CHAPTER V

Regional disarmament


"A considerable number of regional and subregional organizations are now active around the world, making important contributions to the stability and prosperity of their members, as well as of the broader international system. The United Nations and regional organizations should play complementary roles in facing the challenges to international peace and security."1
Kofi Annan, united Nations secretary-general
Introduction

During the 2005 World Summit, from 14 to 16 September, world leaders recognized the important contribution made by regional organizations to peace and security as envisaged in Chapter VIII of the UN Charter, as well as the significance of forging predictable partnerships and arrangements between the Organization and regional organizations. For many years, the United Nations has sought to enhance the role of regional approaches to disarmament and security as a complement to global efforts. Already twenty-five years have passed since a Group of Governmental Experts appointed by the Secretary-General concluded that there was a vast and, to a large extent, unexplored potential for progress in disarmament if the global approach was supplemented with determined and systematic efforts at the regional level.2 The Group found that three elements in particular: a) progress in regional disarmament, b) the equitable solution of problems and the just settlement of disputes at the regional level, and c) regional confidence-building measures3 could create conditions that would promote disarmament and relax tension at the global level. Twelve years later in a much changed security environment, the United Nations Disarmament Commission (the Commission or UNDC) adopted guidelines and recommendations for regional approaches to disarmament. The Commission found that regional and global approaches to disarmament and arms limitation complemented each other and recommended that both should be pursued simultaneously in order to promote regional and international peace and security.4 It also concluded that regional measures on disarmament and arms limitation contributed to the achievement of goals and principles for disarmament at the global level.5

The changing political climate of the post cold war period prompted further analysis of the UN role in advancing regional approaches to disarmament. Given the growing conflict-related demands placed on the Organization after the end of the cold war and the Security Council's increasing role in the prevention and resolution of conflicts, the Organization's broader mission demanded the participation of regional and subregional actors in tandem with individual States and the UN system in addressing those concerns. By adapting regional initiatives to the specific needs of the participating States, it was possible to reach agreement on measures even more far-reaching than those that could be adopted at the global level.

At the end of the second World War, regional proposals sought to limit conventional weapons and armed forces. By the mid 1950s, however, the spread of nuclear weapons in Europe had become a predominant concern. Several proposals were made to establish nuclear-weapon-free zones (NWFZs) on different parts of the continent, or to freeze the level of nuclear forces pending actual reductions. In the decades that followed, the establishment of such zones in the world assumed particular importance in light of the nuclear threat. The regional approach was first applied to the nuclear field in the late 1950s with the prohibition of nuclear tests and the disposal of radioactive wastes in Antarctica.6 It was subsequently expanded with the creation of NWFZs in other parts of the world, including Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco, 1967), the South Pacific (Treaty of Raratonga, 1985), Southeast Asia (Bangkok Treaty, 1995), and Africa (Pelindaba Treaty, 1995). (For the text and status of these treaties, see disarmament.un.org. For developments in 2005, see Appendix I.)

In 1999, the UNDC adopted guidelines and recommendations for the establishment of future nuclear-weapon-free zones.7 The document noted that NWFZs had ceased to be the exception in the global strategic environment, with more than one hundred States signatories or parties to such treaties covering more than half of the earth's land mass. It stressed that such zones were an important disarmament tool, which contributed to the primary objective of strengthening regional peace and security and, by extension, international peace and security.

Major regional disarmament arrangements on conventional arms have also been established. These include the 1990 Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) between the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Warsaw Pact as well as the related document on confidence-and security-building measures (CSBMs),8 through which significant reductions in conventional arms, armed forces and confidence-building measures (CBMs) and CSBMs were undertaken. The CFE survived the end of the Warsaw Pact in July 1991 and, in 1999, its verification procedures were amended to take account of national forces rather than bloc strength. The Organization of American States (OAS) adopted two instruments: the 1997 Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials,9 and the 1999 Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions.10

Several CBMs have also been undertaken in Asia through the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Regional Forum (ARF).11 In June 2001, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)12 was established to promote mutual confidence and trust and consolidate multilateral cooperation in the maintenance and strengthening of peace, security and stability in the region.

The growing number of conflicts in Africa in the 1990s prompted the United Nations and several regional and subregional organizations to focus their attention on resolving them and preventing future ones. Efforts intensified to curb the proliferation of conventional arms, especially the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons (SALW), which impacted, in particular, many African countries.

The convening, in 2001, of the United Nations Conference on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects13 and the adoption by consensus of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (PoA),14 highlighted the importance of increased cooperation between the United Nations, regional, subregional and intergovernmental organizations with the aim of addressing the SALW issue. Under the umbrella of regional and subregional organizations, important initiatives were undertaken in many regions of the world.

This chapter deals with issues concerning developments in specific regions related to NWFZs, confidence-building and conventional disarmament.

Developments and trends, 2005

The sixth High-level Meeting between the United Nations and Regional and Other Intergovernmental Organizations was held in New York from 25 to 26 July. Proposals contained in the report of the High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change15 and in the Secretary-General's report "In larger freedom"16 laid the foundation for discussions on a range of issues, such as peacekeeping, protection of civilians, human rights, dialogue between civilizations and disarmament. In his opening remarks, the Secretary-General outlined the need for better structured, more efficient, formalized agreements between the United Nations and individual regional organizations to govern the sharing of information, expertise and resources. The Meeting provided an important opportunity to strengthen the complementary roles which regional organizations could play as essential partners of the United Nations in promoting international peace and security.17

During the year, the Security Council reasserted the role played by regional organizations and activities in enhancing peace and security at the regional and international levels, including efforts undertaken in cooperation with regional organizations and regional instruments enabling States to identify and trace illicit small arms and light weapons. At the 5127th meeting of the Security Council, on 17 February, the President made the following observation in his statement on behalf of the Council: "The Security Council notes with appreciation that regional actions on illicit trade in small arms and light weapons in all its aspects have been strengthened in recent years, and encourages the continuation of assistance at national, regional and international levels that would fit the needs of Member States to implement the recommendations contained in the Programme of Action adopted by the July 2001 United Nations Conference on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects." 18

In addition, on 17 October, at its 5282nd meeting, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 1631 (2005), thereby stressing its intention to cooperate further with regional organizations. It also encouraged the Secretary-General to explore the possibility of agreements establishing a framework for regional organizations to cooperate with, and contribute to, UN-led peacekeeping operations, taking into due consideration the cooperation guidelines already identified between the United Nations and certain regional organizations.

Nuclear-weapon-free zones

The first Conference of States Parties and Signatories to Treaties that Establish Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones, was held in Mexico City, from 26 to 28 April. Prior to the 2005 NPT Review Conference, the States parties and signatories to the Treaties of Tlatelolco, Rarotonga, Bangkok and Pelindaba as well as Mongolia, which maintains an international nuclear-weapon-free status, met for the purpose of strengthening NWFZ regimes and contributing to nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. In particular, the Conference sought to analyze cooperative ways to contribute to achieving the goal of a nuclear-weapon-free world.19 The participants adopted a declaration which, inter alia, reaffirmed the importance of the principles, obligations and rights under the NPT and of achieving its universality; urged NWS and any other States listed or mentioned in the relevant NWFZ Protocols that had not yet signed or ratified the Protocols to do so as soon as possible; expressed recognition of Mongolia's international nuclear-weapon-free status; reiterated support for the establishment of NWFZs in the Middle East and South Asia and Central Asia; and stressed the significance of achieving universal adherence to the CTBT.20 (For the text of the declaration, see Annex I to this chapter.)

During the nineteenth regular session of the General Conference of the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL), from 7 to 8 November, Member States of the Agency and States parties to the Tlateloco Treaty adopted a declaration in which States resolved to intensify cooperation and coordination mechanisms between the four NWFZs and promote the consolidation of the legal regimes established by them.21 The Declaration also reiterated that the nuclear powers that had signed or ratified Additional Protocols I and II of the Treaty with reservations or unilateral interpretations that affected the denuclearization status of that zone should modify or withdraw such reservations. It also highlighted the growing threat to international security posed by the potential acquisition of nuclear weapons by non-State actors and encouraged all States to promote disarmament and non-proliferation education programmes.

The issue of the establishment of a NWFZ in the region of the Middle East remained an important goal.22 (See discussion in chapters I and II.) At the 2005 NPT Review Conference, States parties reiterated their support for the establishment of a zone free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East, reaffirmed the importance of the implementation of the resolution on the Middle East adopted by the 1995 Review and Extension Conference23 and recognized that the resolution remained valid until its goals and objectives were achieved. The Secretary-General also carried out various consultations with concerned parties within and outside the region in order to explore further ways of promoting the establishment of a NWFZ in the Middle East.

Following the announcement by the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, in December 2003, to abandon its nuclear and chemical weapons programmes, it deposited its instrument of ratification of the Treaty of Pelindaba with the African Union on 11 May. Libya's ratification brought the number of ratifications to twenty States, leaving to eight the ratifications needed for the Treaty's entry into force.

Disarmament at regional levels

Africa

Cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations was particularly strong in Africa, where the United Nations often assumed a supporting role in peacemaking and preventive diplomacy led by the African Union and subregional organizations, such as ECOWAS and IGAD.

The Regional Consultation of Governmental Experts on Small Arms and Light Weapons and the Biennial Meeting of States (BMS) Reporting in the Region of West Africa met in Bamako, from 28 to 29 April. Thirteen States and four regional organizations participated in the meeting. The third session of the Consultation was devoted to the discussion of the reporting process of the PoA and its obligations, past experiences and the status of the upcoming BMS Conference in New York, in July.

