmament study programmes and information sharing. (Recommendations 1 and 14).

Educators for Social Responsibility, Metropolitan Area (ESR-Metro)

Recommendation 3. The United Nations and other international organizations should translate its disarmament and non-proliferation educational material and publications into all United Nations official languages and, when possible, into other languages for additional dissemination. Upon request by the United Nations or relevant international organizations, Member States, academic and research institutions and NGOs are encouraged to support or assist in translating relevant materials.

Recommendation 4. The United Nations and other international organizations should increase their capacities to disseminate disarmament and non-proliferation education-related materials (print and audio-visual) more widely to all regions of the world. While strengthening existing distribution channels, they should explore new ones, such as cooperation with educational networks, teachers unions and curriculum committees as well as electronic access. Member States, local academic institutions, research centres and NGOs are also encouraged to assist in dissemination efforts. As it is essential to reach the local community level, channels of dissemination such as school libraries, gathering places, radio and television are highly recommended.

Recommendation 22. Regional organizations, academic institutions and NGOs are encouraged to develop and disseminate material online in languages other than English.

ESR-Metro supported youth activism on nuclear issues through its New York-based youth group Students against Nuclear Insanity for Tomorrow's Youth (SANITY).11 (Recommendations 3, 4, 7, 17, 22 and 23).

Peace Boat

Recommendation 10. Municipal leaders, working with citizen groups, are encouraged to establish peace cities, as part of the UNESCO Cities for Peace network, through, for example, the creation of peace museums, peace parks, web sites and the production of booklets on peacemakers and peacemaking.

Recommendation 27. International organizations, regional organi-zations and representatives of civil society, where appropriate, are encouraged to include disarmament education and training in their programmes in post-conflict situations.

In 2005, Peace Boat voyages included a general on-board education programme, partly devoted to disarmament education units, comprising intensive peace and sustainability studies, and on-land education, including landmine abolition and advocacy outreach to primary schools, fund-raising and cooperative visits to Cambodia (recommendations 3, 4, 7, 10, 17, 23 and 27).12

Public Media, Inc./Richter Productions

Produced a film called The Last Atomic Bomb which commemorated the dropping of the bomb on Nagasaki in 1945 and profiled the story of a ten-year old survivor.13 (Recommendations 3,4, 7,10, 17, 23 and 27).

Atomic Mirror report

Hosted two young filmmakers who presented their film Genie in a Bottle at the United Nations during the 2005 NPT Review Conference.14 (Recommendations 3,4,7, 10, 17, 23 and 27).

Implementation of the recommendations by the United Nations and other international organizations

Department of Disarmament Affairs

Recommendation 5. DDA should gather information about the involvement of regional and intergovernmental organizations in disarmament and non-proliferation education, training and data collection activities. The Department should examine ways to foster an exchange of experiences and regional perspectives to facilitate the development of disarmament and non-proliferation education programmes.

Recommendation 17. The United Nations, relevant international organizations, Member States, NGOs and research institutes should develop and strengthen programmes, workshops, fellowships and materials on disarmament and non-proliferation topics for journalists and media representatives in order to enhance their knowledge of these issues. Special attention should be paid to the development of programmes and materials designed for local media in post-conflict situations, as essential partners in the disarmament and non-proliferation education process.

DDA and The Hague Appeal for Peace completed their joint two-year Peace and Disarmament Education Project at the end of January 2005. Its goal was to "disarm the minds" of young people and sustain small arms collection initiatives through peace education in high schools, in four countries on four continents - Albania, Cambodia, Niger and Peru. A book summarizing the main achievements of the four projects and giving guidelines for the replication of such projects was published in June 2005.15 (Recommendations 5, 13 and 17.)

Department for Public Information

Recommendation 18. Disarmament and non-proliferation educational materials developed by the United Nations, such as the Cyberschoolbus web site, should include complementary material on how parents can encourage attitudes of peace and non-violence. Efforts should also be made by educators, parents and the business community to devise and produce toys, computer games and videos that engender such attitudes.

DDA and the Global Teaching and Learning Project Unit of DPI are collaborating on a project to create a disarmament component on the UN Cyberschoolbus web site, which will have a dual portal: a multimedia curriculum for use by educators to engage students in DNP issues from an international perspective, and an entrance platform for students working independently. (Recommendation 18.)

United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR)

Recommendation 27. International organizations, regional organizations and representatives of civil society, where appropriate, are encouraged to include disarmament education and training in their programmes in post-conflict situations.

In support of peacekeeping and peacebuilding, UNIDIR is working on including women in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration processes through better research, training and education to further the objectives of Security Council resolution 1325 (2000) on women and peace and security. (Recommendation 27.)

Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL)

Adoption of resolution CG 479 on Education for Peace, Disarmament and Nuclear Non-Proliferation at the XIX Regular Session, (Santiago, (November 2005), specifically efforts by the OPANAL Secretary-General to disseminate the Treaty of Tlatelolco in the media and academic institutions.16 (Recommendations 13 and 31).

University for Peace

Recommendation 7. UNU and UPEACE are encouraged to develop intensive postgraduate and other courses on disarmament and non-proliferation for representatives of all regions of the world, including government officials, legislators, military officers, NGOs, the media and students, working in cooperation with academic and non-governmental institutions that have expertise in designing and implementing such courses. UPEACE, in coordination with the DDA, may wish to host seminars and workshops as well as to develop model university and school material.

Recommendation 21. Organizations of the United Nations system and other relevant international organizations are encouraged to promote and provide financial support for disarmament and non-proliferation education and training using such techniques as distance learning, the Internet, and videoconferencing as well as cost-efficient and cost-effective media such as CD-ROMs.

Recommendation 23. Educators should consider a full range of pedagogical methods for inclusion in any educational material. In addition to computer-based learning, model United Nations programmes, other role-playing and simulation games, videos, film, dance, song, theatre, puppetry, poetry, photography, origami, visual art and creative writing, to name a few, are all useful methods. Special emphasis should be given to participatory learning approaches that can be applied to a wide variety of disarmament and non-proliferation problems and audiences.

University for Peace developed the Sharing Knowledge for Peace programme, which provides global access to instructors, students and learners in institutions around the world. (Recommendations 13 and 14, 21 and 23).

United Nations Disarmament Information Programme

Pursuant to resolution 59/103, the Secretary-General was requested to report on the United Nations Disarmament Information Programme (UNDIP or the Programme) in 2006.17 The Department submitted a biennial report on the implementation of the activities of the Programme by the United Nations system. The report provided an overview of activities carried out by DDA in the priority areas of weapons of mass destruction and conventional weapons, particularly small arms and light weapons. In addition, it encompassed other areas of UNDIP such as its information resources, including publications programme, web site, exhibits and the activities of the Secretary-General's Messenger of Peace; information activities; cooperation with civil society, especially NGOs and the activities of DPI, which administers the Programme in close collaboration with DDA on information campaigns that support major disarmament-related events and conferences.

Print and e-publications

Following the results of the 2002/2003 survey, in October, DDA launched its first online version of The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook, the 2004 edition, together with the 2002 and 2003 archival editions in English. The e-Yearbook is in html format and features full-text search, index search, navigation mechanisms and is accessible through the DDA web site disarmament.un.org. As an integral part of this effort, the site was enhanced with a user registration facility, which has enabled the Department to create sections with restricted access, such as web sites servicing groups of government experts. Since its launch, the system has registered 301 users. Occasional Paper No. 10, on Verifying Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Agreements TDDAy was issued based on the presentations of four well-known personalities in the field of verification at a panel discussion organized by the Department in October 2005. The publication is issued in English only, disseminated for free and accessed on the Department's web site. The annual Resolutions and Decisions booklet of the Sixtieth Session of the General Assembly was also published and disseminated. (For a list of the Department's publications, see annex IV.)

Having discontinued the Disarmament Update, DDA embarked on an electronic version of that publication in 2005, however, the Department produced only one version that year. A new electronic-only format entitled Disarmament Update: News Links, a one-page e-publication highlighting the Department's recent events and activities, will replace the latter publication and will be launched next year on a quarterly basis.

Web site

The Department's web site receives many daily visitors and provides valuable disarmament and non-proliferation information to a global audience 24 hours/day. The following table provides basic statistical information regarding its traffic volume:
Web site traffic - basic statistical data for 2005

Total
Daily Average

Page view hits

3,299,643
9,040

Visitors (totals)

371,551
1,018

Repeat visitors

30,888
85

Time spent on site (totals)

2 years, 232 days, 10 hours
2 days,
15 hours
Page view hits: number of times any page has been viewed.
Visitors (total): number of persons who visited the site at least once (multiple visits count as one).
Repeat visitors: number of individuals who visited the site more than once during the reporting period.
Time spent on site: total time all visitors spent researching the site (assuming multiple concurrent sessions).