The second Continental Conference of African governmental experts and Regional Economic Communities (RECs) on the illicit trade in SALW took place in Windhoek, from 14 to 16 December.24 Member States of the AU, RECs and other relevant regional and UN bodies attended the Conference to prepare for the 2006 Conference to Review Progress Made in the Implementation of the PoA. The Conference reiterated that both the PoA and the Bamako Declaration were key elements in supporting conflict prevention and resolution as well as sustainable post-conflict reconstruction, promoting long term peace and security and creating conditions for sustainable development. The Conference stressed the continued importance of the PoA in view of the negative impact of the illicit trade in SALW on the continent as a whole.

The third Ministerial Review Conference of the Nairobi Declaration on the Problem of the Proliferation of Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa took place in Nairobi, from 20 to 21 June. During the meeting, a progress report was presented on the implementation of the Nairobi Declaration and the Nairobi Protocol since the last Ministerial Review Conference held in April 2004. Signatories to the Nairobi Declaration and the Nairobi Protocol agreed to establish the Regional Centre on Small Arms and Light Weapons (RECSA) and adopted guidelines for best practices and minimum common standards on key issues in the implementation of the Nairobi Protocol. The guidelines were formulated as the result of the outcome of five workshops on stockpile management, import, export and transfer control, marking, tracing and brokering, public awareness and destruction, and mutual legal assistance and operation capacity. According to the approved Nairobi Protocol Implementation Plan, domestic implementation of the guidelines was expected to occur by the end of April 2006. Participating States concluded the Conference by signing the Ministerial Declaration on Practical Implementation of Small Arms Action in the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa. (For Ministerial Declaration, see Annex II to this chapter.)

In order to reinforce efforts to address the illicit trafficking of SALW, especially the illicit brokering of such weapons, Interpol, together with the prosecutor from the International Criminal Court (ICC) and other international organizations, collaborated on a project to collect and analyze information on key figures involved in such activities and their modus operandi in the Great Lakes region of Africa. This project could provide an additional tool for the international law enforcement community in the prevention and combat of those criminal activities.

During the year, the United Nations Development Programme's (UNDP) Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery and Small Arms and Demobilisation Unit (BCPR/SADU) organized a meeting on UNDP's Small Arms Programming in the Great Lakes Region of Africa entitled "Lessons Learned and A Way Ahead." This meeting included donors of the Small Arms Reduction Programme in the Great Lakes Region (SARP) and Friends of the Nairobi Declaration, a presentation of lessons learned from the SARP programme and discussion of further support for enhancing the regional small arms agenda in the Great Lakes Region.

United Nations Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Africa (UNREC)

The United Nations Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Africa (UNREC) carried out a number of activities in implementation of international instruments relating to disarmament and non-proliferation, in particular the PoA. The Centre's activities focused on four main areas of the PoA: support for peace processes and peace initiatives in Africa, disarmament and arms control, information, research and publications and advocacy and resource mobilization.

UNREC continued to implement the SATCRA project, (Small Arms Transparency and Control Regime in Africa) with the participation of ten countries: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Djibouti, Gabon, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa and Togo. The Participating States agreed on an operational definition of the concept of transparency in regard to the transfers of SALW. Data was contributed to the Small Arms and Light Weapons Register in Africa (SALWRA) established by the Centre. UNREC conducted an inventory of the national capacities for the production of SALW in the Participating States and provided technical assistance to the National Commissions/Focal Points for the Control of SALW.

The Centre, along with UNDP, provided support for the ECOWAS Small Arms Control Programme (ECOSAP), a successor to the Programme of Coordination and Assistance for Security and Development (PCASED) established in 1999. ECOSAP was built on the achievements of PCASED, with respect to the implementation of the Moratorium on the Importation, Exportation and Manufacture of Light Weapons in ECOWAS Member States.25

Americas

The Organization of American States (OAS) continued its involvement in a number of regional activities in the fields of disarmament and non-proliferation.

At the IV Summit of the Americas in Mar del Plata, from 4 to 5 November, thirty-four Heads of State and Government reiterated their commitment to the objectives and purposes contained in the 2003 Declaration on Security in the Americas based on a multi-dimensional concept of security with a view to continue strengthening cooperation in the region.26

At its 35th Regular Session in Florida, from 5 to 7 June, the OAS General Assembly adopted a number of resolutions related to disarmament and non-proliferation which included:

Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials (CIFTA);27
Consolidation of the Regime Established in the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco);28
Americas as a Biological- and Chemical-Weapons-Free Region,29 Proliferation of and the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects;30
Disarmament and Non-proliferation Education;31
Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions;32
Inter-American Support for the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty;33 and
Americas as an Antipersonnel-Land-Mine-Free Zone.34

In accordance with paragraph 8 of the Declaration of Bogotá on the Functioning and Application of CIFTA,35 the Work Programme of its Consultative Committee as well as operative paragraph 7 of Resolution AG/RES. 1999 (XXXIV-O/04) of the OAS General Assembly, the first meeting of national authorities directly responsible for granting the export, import and international transit licenses or authorizations for transfers of firearms, ammunition, explosives and other related materials was held at the OAS headquarters in Washington, D.C., from 6 to 7 October.36

Throughout the year, BCPR/SADU provided support to the General Secretariat of the Central American Integration System (SG-SICA) for the development of a regional small arms control project expected to begin in March 2006. The United Kingdom, BPCR/SADU provided support to the Nicaraguan Foreign Ministry and the UNDP Nicaragua Country Office for the development and implementation of a project to support the Transfer Control Initiative and Central American Small Arms Control project.

United Nations Regional Centre for Peace, Disarmament and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (UNLiREC)

During the year, the Centre carried out a wide range of assistance to States in the region ranging from studies related to conventional weapons agreements and confidence-building measures to supporting implementation and/or universalization of multilateral instruments dealing with weapons of mass destruction. These activities were designed and implemented in response to the increasing requests for technical and financial assistance by States in the region and to the intensified integration of the Centre's assistance efforts into those of the UN Country Teams and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

The Lima Centre received strong encouragement from Member States in the region to be a catalyst in the implementation of Security Council resolution 1540 (2004). To that end, it held consultations with the government of Peru and organized the provision of technical and financial assistance in its preparation of the country's second report, pursuant to the terms of the resolution. The Centre also began the organization of a seminar on the implementation of 1540 scheduled for the second half of 2006 in Lima.

The Centre supported the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO PrepCom) in its campaign for greater adherence by presenting the Treaty's obligations and benefits in a workshop on the current status of cooperation among Member States and organizations in the region. Similarly, the obligations and benefits of adhering to the current WMD regulatory regime was the focus at other regional consultation meetings carried out in conjunction with the PTS/CTBTO, the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) and local authorities from various sectors.

The Centre also developed in 2005 and maintained the Chemical Weapons Regional Assistance and Protection Network (CW-RAPN) in cooperation with the OPCW and the Government of Peru's National Council for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (CONAPAQ). This internet-based network features information and data on protection against chemical weapons to facilitate coordination among States parties in the region and provide a platform for the implementation of article X of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC).

In the area of conventional weapons, the Centre and the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) completed the development of a standardized methodology on the comparison of military expenditures in early 2005 as part of a broader security-sector reform programme coordinated by the United Nations Department of Political Affairs (DPA). This methodological tool provided a framework for discussion of the missions, objectives and policies of national defence and underscored the important role that CSBMs play in strengthening security. In a related issue, the governments of Chile and Peru commissioned a study to develop a methodology to compare military expenditures between the two countries. The study will be carried out by a team comprising experts from ECLAC, DDA headquarters and the Centre. This study is aimed at increasing transparency and bilateral cooperation, as well as contributing to regional security.

Officially concluded last year was the Defence White Books (DWB) project, which involved assistance in the design of basic guidelines for their development. The guidelines are intended to be a tool for Governments to work on security-sector reform and to structure defence views, aims and policies. The project was intended to contribute to strengthening democratic values, practices and human security in the region. A request was made for support in the development of a methodology for the creation of a DWB by Uruguay in which these guidelines will be used for the first time.

With respect to SALW, the Centre, in coordination with the Regional Public Security Training Centre (TREINASP) in Brazil, provided assistance in the training of 135 law enforcement officials from Brazil and Paraguay following the training of 209 other officials in the region. The TREINASP database also became operational during the year and currently serves as an important information exchange platform.

Assistance provided by the Centre in the destruction of firearms included the destruction of 1,512 firearms in Uruguay and 89,307 small-calibre units and approximately 80 tonnes of large calibre ammunition in Paraguay. The assistance also involved a capacity-building component to aid governmental representatives with future programmes. The Centre also initiated the development of an Integrated Weapons Management System Database (SIGA) for the improvement of weapons stockpile facilities in Costa Rica, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay.

National seminars on public security and firearms legislation were also organized in Paraguay and Uruguay, in coordination with UN-LiREC and its partners, as well as with TREINASP. The seminars were aimed at analyzing firearms-related legislation and their role in the attainment of greater public security as well as at identifying areas of potential cooperation with international organizations.

In addition, as DDA's regional focal point for the UN Coordinating Action on Small Arms (CASA) Mechanism, the Centre organized the first CASA consultation meeting in the field. In May, a CASA meeting in Brazil helped to increase possibilities for greater coordination among UN agencies and between the United Nations and the host country. Follow-up consultations for coordination in the field also took place in Nicaragua for Central America and Uruguay, as well as CASA consultation missions in Barbados, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. In late 2005, the CASA database, designed and developed by the Centre, was launched at a meeting of CASA principals in New York and is now available to the sixteen CASA Members.

Asia and the Pacific

In the Asia-Pacific region, ASEAN and ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), along with the SCO, undertook a variety of activities related to disarmament and non-proliferation.