The total user time indicated that, on average, at any given time, there were at least two visitors viewing the site; that the top twenty users spent a combined total of sixty-one days accessing the site; and that the heaviest users came from the government offices dealing with foreign affairs of Australia, Mexico, Russia and the United States. A high volume of traffic also emanated from the academic community and NGOs.

With respect to geographic origin, the highest concentration came from the United States (60 per cent), with 201 other countries, territories and possessions, following. In order of usage, the highest users came from Switzerland, China, Republic of Korea, United Kingdom, France, Canada, Japan, India and Italy.

The most frequently visited areas were the Status of Treaties, Disarmament Resolutions and Decisions and Register of Conventional Arms databases, pages on conventional arms, weapons of mass destruction, status of the Mine Ban Convention, the DDA Library as well as the pages related to the 1540 Committee.

The statistical information showed the sustained global interest in disarmament matters as well as the ability of the web site to provide a wealth of resources to satisfy that interest.

Although challenges related to expanding the multilingual feature of the web site persist, when documentation exists in the six official UN languages, those texts are posted quickly and easily. With respect to the 2005 NPT Review Conference, financing was available and thus DDA maintained the English version of the web sites, while DPI created and maintained web sites in the five other official languages.

DDA panels, NGO symposia, exhibits and special events

DDA continued to work closely with coalition NGOs such as Reaching Critical Will and the International Action Network on Small Arms (IANSA) to facilitate the participation of representatives of civil society organizations at meetings such as the 2005 NPT Review Conference and the second Biennial Meeting of States to Consider the Implementation of the Programme of Action (PoA) on SALW. At both Conferences, the Department cooperated with these umbrella groups, as well as the NGO Committee on Disarmament, to facilitate a number of stimulating panel discussions.

During the 2005 NPT Review Conference, the presence of the hibakusha (survivors of the Hiroshima/Nagasaki bombings) and the events organized by the global organization, Mayors for Peace, lent the gathering a moral presence and wide civil society support for disarmament and non-proliferation. Hidankyo, an organization of hibakusha, displayed two exhibits facilitated by the Department, at the third session of the Preparatory Committee for the Review Conference and the Review Conference. In light of their advanced years and health, these aging survivors were aware that this might be their last opportunity at an NPT Review Conference to bear living witness to the horror of the use of nuclear weapons. Video projections chronicling their stories formed part of the exhibits and hundreds of paper cranes, the popular symbol of peace and human survival after the dropping of the atomic and hydrogen bombs, were folded and distributed to visitors during the month-long period. The Mayors for Peace, an organization of worldwide city leaders headed by the Mayors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, led a delegation to the Review Conference calling for disarmament and an end to proliferation, addressing the plenary and side events and actively participating in three days of activities in support of the NPT.

Department of Public Information

During the year, DPI focused on the promotion and coverage of major conferences in the area of nuclear weapons and the illicit trade in SALW. Overall, its activities included public information campaigns, radio and television broadcasts, web casts and printed material. In the nuclear field, it collaborated closely with DDA on the 2005 NPT Review Conference and its preparatory process and the 2005 Conference on Facilitating the Entry into Force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. In the conventional field, it worked closely with DDA at the second Biennial Meeting of States on the PoA to develop and implement a comprehensive communications strategy, in all official languages, that would comprise a multifaceted web site and, through its worldwide network of information centres, would call attention to the dangers associated with the illicit trade in SALW and raise awareness of the progress made by the United Nations and its Member States in the implementation of the PoA.

In the realm of radio and television the UN in Action series continued to highlight disarmament and demobilization programmes in the context of UN peacekeeping, peacebuilding and reconciliation efforts, such as the 2005 story on SALW, Surviving Rebel Abduction in Uganda.

Secretary-General's Messenger of Peace

On 21 September, Michael Douglas participated in a full day of activities to commemorate the International Day of Peace that included meetings and briefings with senior Secretariat officials and a press conference on aspects of the reform measures adopted by the 2005 World Summit.

Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR)

In a note to the General Assembly, the Secretary-General transmitted the report of the Director of UNIDIR covering its activities for the period August 2004 to July 2005 and the proposed programme of work and estimated budget for 2005 and 2006 for consideration by the Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters, acting as the Board of Trustees of the Institute at its forty-fifth session.18

The Institute's research programme focused on global security and disarmament; regional security and disarmament; and human security and disarmament, thus addressing the full range of substantive disarmament issues from small arms to weapons in space. In that respect, its activities included a seminar series on nuclear disarmament; another on "Eliminating weapons of mass destruction: Prospects for effective international verification", and a day of NPT round-table consultations in preparation for the Review Conference. Turning to biological and conventional weapons, the Institute co-sponsored an international seminar on the occasion of the eightieth anniversary of the signing of the Geneva Protocol and hosted a two-day workshop on Safeguarding space security: Prevention of an arms race in outer space.

Its regional security and disarmament research included a project to study planning for crisis management and peacebuilding by the European Union and the United Nations, focusing on best practices and inter-institutional learning. It also conducted research on specific issues relevant to Africa, the Middle East, Latin America and North-East Asia.

Human security and disarmament research involved capacity-building for implementing the UN PoA on SALW, specifically the development of the country profiles section of the Coordinating Action for Small Arms (CASA) database development project. Its "Disarmament as humanitarian action" project is currently analyzing and comparing different negotiating processes, reframing multilateral disarmament negotiation actions in humanitarian terms and formulating practical proposals to apply humanitarian concepts to assist disarmament negotiators.

UNIDIR celebrated its twenty fifth anniversary on 23 November. By resolution 60/89 of 8 December entitled "Twenty-fifth anniversary of the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research", the General Assembly recognized the importance, timeliness and high quality of the Institute's work and appealed to Member States to continue providing their financial support. A list of UNIDIR publications appears in annex V of this chapter. (The discussion of resolution 60/89 follows in the General Assembly section.)

General Assembly, 2005

United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research

60/89

Twenty-fifth anniversary of the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research. The draft resolution was introduced by France, on behalf of the sponsors (see page 15 for the sponsors), on 19 October. It was adopted without a vote by the First Committee on 25 October and by the General Assembly on 8 December. For the text of the resolution, see pages 84.

The resolution recommended that the Secretary-General implement the relevant recommendations of the Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS) and the decisions of the UNIDIR Board of Trustees regarding a number of tasks, including funding the Institute from the regular UN budget, establishing specific posts for the Institute's core functions, and continuing to seek ways to increase the Institute's funding, within existing resources.

First Committee

Before the vote, India said that it would support the draft resolution and that its adoption by the First Committee and the General Assembly would be a reaffirmation of the Institute's value to the global disarmament community.

Speaking after the vote, Japan said that it continued to fully cooperate with and support the Institute's work, but that careful attention should be given to the implementation of the OIOS recommendations as well as the decisions of the Board of Trustees.

Annex I
List of studies published by the Department of Disarmament Affairs (The Blue Book Series)

Study Series 1 (see also Studies Series 21, 1991)
Comprehensive Study on Nuclear Weapons
1981
Study Series 2
South Africa's plan and capability in the nuclear field
1981
Study Series 3
Study on all the aspects of Regional Disarmament
1981
Study Series 4
Reduction of Military Budgets
1981
Study Series 5 (see also Studies Series 31, 2005)
The Relationship between Disarmament and Development
1982
Study Series 6
Study on Israeli Nuclear Armament
1982
Study Series 7
Comprehensive Study on Confidence-building Measures
1982
Study Series 8
Relationship between Disarmament and International Security
1982
Study Series 9
The Implications of Establishing an International Satellite Monitoring Agency
1983
Study Series 10
Reduction of Military Budgets
1983
Study Series 11
Economic and Social Consequences of the Arms Race and of Military Expenditures
1983
Study Series 12
Study on Conventional Disarmament
1985
Study Series 13
Unilateral Nuclear Disarmament Measures
1985
Study Series 14
Concepts of Security
1986
Study Series 15

Reduction of Military Budgets

1986
Study Series 16
The Naval Arms Race
1986
Study Series 17
Study on Deterrence
1987
Study Series 18
Study on the Climatic and Other Global Effects of Nuclear War
1989
Study Series 19
Study on the Economic and Social Consequences of the Arms Race and Military Expenditures
1989
Study Series 20
The role of the United Nations in the Field of Verification
1991
Study Series 21
Nuclear Weapons: A Comprehensive Study
1991
Study Series 22
Effective and Verifiable Measures Which Would Facilitate the Establishment of a Nuclear-weapon-free Zone in the Middle East
1991
Study Series 23
South Africa's Nuclear-Tipped Ballistic Missile Capability
1991
Study Series 24
Study on Ways and Means of Promoting Transparency in International Transfers of Conventional Arms
1992
Study Series 25
Potential Uses of Military-Related Resources for Protection of the Environment
1993
Study Series 26
Study on Defensive Security Concepts and Policies
1993
Study Series 27
Study on the Application of Confidence-building Measures in Outer Space
1994
Study Series 28
Small Arms
1999
Study Series 29
The issue of missiles in all its aspects
2003
Study Series 30
Study on disarmament and non-proliferation education
2003
Study Series 31
The relationship between disarmament and development in the current international context
2005