During the twelfth Meeting of the ASEAN Regional Forum in Vientiane, on 29 July, the Foreign Ministers of all ARF participants reaffirmed its significance as the main political and security forum in the region and reiterated the need to further strengthen it. They also noted with satisfaction the significant role that ARF had played in enhancing political and security dialogue and cooperation as well as confidence building in the Asia-Pacific region. The Ministers held comprehensive discussions on issues of common concern, and stressed the need for the ARF to focus its deliberations on regional issues, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region as well as international issues with regional impact. During the discussion of these regional security issues, the Ministers welcomed the resumption of the six-party talks and expressed the hope that the Talks would lead towards the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula; reaffirmed the importance of continuing consultations between the nuclear-weapon States (NWS) and the parties to the Bangkok Treaty regarding that Treaty's Protocol; urged all States in the region to sign and conclude the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and to take steps towards its early entry into force; expressed support for the efforts of the Committee Established Pursuant to Security Council resolution 1540 and called upon all States to ensure its effective and full implementation; called for the maintenance of the moratorium on nuclear testing; and noted the importance of all countries in the region taking effective action to prevent, combat and eradicate the illicit trade in SALW.37

The fifth Summit of the SCO in Astana, on 5 July, once again brought together the six Heads of States of the Organization. In its formal declaration, the Summit agreed that the SCO would make a constructive contribution to the efforts by the global community to provide security on land, at sea, in air space and in outer space.38 Moreover, Mongolia was admitted to the SCO as an observer State, and India, Iran and Pakistan were accepted as new observers. (The Declaration appears in Annex III of this chapter.)

The first East Asia Summit took place in Kuala Lumpur, on 14 December, chaired by Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, Prime Minister of Malaysia. It was attended by Heads of State and Government of ASEAN Member States and Australia, China, India, Japan, New Zealand, and the Republic of Korea. The Russian Federation was invited as Guest of the Government of Malaysia. The participants had an exchange of views on regional and international political and economic issues, including the challenges faced by the region and the world. Stating the view that the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, in a peaceful and verifiable manner, would greatly contribute to the peace, stability and prosperity of the Asia-Pacific region, the participants strongly endorsed the Joint Statement adopted at the fourth round of the six-party talks on 19 September. They also shared the view that the Fifth Round of the talks should be resumed as early as possible to enable the parties to continue their discussion on ways to faithfully and expeditiously implement the commitments made in the Joint Statement. In addition, the participants signed the Kuala Lumpur Declaration on the East Asia Summit outlining the principles and purposes of the Summit, areas of cooperation and primary mDDAlities. It was agreed that the East Asia Summit would be convened on an annual basis.  Consequently, the second East Asia Summit will be held in Cebu (Philippines) on 13 December 2006.39

United Nations Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Asia and the Pacific

During the year, the Regional Centre's work focused on the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, NWFZ-related issues, SALW and the organization of several regional conferences and seminars on nuclear, conventional arms, and disarmament and non-proliferation education issues.

In order to facilitate the conclusion of seven years of negotiations and finalize the text on a NWFZ in Central Asia, the Centre organized a meeting of the five Central Asian States (C5) in Tashkent from 7 to 9 February. The text reflected developments in the field of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation, such as the CTBT and the IAEA Additional Protocol.

The Centre continued to provide assistance in the consolidation and strengthening of Mongolia's nuclear weapon-free status. It held a series of consultations with Mongolia and relevant UN agencies to follow up the recommendations made in two studies on economic vulnerabilities and human security in Mongolia, and on ecological vulnerabilities and human security in Mongolia, respectively.40

The Centre, in cooperation with the Governments of China, Japan and Switzerland, organized a subregional workshop on SALW in Beijing from 19 to 21 April. Fifty-seven governmental representatives from thirty countries, as well as fifteen participants from various organizations and research institutes attended the workshop. The participating States shared experiences and identified challenges, particularly in Southeast and Central Asian States, in combating the illicit trade in SALW; promote the further implementation of the PoA; and facilitate the on-going negotiation of an international instrument on the marking and tracing of SALW.

The Centre provided technical and substantive advice to the United Nations Association of Japan in organizing the "International symposium on peace and environmental issues", in Ishikawa, from 13 to 14 June. The symposium addressed issues such as security concerns in Northeast Asia, the resumption of the six-party talks related to the DPRK's nuclear programme, the current situation in the field of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation, the outcome of the 2005 NPT Review Conference and regional confidence-building measures.

In cooperation with the Government of Japan, the Centre organized a conference in Kyoto, from 17 to 19 August, entitled "After Six Decades and Renewed Efforts for the Promotion of Disarmament". Among other topics, the Conference addressed issues raised at the 2005 NPT Review Conference, such as the role of the IAEA, compliance with the Treaty, the nuclear fuel cycle, institutional improvements for the NPT and its review process, and withdrawal from the Treaty. The Central Asian NWFZ Treaty and regional nuclear issues were also addressed. More than fifty-five participants from Governments, academic institutes and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in the region along with representatives from the Untied Nations attended the conference.

The Centre and the Government of the Republic of Korea jointly organized the fourth "UN-ROK Joint Conference on Disarmament and Non-proliferation" in Busan, from 1 to 3 December. The Joint Conference dealt with issues related to the NPT, including challenges to the nuclear non-proliferation regime and ways and means to strengthen and effectively implement the Treaty, the nuclear fuel cycle, missile non-proliferation and the implementation of Security Council resolution 1540. It was attended by over forty participants from Governments, academic institutes, NGOs and the United Nations.

Two regional workshops were also organized by the Centre to promote the UN Study on Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Education. The first workshop entitled "United Nations: Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Education", was held in Nagasaki, from 21 to 22 August. It addressed the issue of disarmament education in the context of peace education in Nagasaki, nuclear weapons proliferation, the spread of SALW and the role of the city itself in promoting global nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. Approximately one hundred participants, including forty educators attended the symposium. The second workshop was organized in concert with the Government of Indonesia in Bali, from 21 to 22 December, for the purposes of training Indonesian officials about disarmament and non-proliferation efforts, nationally, regionally and globally. To that aim, over sixty participants representing international organizations, Governments, NGOs, the press, academic institutions and elected officials attended. The CTBTO PrepCom, OPCW, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the EU's Assistance on Curbing Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Kingdom of Cambodia (EU-ASAC) also sent their representatives.

League of Arab States

To prepare for the second Biennial Meeting of States, a Regional Symposium on the Implementation of the PoA was held in Algiers, from 11 to 13 April.41 The symposium was organized by DDA and hosted by the Government of Algeria, with financial support from the Governments of the Czech Republic, Germany, Norway, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.42 The symposium provided an informal forum for Arab States to share experiences and lessons learned in the implementation of the PoA and strengthened participants' capacity to further its implementation. Participants stressed their commitment to implementing the PoA, but generally agreed that no State in the region, no matter its capacity or the number of national measures in place, could fight the problem alone. The meeting adopted a number of recommendations, including that National Focal Points should be established in States which had not yet done so, to hold annual meetings for National Focal Points and to create a database and a regional network of information on SALW within the League of Arab States (Arab League).

In its capacity as regional focal point, the Arab League convened the first meeting of Arab national focal points on SALW in Cairo, from 26 to 27 December.43 The meeting addressed the role of the regional focal point, an Arab model law on weapons, ammunitions, explosives and hazardous material and the impact of international and regional developments on the illicit trade in SALW. The meeting provided an opportunity for the participants to discuss their activities and the best practices acquired during the past five years and served to mobilize Arab States to substantively prepare for their participation in the 2006 PoA Review Conference.

The Arab League held the twenty-first and twenty-second sessions of the Experts Committee for drafting a treaty to establish a weapons of mass destruction free zone in the Middle East. The Committee is expected to finalize the text of a draft treaty and statute at an early date.

Europe

In the European region, security and disarmament issues continued to be addressed within regional institutional frameworks such as the European Commission (EC), the OSCE, NATO and its Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC), the Stability Pact and its two main initiatives, the South Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SEESAC) and Regional Arms Control Verification and Implementation Assistance Centre (RACVIAC).

European Union

The European Union’s (EU) activities in the field of WMD non-proliferation and SALW have been stepped up considerably in recent years. This was a direct consequence of the adoption of the European Security Strategy (ESS) by the European Council in December 2003, which led concurrently to the adoption of a more specific EU Strategy that outlined the principles and provided for a plan of action to be undertaken to combat the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. As a result, a significant number of concrete actions foreseen in the WMD Strategy were implemented in 2005. 

In preparation for the 2005 NPT Review Conference, the EU adopted a Common Position on 25 April based on a balanced approach between the three pillars of the NPT, namely, non-proliferation, the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and nuclear disarmament (refer to chapter I for EU positions).  In its efforts to strengthen nuclear security, the EU contributed to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund through EU Joint Actions. Joint Action 2005/574/CFSP of 18 July provided assistance in the physical protection of nuclear facilities, protection and control of radioactive sources, measures to combat illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials, and legislative assistance for the implementation of the IAEA Additional Protocol.

During the year, EU efforts were also made to support the activities of the OPCW through the Council Joint Action aimed at promoting the universalization of the CWC and at supporting the implementation of the Convention by States parties. The first Council Joint Action in support of the BWC sought to further the universalization of the Convention and at enhancing national implementation and compliance, by providing legal and legislative assistance to a number of States parties.  In parallel to the Joint Action, the EU focused on identifying internal measures in order to promote transparency and respect for the obligations under the BWC, in the absence of a verification mechanism.  An EU Action Plan was prepared in 2005, including a political commitment of EU Members to submit by December 2006, CBM returns to the UN and the lists of relevant experts and laboratories to the Secretary-General to facilitate any investigation of alleged biological or chemical weapons use.  In preparation for the Sixth BWC Review Conference in December 2006, EU Member States also conducted discussions on the main elements of an EU common position, with a view to contributing to promoting a successful outcome of the Review Conference.   