Annex II
Composition of the Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security
Mr. Valery V. Tsepkalo, Assistant to the President of the Republic, Belarus
Mr. Murilo Marques Barboza, Special Adviser to the Minister of Defence, Brazil
Mr. WANG Qun (second and third sessions), Deputy Director-General, Department of Arms Control and Disarmament, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, China
Mr. WU Haitao (first session), Counsellor, Department of Arms Control and Disarmament, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, China
Ms. Stéphanie Schaer, General Secretariat for National Defence, France
Mr. Thomas Schäfer, First Counsellor, Head of Division of Conventional Arms Control, Federal Foreign Office, Germany
Mr. Arvind Gupta (second and third sessions), Joint Secretary, National Security Council Secretariat, India
Mr. Sanjiv Ranjan (first session), First Secretary, Permanent Mission of India to the United Nations
Mr. Bisher Al-Khasawneh (first session), First Secretary, Permanent Mission of Jordan to the United Nations
Mr. Azzam Alameddin (second and third sessions), Second Secretary, Permanent Mission of Jordan to the Office of the United Nations at Geneva
Mr. Md. Shah Nuri bin Md. Zain (second session), Director, Directorate of Technical Development and Information Technology National Security Division, Prime Minister's Department, Malaysia
Mr. Mohd Azlan Zaharudin (first and third sessions), Assistant Director, Directorate of Technical Development and Information Technology, National Security Division, Prime Minister's Department, Malaysia
Mr. Cheickna Keita (first session), First Counsellor, Permanent Mission to the United Nations, Mali
Mr. Kalilou Doumbia (second and third sessions), First Counsellor, Permanent Mission to the United Nations, Mali
Mr. Jorge Antonio Espinosa Durán, Information Security Manager, Preventive Federal Police, Mexico
Mr. LEW Kwang-chul, Minister Counsellor, Permanent Mission to the United Nations, Republic of Korea
Mr. Andrey V. Krutskikh, (Chairman), Deputy Director, Department for Disarmament and Security Matters, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Russian Federation
Major-General Ashwin C. Hurribunce, Chief of Command and Management Information Systems Division, Department of Defence, South Africa
Mr. Geoff Smith, Head, Information Security Policy Team, Department of Trade and Industry, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Ms. Michele Markoff, Senior Coordinator for International Critical Infrastructure Protection, Bureau of Political Military Affairs, Department of State, United States of America
Annex III
Presentations made at the Panel Discussion on Verifying non-proliferation and disarmament agreements tDDAy19
"Impact of the 1990 and 1995 UN studies on verification", Patricia Lewis, Director, United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, Geneva
"Recent developments in the field of nuclear verification", Jan Lodding, Senior Policy Officer, Verification and Security Policy, Office of External Relations and Policy Coordination, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna
"Evolution in verification technologies", Angela Woodward, Deputy Director and Arms Control and Disarmament Researcher, Verification Research, Training and Information Center, London
"Strengthening compliance with UN arms embargoes-Key challenges for monitoring and verification", Brian Wood, Manager of Research and Policy on Arms Control, International Secretariat of Amnesty International, London
Annex IV
Publications and other materials of the Department of Disarmament Affairs and its regional centres
The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook, vol. 29:2005, (Sales No. E.05.IX.1)
Occasional Paper No. 10, Verifying Non-Proliferation & Disarmament Agreements TDDAy/Panel Discussion, United Nations, New York, 20 October 2005
Disarmament Resolutions and Decisions of the Sixtieth Session of the United Nations General Assembly, December 2005

Regional Centre for Peace, Disarmament and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (UNLiREC)

Regional Perspectives series:

No. 10 Norms and legal instruments on firearms, ammunition and explosives (Spanish)
No. 15 2004 Hemispheric seminar on the identification, collection, weapons destruction and stockpile management, 12-13 May, Managua, Nicaragua (Spanish)