The EU continued its work on conventional arms control through the EU Code of Conduct on Arms Exports, which was adopted in June 1998. The development of the EU Code’s implementation during 2005 was documented in the Seventh Annual Report.  Priorities for the near future included outreach to promote the Code principles and criteria, and the provision of practical and technical assistance for this purpose. EU Member States also sought to enhance coordination of national outreach and assistance efforts. The report also mentioned the endorsement by the EU of the principle of an international arms trade treaty and conclusions agreed by the EU Foreign Ministers on 3 October, committing the EU to work towards the negotiation of such a treaty.

Concrete EU activities also continued in the field of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW). At the same time, EU policy in this field was given a strategic dimension in line with the ESS.  The European Council adopted, on 15-16 December, a full-fledged EU Strategy to combat the illicit accumulation and trafficking of SALW and their ammunition.  This Strategy provides guidance for future EU actions in this field through its various instruments.  It is a document that offers a comprehensive response to overcome the threats posed by the illicit accumulation and trafficking of SALW and their ammunition. It especially highlights the situation on the African continent and the role of producer countries and underlines the need for consistent EU policies in the areas of security and development, while fully exploiting the means available to the EU at multilateral and regional levels, within the EU and through its external relations.  The Strategy built on existing EU policies and actions in the area of SALW. In particular, it will benefit from the existing Council Joint Action on the EU's contribution to combating the destabilizing accumulation and spread of SALW, adopted in 1999. This Joint Action, renewed in 2002, was used as a basis for specific EU actions in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Balkans and most recently in Ukraine.

The EU has also taken the initiative to restart a dialogue on disarmament and non-proliferation among Euromed Partners in the context of the Barcelona process. The Euromed Ministers at their meeting in The Hague on 29 November 2004 had endorsed the principle of an ad hoc meeting, to be organized together with the EU Presidency and the Commission, in the context of the Barcelona Process on non-proliferation and disarmament. Consequently, preparations for this ad hoc meeting aimed at starting an incremental process of dialogue among senior arms control representatives continued throughout the year.


Text can be found under: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/wmd

 

European Commission

The European Commission (EC) supported a number of regional efforts to implement the PoA and to prevent illicit trafficking in conventional arms. It supported the UNDP/SEESAC project to establish the EU Western Balkans SALW Control Support Plan.44 This included support for the creation of national strategies to establish SALW-targeted regulatory measures. The EC also supported a wide-ranging set of studies on different aspects of SALW-related policies, measures and practices under a project led by the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR) entitled "Strengthening European Action on Small Arms/Light Weapons and Explosive Remnants of War (SALW/ERW)". In addition, given that marking and tracing were essential components in the fight against armed violence and crime, and in order to reinforce the marking obligation for the production of civilian firearms, the EC proposed the EU Firearms Directive to the European Council and the European Parliament.

The Commission also proposed a technical modification of Directive 91/477 (the so-called Weapons Directive) in order to integrate the appropriate provisions required by the Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (the Firearms Protocol) regarding intra-community transfers of weapons concerned by the Directive. In particular, this proposal was intended to strengthen article 10 of the Firearms Protocol as it relates to general requirements for export, import and transit licensing or authorization systems.

In July 2005, the EC adopted a Communication on measures to increase security for explosives, detonators, bomb-making equipment and firearms in the EU. This Communication was adopted in order to highlight and integrate proposals for legislative, operational and administrative initiatives in these areas.

OSCE

Building upon its comprehensive approach to security, the OSCE continued to act as a primary instrument for early warning, conflict prevention, crisis management and post-conflict rehabilitation in the geographical area of its fifty-five participating States. While the primary task of the OSCE in regard to regional security remained the implementation of confidence- and security-building measures (CSBMs), the Organization increasingly engaged itself in meeting the requirements of the OSCE Strategy to address threats to security and stability in the twenty-first century.45 The OSCE paid particular attention to the security-related concerns posed by the illicit trafficking of SALW.

In the context of cooperation between the United Nations and the OSCE and at the request of the Forum for Security Cooperation (FSC) Member States, a special session of the Forum was devoted to DDA's presentation of the UN disarmament agenda.

The OSCE gave considerable attention to the issue of WMD non-proliferation, in particular in light of the threat of their acquisition by non-State actors. Aware of the supportive role that the organization could play in this field, participating States focused on finding ways to assist in the implementation of Security Council resolution 1540. On 30 November, the OSCE/FSC took a decision46 to support the effective implementation of the resolution, which was further endorsed by the OSCE Ministerial Council in Ljubljana, Slovenia.47 The decision encouraged an exchange of views within the framework of the FSC security dialogue on the implementation of the resolution, in particular, on progress achieved or difficulties encountered, further necessary steps and on providing information about national laws, regulations and practices. It also called for a detailed review of the mandate of the 1540 Committee and confirmed the OSCE's readiness to examine appropriate measures to support the implementation of the resolution.

On 16 November, the FSC adopted a decision48 in which it confirmed that all OSCE States had ratified the CWC thereby fulfilling a long-standing effort by participating States.49 The new decision urged States to implement their respective obligations under the Convention without delay.

Implementation of the OSCE Documents on SALW (2000) and on Stockpiles of Conventional Ammunition (SCA) (2003) has been a core FSC task, recognized and further encouraged by OSCE Ministerial Council decision in Ljubljana50 on further efforts to implement both documents, including related project activities. Thirty participating States updated the required information on their national system for marking small arms, control procedures, exports and imports, relevant legislation, stockpile management and security procedures, as well as techniques and procedures for the destruction of small arms.

The OSCE continued its activities in response to requests from participating States to assist in reducing stocks and improving stockpile security of SALW and ammunition. A comprehensive SALW and Stockpiles of Conventional Ammunition (SCA) programme was successfully developed in Tajikistan and has reached the implementation stage.

Altogether, OSCE project assistance in the areas of SALW/SCA focused on Central Asia, Eastern Europe and the south Caucasus and resulted in the conduct of twelve assessment visits, the initiation of two new programmes/projects, the development of eight projects plans and the conduct of two regional workshops. Additionally, building upon the positive experience with the "Handbook on Best Practices on SALW",51 the OSCE participating States initiated drafting a "Best Practice Guide" on Stockpiles of Conventional Ammunition.

Furthermore, a programme of assessment visits and subsequent project development were also finalized regarding an SALW request from Belarus and an SCA-related request from Ukraine addressing the consequences of an ammunition explosion accident in Novobohdanivka (Ukraine). This activity also included the destruction of fourteen MANPADS in Belarus in May. Assistance activities were launched in Kazakhstan in June and in Russia in November as follow-up efforts of respective requests on conventional ammunition. Similarly, an OSCE workshop on SALW/SCA Destruction Techniques and Stockpile Security and Management was held in Kazakhstan from 1 to 3 June.

NATO

Disarmament and arms control are essential elements of NATOs Strategic Concept. NATOs efforts in these fields are coordinated by its High Level Task Force (HLTF),52 Verification Coordinating Committee (VCC),53 EAPC's Ad Hoc Working Group on Small Arms54 and Light Weapons and Mine Action and the Political-Military Steering Committee (PMSC).55

The NATO-Russia Council (NRC) group of conventional arms control experts met to explore possibilities to coordinate activities in addressing issues concerning SALW, especially MANPADS. The NATO-Russia Council carried out a number of additional activities related to disarmament and arms control during the year, including a seminar on "Confidence-and Security-Building Measures in Europe" in cooperation with Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), on 8 April; two workshops with representatives from the thirty States Parties to the CFE to ensure the proper entry of States Parties data into the NATO sponsored VERITY XXI data base system on data exchanges, notifications and inspection reports, from 12 to 14 January and 15 to 16 September; and a number of courses at the NATO School in Oberammergau, Germany on disarmament, arms control and confidence- and security- building issues.56

Stability Pact

The activities of the Stability Pact in the field of disarmament focused mainly on its initiatives in South Eastern Europe (SEE), RACVIAC57 and SEESAC.58 The Stability Pact, through its Special Coordinator, called for a moratorium on the sale and export of surplus military SALW by all SEE countries. The Pact also sponsored several seminars on the role of arms control agreements in increasing transparency in the subregion and on the implementation of the CWC.

RACVIAC continued organizing activities primarily in the field of arms control and CSBMs. It carried out nineteen courses and seminars with 345 participants and 127 lecturers. In addition, RACVIAC and SEESAC jointly held a technical seminar related to the PoA and established a linkage between SALW and the progress of regional countries towards eventual EU accession.

General Assembly, 2005

The General Assembly took action on ten draft resolutions and one draft decision dealing with regional disarmament issues.

Nuclear-weapon-free zones

60/48

Implementation of the Declaration of the Indian Ocean as a Zone of Peace. The draft resolution was introduced by Indonesia on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are members of the Non-Aligned Movement, on 18 October. It was adopted by the First Committee on 26 October as follows: (121-3-44) and by the General Assembly on 8 December as follows: (132-3-46). For the text of the resolution and the voting pattern, see page 7and 3.

The resolution requested the Chairman of the Ad Hoc Committee to continue his informal consultations with the Committee members and to report through the Committee to the General Assembly at its sixty-second session.

60/49

African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone. The draft resolution was introduced by Nigeria, on behalf of the States Members of the United Nations that are members of the Group of African States, on 25 October. It was adopted without a vote by the First Committee on 28 October and by the General Assembly on 8 December. For the text of the resolution, see page 8.

The resolution called upon African States that had not yet done so to sign and ratify the African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (Pelindaba Treaty), so that it might enter into force without delay. It also called upon those States that had not yet ratified the Protocols concerning them to do so; for the States contemplated in Protocol III to take all necessary measures to apply the Treaty to territories for which they were internationally responsible and that fell within the Treaty's geographical zone; and for the African States parties to the NPT that had not yet done so to conclude comprehensive safeguards agreements with the International Atomic Energy Agency pursuant to that Treaty.

First Committee

Before the vote, Spain stated that it would not be bound by the consensus on operative paragraph 3 concerning Protocol III which it found discriminatory. In its explanation of vote, the United States said that it supported Spain's statement and strongly urged the concerned parties to establish an effective process for resolving their differences taking into account the specific circumstances and the diversity of situations existing within the Treaty's area of application. It advised that this done before the First Committee considered another Pelindaba draft resolution.

After the vote, the United Kingdom, speaking on behalf of the European Union and the countries that aligned themselves with the statement,59 called upon the parties concerned to find an acceptable solution that reflected the specific circumstances and diversity of situations within the Treaty's zone.

60/50

Consolidation of the regime established by the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco). The draft resolution was introduced by Mexico, on behalf of the sponsors (see page 3 for the sponsors), on 24 October. It was adopted without a vote by the First Committee on 24 October and by the General Assembly on 8 December. For the text of the resolution, see page 9.

The resolution urged the countries of the region that had not yet done so to deposit their instruments of ratification of the amendments to Treaty.

60/52

Establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the region of the Middle East. The draft resolution was introduced by Egypt, on behalf of the sponsors (see page 3 for the sponsors), on 18 October. It was adopted by the First Committee without a vote on 24 October and by the General Assembly on 8 December. For the text of the resolution, see pages 12.

The resolution urged all parties concerned to consider taking the practical and urgent steps required for implementing the proposal to establish a NWFZ in the ME. It invited the countries of that region, pending the establishment of the zone, not to develop, produce, test or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons or permit the stationing on their territories, or territories under their control, of nuclear weapons or nuclear explosive devices. It also requested the Secretary-General to continue consultations with the States of the region and other concerned States, and to seek their views on the measures outlined in the study annexed to his report of 10 October 199060 or other relevant measures, in order to move towards the establishment of such a zone, and to submit a report on the implementation of the present resolution to the General Assembly's sixty-first session.

First Committee

After the vote, Israel said that it had joined the consensus because it continued to support the objectives of the draft resolution; however, it had substantive reservations about certain textual elements. It emphasized that the political realities in the ME region mandated a practical, incremental approach towards the creation of a NWFZ that included modest confidence-building measures, establishment of peaceful relations, reconciliation, and negotiation on regional security arrangements complemented by conventional and non-conventional arms control measures. For its part, Iran stressed that universal adherence to the NPT, particularly in the ME, would effectively ensure the establishment of a NWFZ in that region. Moreover, to pave the way for such a zone, the international community needed to exert pressure on Israel to accede to the NPT and place all its nuclear facilities under IAEA full-scope safeguards.

60/58

Nuclear-weapon-free southern hemisphere and adjacent areas.The draft resolution was introduced by New Zealand, on behalf of the sponsors (see page 5 for the sponsors), on 11 October. The revised draft resolution was adopted by the First Committee on 24 October as follows: as a whole (144-3-6), operative 5 as a whole (141-1-9) and the last three words of operative paragraph 5 "and South Asia" (140-2-7), and by the General Assembly on 8 December as follows: as a whole (167-3-8), operative paragraph 5 as a whole (162-1-9), and the last three words of that paragraph (162-2-7). For the text of the resolution and the voting pattern, see pages 25 and 9.

Among other things, the resolution called upon all concerned States to continue to work together in order to facilitate adherence to the protocols to nuclear-weapon-free-zone treaties by all relevant States that had not yet done so; and encouraged the competent authorities of the nuclear-weapon-free-zone treaties to provide assistance to the States parties and signatories to those treaties so as to facilitate the accomplishment of those goals.

First Committee

Before the vote, Spain stated that it would abstain in the voting because it had reservations about the holding of an international Conference of States Parties and Signatories to Treaties that Establish Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones, mentioned in the draft. It held that the foundation established for NWFZs in the Disarmament Commission's 1999 report and in the Final Document of the 2000 NPT Review Conference was sufficient, thus there was no further juridical or political elements to justify holding such a conference.

France, speaking on behalf of itself, the United Kingdom and the United States, said that they voted against the draft resolution because the ambiguity between a nuclear-weapon-free southern hemisphere and a NWFZ covering the high seas had not been sufficiently clarified. India, which cast negative votes on operative 5 as a whole and its last three words and abstained on the draft resolution as a whole, held that the draft text was not relevant to realities in South Asia. For its part, Pakistan, which voted against the last three words in operative 5 and abstained on operative 5 and the draft resolution as a whole, remarked that the reference to South Asia in the text was at complete variance with the realities on the ground.

60/516

Establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in Central Asia. The draft decision was introduced by Uzbekistan, on behalf of the sponsors (see page 18 for the sponsors), on 14 October . It was adopted without a vote by the First Committee on 24 October and by the General Assembly on 8 December. For the text of the resolution, see pages 101.

By its terms, the General Assembly would include this item in the provisional agenda of its sixty-first session.

Conventional disarmament at regional levels

60/63

Regional disarmament. The draft resolution was introduced by Pakistan, on behalf of the sponsors (see page 6 for the sponsors), on 18 October. It was adopted without a vote by the First Committee on 24 October and by the General Assembly on 8 December. For the text of the resolution, see page 33.

The resolution called upon States to conclude agreements, wherever possible, for nuclear non-proliferation, disarmament and confidence-building measures at the regional and subregional levels; and supported and encouraged efforts to promote regional and subregional confidence-building measures.

60/64

Confidence-building measures in the regional and subregional context. The draft resolution was introduced by Pakistan, on behalf of the sponsors (see page 7 for the sponsors), on 20 October. It was adopted without a vote by the First Committee on 24 October and by the General Assembly on 8 December. For the text of the resolution, see page 35.

The resolution called upon Member States to pursue the ways and means relating to confidence- and security-building measures as set out in the Disarmament Commission's 1993 report through sustained consultations and dialogue; urged States to comply strictly with all bilateral, regional and international agreements, including arms control and disarmament agreements, to which they were party; encouraged the promotion of bilateral and regional confidence-building measures to avoid conflict and prevent the unintended and accidental outbreak of hostilities; and requested the Secretary-General to submit a report containing Member States' views on confidence-building measures in the regional and subregional context to the General Assembly's sixty-first session.

60/75

Conventional arms control at the regional and subregional levels. The draft resolution was introduced by Pakistan, on behalf of the sponsors (see page 10 for the sponsors), on 18 October. It was adopted by the First Committee on 24 October as follows: (147-1-1) and by the General Assembly on 8 December as follows: (174-1-1). For the text of the resolution and the voting pattern, see pages 58 and 19.

The resolution requested the Conference on Disarmament to consider the formulation of principles that could serve as a framework for regional agreements on conventional arms control and to report on the subject. It also requested the Secretary-General to seek the views of Member States and to submit a report to the General Assembly's sixty-first session61.

60/87

Regional confidence-building measures: activities of the United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa.The draft resolution was introduced by Congo, on behalf of the sponsors (see page 14 for the sponsors), on 28 October. The revised draft resolution was adopted without a vote by the First Committee on 28 October and by the General Assembly on 8 December. For the text of the resolution, see page 79.

Among other things, the resolution requested the Secretary-General to provide the States members of the Standing Advisory Committee with the necessary support for the implementation and smooth functioning of the Council for Peace and Security in Central Africa and the early-warning mechanism; to support the establishment of a network of parliamentarians with a view to the creation of a subregional parliament in Central Africa; to continue to provide the Standing Advisory Committee with assistance to ensure that they could carry on their efforts; and to submit a report to the Assembly's sixty-first session on the implementation of the present resolution.62

60/94

Strengthening of security and cooperation in the Mediterranean region. The draft resolution was introduced by Algeria, on behalf of the sponsors (see page 16 for the sponsors), on 17 October. It was adopted without a vote by the First Committee on 25 October and by the General Assembly on 8 December. For the text of the resolution, see page 93.

In terms of disarmament, the resolution called upon all States of the Mediterranean region that had not yet done so to adhere to all the multilaterally negotiated legal instruments related to disarmament and non-proliferation; and encouraged those States to strengthen confidence-building measures among them by promoting openness and transparency on all military matters, by participating in the UN system for the standardized reporting of military expenditures and by providing accurate data and information to the UN Register of Conventional Arms .

First Committee

Before the vote, the United Kingdom,, speaking on behalf of the European Union and all the countries that aligned themselves with the draft resolution,63 indicated their support for the draft resolution and participation in the consensus.

Conclusion

Regional organizations have become essential partners of the United Nations in promoting international peace and security. Through the adoption of several resolutions to support the regional approach to security and disarmament, the General Assembly recognized the important role of regional organizations in enhancing regional security. The Sixth High-level meeting between the United Nations and Regional Organizations provided an important opportunity to strengthen those bonds.

Various efforts to consolidate and strengthen the existing NWFZs have also advanced. At the NPT Review Conference, many delegations voiced their support for the establishment of a zone in free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction the Middle East. Measures have also been taken by regional and subregional organizations to tackle the proliferation of SALW in the context of conflict resolution and prevention, peace-building and post conflict as well as combating organized crime, drug and human trafficking.

The United Nations through the Department of Disarmament Affairs and its three regional centres continued to assist and cooperate with various countries in their efforts to consolidate regional peace and security.

Annex I
Declaration of the Conference of Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones64

On the occasion of the Conference on the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the States parties and signatories to the Treaties of Tlatelolco (1967), Rarotonga (1985), Bangkok (1995), and Pelindaba (1996), which have established nuclear-weapon-free zones, and Mongolia, have met for the purpose of strengthening the nuclear-weapon-free zone regime and contributing to the disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation processes, and in particular to analyze ways of cooperating that can contribute to achieving the universal goal of a nuclear-weapon-free world.