Briefs:

- UN-LiREC Briefs (English)

Folders:

- Coordinating Action on Small Arms (CASA) Mechanism (English)

- Chemical Weapons Regional Assistance and Protection Network (CW-RAPN) concept paper (Spanish)

- TCI (Small arms and light weapons: Transfer Control Initiative) (English/Spanish)

- Regional Public Security Training Centre (TREINASP) (Spanish)

- Training the Trainers: Three Phases (English)

Posters:

- Peruvian Amnesty Campaign on firearms, ammunition and explosives published for the Main Directorate of Control of Services of Security, Arms Control, Ammunition and Explosives of Civil Use (DICSCAMEC) (Spanish)

- Rediscovering our 28th July (Spanish)20

Brochures:

- Rediscovering our 28th July (Spanish)

Annex V
UNIDIR Publications

Research reports

Regional Initiatives on Nuclear- and WMD-Free Zones: Cooperative Approaches to Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, by Michael Hamel-Green, 2005, 64p., United Nations publication, Sales No. GV.E.05.0.19.
Listening for Change: Participatory Evaluations of DDR and Arms Reduction in Mali, Cambodia and Albania, by Robert Muggah, 2005, 50p., United Nations publication, Sales No. GV.E.05.0.18.
Safeguarding Space for All: Security and Peaceful Uses, Conference Report, 25-26 March 2004, in cooperation with The Simons Foundation and the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade of Canada, 2005, 138p., United Nations publication, Sales No. GV.E.05.0.20.
Alternative Approaches in Multilateral Decision Making: Disarmament as Humanitarian Action, John Borrie and Vanessa Martin Randin (eds), 2005, 152p., United Nations publication, Sales No. GV.E.05.0.8.
Executive Summary: Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons-Analysis of the Reports Submitted by States in 2003, by Elli Kytömäki and Valerie Anne Yankey-Wayne, in cooperation with UNDP, DDA and SAS, 2005, 96p., United Nations publication, UNIDIR/2005/2.
Multilateral Diplomacy and the NPT: An Insider's Account, by Jayantha Dhanapala with Randy Rydell, in cooperation with SIPRI, 2005, 206p., United Nations publication, Sales No. GV.E.05.0.5.

Disarmament Forum (a quarterly publication)

No. 1 Science, technology and the CBW regimes

No. 2 North-East Asian Security

No. 3 Investing in Security

No. 4 Taking Action on Small Arms


1Studies that had not received the full endorsement of the General Assembly have not been produced in the publication series.
2Report of the Secretary-General, Disarmament and non-proliferation education (A/61/169).
3Report of the Secretary-General, United Nations Disarmament Information Programme (A/61/215).
4www.unidir.org/html/en/25th_anniversary.html.
5Occasional Paper No. 10 [06-26209]. http://disarmament2.un.org /DDApublications/op10.htm (accessed 12 September 2006).
6Report of the Secretary-General on United Nations Study on disarmament and non-proliferation education (A/57/124).
7For an in-depth description of DNP activities, see Report of the Secretary-General on the subject (A/61/169).
8For the text of the speeches, see http://disarmament.un.org/education.
9NPT/CONF.2005/WP.30.
10See chapter V, annex I, para. 30.
11For students' views about SANITY, see http://disarmament.un.org /education.
12The full submission made by the Peace Boat is available at http://disarmament.un.org/education. For more information about Peace Boat see http://www.peaceboat.org/english.
13See http://www.richtervideos.com.
14The Atomic Mirror uses the creative arts to reveal the consequences of the nuclear age and to inspire people to take action for a nuclear-free world. See http://www.atomicmirror.org.
15The book entitled Peace and disarmament education: Changing mindsets to reduce violence and sustain the removal of small arms, is issued in print or electronic format. See http://www.haguepeace.org/resources/DDA-book.pdf.
16For full text, see www.opanal.org/Conference/Confer-i.htm.
17Op. cit., footnote 3.
18See A/60/135 for an elaboration of UNIDIR's activities.
19Available in DDA Occasional Papers 10: Verifying Non-Proliferation and Arms Agreements TDDAy, in print or electronic form (see http:disarmament.un.org).

20Rediscovering our 28th July is an initiative of the NGO, Transparency Civil Association, within the framework of The PeaceMaker project under UNLiRECs Peace and Disarmament Education Programme. Its goal is to rediscover artistic and folkloric values during celebrations of Peru's national holiday on 28 July.