Convinced that the existence of nuclear weapons constitutes a threat to the survival of humanity and that the only real guarantee against their use or threat of use is their total elimination as a way to achieve a nuclear-weapon-free world;

Convinced also of the important contribution made by the disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation regime to maintaining and strengthening international peace and security;

Confirming that Article VI of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) establishes the obligation to proceed with and to achieve nuclear disarmament;

Recognizing that the establishment of new nuclear-weapon-free-zones in regions where they do not exist should be concluded in accordance with the provisions of the Final Document of SSOD-I and the principles and guidelines adopted by the UNDC at its 1999 substantive session;

Recognizing also the right of any group of States to conclude regional treaties in order to assure the total absence of nuclear weapons in their respective territories by virtue of Article VII of the NPT, the cornerstone of the international nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation regime;

Bearing in mind that the international community must continue promoting the creation of nuclear-weapon-free zones throughout the world, as an effective means for achieving the objective of the total elimination of nuclear weapons, with the absolute priority of strengthening peace and security both at regional and international levels;

Recognizing multilateralism as the core principle of disarmament negotiations and nuclear non-proliferation efforts aimed at maintaining, strengthening and enlarging the scope of universal nuclear disarmament norms, as well as the complementary nature of irreversible and verifiable unilateral and bilateral measures in this area;

Welcoming the establishment of nuclear-weapon-free-zones created by the Treaties of Tlatelolco, Rarotonga, Bangkok and Pelindaba as a positive step towards achieving the objective of global nuclear disarmament, and the interest expressed by States Parties and signatories to such Treaties in promoting cooperation and consultation mechanisms among themselves, their treaty agencies and other interested States;

1. We reaffirm that the continued existence of nuclear weapons constitutes a threat to all humanity and that their use would have catastrophic consequences for life on Earth. Therefore, we believe in the need to move toward the priority objective of nuclear disarmament and to achieve the total elimination and prohibition of nuclear weapons.

2. We are convinced that reaching the objective of permanently eliminating and prohibiting nuclear weapons requires firm political will from all States, particularly those States that possess nuclear weapons.

3. We are also convinced that the establishment of internationally recognized nuclear-weapon-free zones on the basis of agreements entered into freely among the States of the zone concerned strengthens world and regional peace and security, reinforces the nuclear non-proliferation regime, and contributes to the achievement of nuclear disarmament. The establishment of such zones and the full compliance with those agreements or arrangements ensures that the zones are genuinely free from nuclear weapons, and respect for such zones by Nuclear-Weapon-States, constitute an important nuclear disarmament measure.

4. We reaffirm that the NPT constitutes an essential instrument of the nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation regime and therefore reiterate the validity of its set of principles, obligations, and rights, in particular Articles III, IV, VI and VII.

5. We reaffirm the importance of achieving the universality of the NPT and urge those States that are not parties thereto to accede to the Treaty without delay or conditions as non-nuclear-weapon States.

6. We express our deep concern over the lack of progress to date on the application of nuclear disarmament measures agreed to by all States Parties at the 2000 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, and urge all States to comply immediately with the obligation set forth in Article VI of the NPT to undertake to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament, and on a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control, recalling in particular the unequivocal undertaking by the nuclear-weapon States to accomplish the total elimination of their nuclear arsenals leading to nuclear disarmament, to which all States parties are committed.

7. We express our deep concern with new strategic security doctrines, which assign a broader role to nuclear weapons, imply intentions to develop new types of nuclear weapons or rationalization for their use, as well as to review agreed principles, in particular, the irreversibility of nuclear disarmament.

8. We reaffirm that the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons constitutes a breach of international law and the United Nations Charter, and a crime against humanity, as declared in UN General Assembly Resolutions 1653 (XVI), of 24 November 1961, 33/71 B, of 14 December 1978, 34/83 G, of 11 December 1979, 35/152 D, of 12 December 1980 and 36/92 I, of 9 December 1981.

9. We strongly support the unanimous conclusion of the International Court of Justice that there exists an obligation to pursue in good faith and bring to a conclusion negotiations leading to nuclear disarmament in all its aspects, under strict and effective international control.

10. We are convinced that a continued reduction in non-strategic nuclear weapons constitutes an integral part of the nuclear disarmament process and consider that the fundamental principles of transparency, verification, and irreversibility must be applied to all measures in this area.

11. We urge the Nuclear Weapon States to provide effective guarantees to non-nuclear-weapon States that they will not use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against them.  In this regard, in addition to the commitments taken on within the framework of UN Security Council Resolution 984 (1995) and the legally binding security assurances set forth in the relevant Protocols to the treaties establishing nuclear-weapon-free zones, we also urge Nuclear Weapon States to continue taking steps toward concluding a universal, unconditional and legally-binding universal treaty on security assurances for non-nuclear-weapon States and that until such treaty exists to respect the commitments assumed regarding security assurances. Priority attention should be given to this matter.

12. We urge the Nuclear Weapon States and any other States listed or mentioned in the relevant Protocols to the treaties establishing nuclear-weapon-free zones that have not yet signed or ratified the Protocols to do so as soon as possible.

13. We also urge the Nuclear Weapon States that, having signed or ratified some of the relevant Protocols to a treaty establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone, have done so with reservations or unilateral interpretations that affect the denuclearization status of that zone to modify or withdraw such reservations or unilateral interpretations.

14. We recognize that the status of a nuclear-weapon-free-zone should be respected by all State parties to the treaty establishing the zone as well as by States outside the region, including all States whose cooperation and support are essential for the maximum effectiveness of such a zone, namely, the Nuclear-Weapon-States and, if there are any, States with territory or that are internationally responsible for territories situated within the zone concerned.

15. We proudly note with satisfaction that with the entry into force of Treaties of Tlatelolco, Rarotonga and Bangkok, which had established nuclear-weapon-free zones in Latin America and the Caribbean, the South Pacific and Southeast Asia, along with the Antarctic Treaty and the Seabed Treaty, the areas of the world that are nuclear-weapon-free had been expanded.

16. We similarly welcome the efforts aimed at concluding the ratification process of the Treaty of Pelindaba, signed on 12 April 1996, which created Africa's nuclear-weapon-free zone, and exhort the States of the region that have not yet done so to ratify the Treaty so it may enter into force. Likewise, we urge the Nuclear Weapon States and other States that are contemplated in its relevant Protocols to sign or ratify said Protocols if they have yet to do so.

17. We express our recognition and full support of Mongolia's international nuclear-weapon-free status.

18. We reiterate our support for the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free- zone in the Middle East and, in this regard, we reaffirm the importance of Israel's accession to the NPT and the placement of all its nuclear facilities under comprehensive IAEA safeguards, in realizing the goal of universal adherence to the Treaty in the Middle East.

19. We also reiterate our support for the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in South Asia and urge India and Pakistan to accede to the Non-Proliferation Treaty as non-nuclear-weapon States and to place all their nuclear facilities under comprehensive Agency safeguards. We further urge both States to strengthen their non-proliferation export control measures over technologies, material and equipment that can be used for the production of nuclear weapons and their delivery systems.

20. We welcome the Tashkent statement of representatives of the five Central Asian States of February 2005, where they reaffirmed their strong commitments to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone in Central Asia and urged all States, particularly the nuclear-weapon States, to fully cooperate with the five Central Asian States in implementing the Central Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty.

21. We reaffirm our commitment to reach the common objectives set forth in the Treaties of Tlatelolco, Rarotonga, Bangkok and Pelindaba to promote the nuclear-weapon-free zones; to cooperate in the advancement of ratifications by all states that belong to a nuclear-weapon-free-zone as well as in the implementation of relevant instruments as a contribution to strengthen the NPT regime and achieve nuclear disarmament, including through mechanisms such as joint meetings of the States parties, signatories, and observers of those treaties, and cooperation agreements signed among them in a systematic manner within the framework of the NPT Review Conferences.

22. We accept the application of the relevant rules of international law, expressly recognized by States, to the maritime areas covered by the nuclear-weapon-free zones.

23. We reiterate our position for the total elimination of all nuclear testing and stress the significance of achieving universal adherence to the Comprehensive-Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, including by all Nuclear Weapon States, which, inter alia, should contribute to the process of nuclear disarmament.  We highlight the importance of maintaining a moratorium on nuclear-weapon-test-explosions or any other nuclear explosions pending the entry into force of that Treaty.  We reiterate that if the objectives of the Treaty were to be fully realized, the continued commitment of all signatories, especially the Nuclear Weapon States, to nuclear disarmament would be essential.

24. We reaffirm the inalienable right of all States to develop the research, production, and utilization of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination, as well as the inviolability of nuclear facilities. We further reaffirm that the nuclear-weapon-free-zones should not prevent the use of nuclear science and technology for peaceful purposes, as well as the essential character of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) technical cooperation activities in promoting the development of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and preventing the diversion of atomic energy for military purposes. In this regard, we underscore the important role of the IAEA in verifying that nuclear energy is only used for peaceful purposes.

25. We reaffirm that the nuclear-weapon-free zone could also promote, if provided for in the treaties establishing such zones, bilateral, regional and international cooperation for the peaceful use of nuclear energy in the zone, in support for socio-economic, scientific and technological development of the State parties. We call upon all States in a position to do so to contribute to the financing of the IAEA technical cooperation activities, as essential in promoting nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, and represent valuable contributions in that regard, particularly in developing countries.

26. We recognize the fundamental role of the IAEA in the application and verification of compliance with the international safeguards regime provided for in the NPT and the relevant NWFZ treaties, as well as the efforts of the IAEA to strengthen the effectiveness of the IAEA safeguards system.

27. We are firmly convinced that the most effective way to prevent non-State actors from acquiring nuclear weapons is through the total elimination of those weapons, and to this end, we encourage cooperation among and between States and relevant regional and international organizations for strengthening national capacities in this regard.

28. We express our deep concern over the potential hazards underlying any use of radioactive wastes that would constitute radiological warfare and its implications for regional and international security, and express the hope that the effective implementation of the IAEA Code of Practice on the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste will enhance the protection of all States from the dumping of radioactive wastes in their territories.

29. We reiterate our deep concern over the potential serious ecological and security risks of transporting radioactive material and other dangerous waste by sea or other navigable waters and urge all States, particularly those that transport such materials, to strengthen the international legal code as regards security and responsibility measures applicable to this mode of transportation, through the effective application of the commitments adopted within the IAEA, the IMO and other international fora.  We also urge all States to exchange information at the government level on the transport of radioactive material and urge States shipping radioactive materials to work with potentially affected States to address their concerns in this regard.

30. We express our conviction that disarmament and non-proliferation education constitutes an important measure that can contribute to achieving a world free of nuclear weapons threats. We therefore encourage all States to promote programs instilling the values of peace, disarmament, and nuclear non-proliferation in their respective educational and academic spheres and call upon IAEA and donor countries to help in the promotion and implementation of such programs.

31. We recognize the importance of multilateralism and in particular the notable role played by the United Nations in the area of nuclear disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation and we reiterate our commitment to adopting measures to strengthen that role.

Annex II
Ministerial Declaration on Practical Implementation of Small Arms. Action in the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa

We, the Ministers for Foreign Affairs and other Plenipotentiaries of the countries of the Great Lakes Region, the Horn of Africa and bordering states signatories to the Nairobi Protocol for Prevention, Control and Reduction of Small Arms and Light Weapons, namely; Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Seychelles, Sudan, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania, meeting at Nairobi on 20th and 21st of June 2005 on the occasion of The Third Ministerial Review Conference of the Nairobi Declaration on the Problem of the Proliferation of Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa

Reaffirming the inherent right of States to individual or collective self-defence as recognized in Article 51 of the United Nations Charter;

Expressing our continued concern with the problem of the proliferation of illicit small arms and light weapons in the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa and the devastating consequences they have had in sustaining armed conflicts and armed crime, degrading the environment, fuelling the illegal exploitation of natural resources and abetting terrorism and other serious crimes in the region;

Mindful of the continued need to prevent, combat and eradicate the illicit manufacturing of, excessive and destabilising accumulation of, trafficking in, illicit possession and use of small arms and light weapons, ammunition and other related materials, owing to the harmful effects of those activities on the security of each State and the sub-region, their social and economic development and their right to live in peace;

Conscious of the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000) where it reaffirmed the important role of women in the prevention and resolution of conflicts and in peace building, and stressed the importance of their equal participation and full involvement in all efforts for the maintenance and promotion of peace and security, and the need to increase their role in decision making with regard to conflict prevention and resolution;

Welcoming the signature of the Dar-es-Salaam Declaration emanating from the First Summit of Heads of State and Government in November 2004, which committed Governments in the Region, inter-alia, to engage in effective Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) processes, and to promote common policies to put to an end the proliferation of illicit small arms and light weapons, as well as anti-personnel mines and, in that regard, harmonize and ensure the implementation of existing agreements and mechanisms;

Welcoming the International Workshop on Global Principles for Arms Transfers held in Dar es Salaam in February 2005 and the progress made towards creating consensus on the need for global principles for arms transfer controls and the agreement on the implementation of the Nairobi Protocol, which are consistent with the principles of the proposed Arms Trade Treaty;

Congratulating the SADC States on the entry into force of the SADC Firearms Protocol in July 2004 and encouraging Southern African Governments to expedite its implementation;

Noting further the initiative of Algeria, Mali and Namibia to host regional Governmental experts meetings to prepare for the UNPoA Biennial Member States (BMS) reporting session of 2005;

Congratulating ECOWAS for establishing a new Small Arms Unit and a Small Arms Programme (ECOSAP) to continue and strengthen the work previously done by the Programme for Coordination and Cooperation on Security and Development (PCASED) to provide political guidance and oversight in the implementation of the regional commitments on small arms and light weapons;

Noting the recommendations of the Report of the UN Secretary General's High Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change of 2005; particularly in its recognition of the role of Sub-Regional and Regional Organizations including the Nairobi Secretariat in the UNPoA comprehensive approach to the small arms problem;

Welcoming the Madrid Agenda as proposed and agreed upon during the international summit on democracy, terrorism and security held in Madrid, Spain on 8th to 11th March, 2005 in remembrance and honour of all victims of terrorism and those who confront its threat;

Noting the imminent entry into force in July 2005 of the Protocol Against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, their parts and Components and ammunition, supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Trans-national Organized Crime;

Reaffirming the commitment undertaken by our Governments in support of:

The United Nations' Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All its Aspects of July 2001, and the discussions on its implementation in Africa (2002) and at the United Nations First Biennial Meeting of States to consider progress made in implementing the United Nations Programme of Action in New York (2003);
The Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, their Parts and Components and Ammunition, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Trans-national Organized Crime of June 2001, and taking into account the compatible elements thereof in the African Convention on the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism;
The OAU Bamako Declaration on the Common African Position on the Illicit Proliferation, Circulation and Trafficking of Small Arms and Light Weapons of December 2000;
The Nairobi Declaration on the Problem of the Proliferation of Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa of March 2000; its Coordinated Agenda for Action on the Problem of the Proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa SAEM/GLR.HOA/1 of November 2000 and its Implementation Plan SAEM/GLR.HOA/2 of November 2000;
The recommendations for Improved Capacity on small arms and light weapons action of the Second Ministerial Review Conference of the Nairobi Declaration held in April 2004 including its annexes, the Nairobi Protocol and activity schedule; the terms of reference of the Friends of Nairobi Declaration and the training curricula for senior management, practitioners and civil society;

Welcoming the expedient ratification by some State Parties of the Nairobi Protocol for Prevention, Control and Reduction of Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa;

Encouraging State Parties that have not yet ratified the Nairobi Protocol for Prevention, Control and Reduction of Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa to do so;

Commending those State Parties to the Nairobi Declaration that have commenced the implementation of National Action Plans for Arms Management and Disarmament;

Further Commending the work undertaken by the Nairobi Secretariat in:

Developing the work-plan for the implementation of the Nairobi Protocol;
Work-shopping minimum standards and best practices on key areas of the implementation of the Nairobi Protocol;
Developing the operational guidelines for regional harmonization of

legislation [Annex A];

Promoting the rapid ratification of the Nairobi Protocol by the State Parties;
Supporting the creation and launch of National Focal Points in the region;
Providing capacity to emerging National Focal Points;
Organizing the Third Ministerial Conference;
Piloting the Training Curricula for Senior Management and Practitioners and for Civil Society;
Establishing a Civil Society Dialogue Forum;
Developing consultations with States signatories for common approaches to the UN interim Ministerial meeting 2005;

Welcoming the contribution of civil society organisations in supporting the implementation of the Nairobi Declaration and sensitising society as to the dangers of the proliferation and trafficking of small arms and light weapons and, in particular, for providing technical assistance and support to the Nairobi Secretariat;

Commending the Nairobi Secretariat for constituting a Committee of Experts drawn from some States signatories to the Nairobi Declaration and the Nairobi Protocol, and finalizing the draft Agreement establishing the Regional Centre on Small Arms in the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa (RECSA);

Thanking the Government of Kenya for hosting and supporting the Nairobi Secretariat;

Thanking the UK Government through the Department for International Development (DFID), and the Royal Government of The Netherlands for their financial support for the implementation of the Nairobi Declaration through their financial support to the Nairobi Secretariat and State Parties engaged in National Action Plans;

Commending State Parties Signatories to the Nairobi Declaration and the Nairobi Protocol for establishing National Focal Points and undertaking various activities in the implementation of the Nairobi Protocol;

Finally, we accept the request by the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia and invite them to fully accede to the Nairobi Declaration and comply with all the procedures, guidelines and protocols developed by the Ministerial Declaration from its inception in 2000;

We, therefore, the Ministers and Plenipotentiaries agree to accept the Federal Republic of Somalia as the 12th member of this initiative and include the Federal Republic of Somalia as the signatory to the 3rd Ministerial Review Conference and Declaration.

We do hereby declare our commitment to continue to take all necessary steps to prevent, combat and eradicate the trafficking in, and the proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons, ammunitions and other related materials in the region.

To this end, our governments will, inter-alia, undertake to:

1. Fully Implement the Nairobi Protocol for the Prevention, Control and Reduction of Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region and Horn of Africa, by:

(a) Calling upon State Parties that have not done so to ratify the Nairobi Protocol;

(b) Committing the State Parties to identify and mobilize the necessary resources to ensure the effective implementation of the Nairobi Protocol;

(c) Committing the State Parties to implement the approved Nairobi Protocol Activity Schedule (Annex B);

(d) Completing the process of harmonization of legislation at national level by 28 April 2006;

(e) Mandating the National Focal Points to, inter alia;

- Ensure the timely delivery of implementation of the Nairobi Protocol at

National level.

- Develop national harmonization of legislation programmes in accordance with agreed guidelines [see annex A];

- Report the advances on national implementation of the Protocol to the Nairobi Secretariat as requested, for information exchange purposes;

(f) Mandating the Nairobi Secretariat to:

- Facilitate, assist and coordinate all aspects and activities related to the implementation of the Nairobi Protocol;

- Promote the rapid ratification of the Protocol by the State Parties that have not yet done so;

- Report back in writing to Ministers on the progress of ratification and national implementation on a regular basis;

2. Establish a Regional Centre for Small Arms and Light Weapons (RECSA) for the implementation of the Nairobi Declaration and the Nairobi Protocol in the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa by:

(a) Approving the Agreement that mandates the establishment of a Regional Centre for Small Arms (RECSA) to ensure a coordinated implementation of the Nairobi Declaration and the Nairobi Protocol (Annex C);

(b) Mandating the Nairobi Secretariat to urgently develop a staff manual and a full budget for RECSA ensuring its sustainability, including full staffing requirements, overheads and operational costs;

(c) Mandating the Secretariat to finalize the budget and forward it to Member States within a month of the signing of the RECSA Agreement;

(d) Requesting the Secretariat to thereafter call an extra-ordinary meeting of the Council of Ministers to discuss the budget for adoption on the basis of an agreeable formula;

(e) Urging member States to ensure the continued functioning of the Secretariat, and in particular to:

(i) request the Government of Kenya to consider continuing the present level of support for the Nairobi Secretariat;

(ii) implore the Governments of Uganda and Tanzania to continue supporting the effort;

(iii) request other member States to the Nairobi Declaration to also extend support to the Nairobi Secretariat;

(f) Requesting the Government of the Republic of Kenya to expeditiously enter into a host Headquarters Agreement with RECSA;

(g) Urging the international community and the Friends of the Nairobi

Declaration to commit financial resources in support of RECSA and its

approved activities on a regular basis.

3. Further enhance the capacity at the sub-regional and National levels to continue with the implementation of the Nairobi Declaration on the Problem of the Proliferation of Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa, by:

(a) Assisting State Parties, that have not yet done so, to develop and implement sustainable and comprehensive National Action Plans for Arms Management and Disarmament;

(b) Enhancing the capacity of law enforcement agencies to implement the

Nairobi Declaration and the Nairobi Protocol in all its aspects through:

(i) Mandating the National Focal Points to implement the approved Training Curricula for Senior Management and Practitioners at national level as approved by the Second Ministerial Review Conference of April 2004;

(ii) Continuing with the development of the Reference and Operational Manual (ROM) for interaction and co-ordination between National Focal Points and also between National Focal Points and RECSA with a view to implement it in 2006;

(iii) Implementing the Standard Operational Procedures for Joint Operation for Small Arms Control and Reduction that is part of the Reference and Operational Manual (ROM) as soon as Police Chiefs from the sub-region approve it;

(c) Improving the capacity of civil society to support the National Focal Points and RECSA in the implementation of the Nairobi Declaration and the Nairobi Protocol by encouraging the implementation of the approved training curricula for organized civil society, in particular among the media and parliamentarian communities;

(d) Mandating RECSA to take into account gender considerations in its policies relating to the implementation of the Nairobi Declaration and the Nairobi Protocol;

(e) Encouraging RECSA to develop region to region interaction and information exchange for lessons learnt and the development of common

responses to international initiatives;

(f) Mandating RECSA and National Focal Points to hold an annual consultation with research centres to exchange information on existing research that could be utilized in support of the Nairobi Declaration and the Nairobi Protocol implementation; identify research topics relevant to the implementation status of the Nairobi Declaration and Nairobi Protocol; and disseminate the results of the consultation broadly.

We firmly believe that these measures will contribute towards the effective implementation of the Nairobi Declaration and the Nairobi Protocol as well as consolidating the regional and national coordination capacities.

In witness whereof, We the Ministers for Foreign Affairs and other Plenipotentiaries of the countries of the Great Lakes Region, the Horn of Africa and bordering States signatories to the Nairobi Protocol, have signed this Declaration;

Done at Nairobi on this 21st day of June 2005, in three original texts, in English, French and Arabic languages, all three texts being equally authentic.

Annex III
Declaration of Heads of Member States of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation65

(Astana, July 05, 2005)

The heads of the member states of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation - /further mentioned as the SCO or the Organisation/ - of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the People's Republic of China, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Tajikistan and the Republic of Uzbekistan - having gathered at a meeting of the Council of heads of SCO member states in Astana on July 05, 2005, state the following:

I

In the period that has elapsed since the meeting of heads of State held in Tashkent on 17 June 2004, all the tasks set on that occasion with a view to further developing and strengthening SCO have virtually been completed. The Organization is advancing confidently on the path of expanding multilateral cooperation among its member States and is actively cooperating with other international organizations and countries.

The standing organs of SCO — the Secretariat in Beijing and the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure in Tashkent — which have been operational since 2004, are becoming effective collective instruments, ensuring the uninterrupted functioning of the Organization. Note was taken of the important role played by the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure’s executive organ, the Council, which must be increased.

The heads of State agreed that, in order to increase the effectiveness and coordination of the work of SCO and all its organs and mechanisms, the Council of National Coordinators should prepare, in time for the next summit meeting in 2006, proposals for strengthening the role of the Secretariat and amending the title of its chief to Secretary-General of SCO.

The heads of State noted the importance of taking the necessary steps to implement the agreements reached at the second meeting of Secretaries of Security Councils of the States members of SCO, which took place on 2 June 2005 in Astana.

In order to assist the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure in implementing the Shanghai Convention on Combating Terrorism, Separatism and Extremism, the heads of State agreed to establish the institution of permanent representatives of member States to the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure, based on the same principles as those governing the functioning of the institution of permanent representatives of member States to the Secretariat.

The heads of State are confident that the Framework Document on cooperation among the States members of SCO in combating terrorism, separatism and extremism adopted at the summit will increase the effectiveness of such cooperation and make the activities of the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure more efficient and targeted.

The heads of State are proceeding on the basis that, at its forthcoming meeting, to be held in autumn 2005 in Moscow, the Council of Heads of Government (prime ministers) will give real impetus to the implementation of the Plan of Measures to give effect to the Programme on multilateral trade and economic cooperation among the States members of SCO, adopted in September 2004, and to the development of practical cooperation among the ministries and departments responsible for foreign economic and foreign trade activities, transport, environmental protection, emergency situations, culture and education, as well as approving a rational financial and budgetary policy for SCO.

The SCO Business Council, the establishment of which is entering its final phase, should become a new tool for stimulating integration processes within the framework of the Organization. The parties will expedite the creation of the SCO development fund based on the principles they agreed. At the same time, they agreed to strengthen inter-bank cooperation with a view to providing financial support for the implementation of regional cooperation projects.

While noting the significant and constructive work carried out by the Council of Ministers for Foreign Affairs, the heads of State emphasize the importance of the efficient functioning of the consultation mechanism on international issues already established. They also consider it vital to ensure that SCO develops its international contacts in a well-thought-out and targeted manner. Such issues should, as a matter of principle, be decided by the Council of Ministers for Foreign Affairs, while the day-to-day coordination of contacts established by the standing organs of SCO should be undertaken by the Council of National Coordinators, in cooperation with the Council of the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure.

The heads of State are confident that the granting to Pakistan, the Islamic Republic of Iran and India of observer status with SCO will expand the Organization’s capacity to develop multilateral and mutually advantageous cooperation in various areas.

The granting to the Organization of observer status with the United Nations General Assembly in December 2004 and the signing of memorandums of understanding between SCO and the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and between SCO and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in April 2005 are important indicators of the Organization’s growing authority in the international arena.

In the near future, the Council of National Coordinators, together with the Secretariat and the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure, must elaborate common approaches so that SCO is able, with maximum efficiency, to develop links with the United Nations Secretariat, its commissions and committees, implement documents on cooperation signed with other international organizations and establish ties with regional associations and forums, as well as with interested States, on the basis of equality and mutual respect.

II

The heads of State note that, against the backdrop of the contradictory process of globalization, multilateral cooperation based on the principles of equality and mutual respect, non-interference in the internal affairs of sovereign countries, nonconfrontational thinking and consistent progress towards the democratization of international relations, contributes to the maintenance of international peace and security and call on the international community, irrespective of differences in ideology and social systems, to develop a new concept of security, based on mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and cooperation.

The diversity of the world’s cultures and civilizations is a common human good. In an era of rapid progress in information and communication technology, this should stimulate mutual interest and tolerance, eliminate extremes in approaches and judgements and promote the development of dialogue. The right of each people to choose its own path of development must be fully guaranteed.

The heads of State are convinced that a rational and just world order must be based on the strengthening of mutual trust and good-neighbourliness and the establishment of relations of genuine partnership free from claims to monopoly and dominance in international affairs. The more firmly such an order is based on the primacy of the principles and standards of international law, first and foremost, the Charter of the United Nations, the more stable and secure it will be. In the field of human rights, there is a need for strict and consistent respect for the historical traditions and national specificities of each people and for the sovereign equality of all States.

The heads of State support rational and necessary reform of the United Nations to increase its effectiveness and authority. It was reaffirmed that, in conducting the reform, it would be important to adhere to the principle of the broadest possible consensus and to refrain from imposing time frames or putting to the vote proposals on which there remained significant differences.

The heads of State are proceeding on the basis that the Asia and Pacific region is destined to play an important role in securing peace and development in the twenty-first century. They oppose the development of fault lines, both in the region as a whole and in its constituent parts, and they believe that any misunderstandings or disputes between States must be resolved by peaceful means, that is through negotiation, and that an atmosphere of friendship, mutual understanding, cooperation and constructiveness must become firmly established in this dynamic region. Promoting this is one of the main areas of activity of SCO.

The heads of State support the efforts of the Central Asian States to maintain peace, security and stability in their countries and in the region as a whole and believe that SCO should play an active role in strengthening stability and economic development in Central Asia.

III

The heads of State believe that concerted efforts by the member States are required in order to effectively counter the new challenges and threats to international and regional security and stability.

Such concerted efforts must be of a multidisciplinary nature, must make a tangible contribution to the reliable protection of the territories, populations and key life-support systems and infrastructure facilities of the member States from the destructive impact of the new challenges and threats and to the creation of the conditions necessary for sustainable development and poverty eradication in the SCO area and must include:

Development of close cooperation among the member States’ foreign policy and foreign economic departments, law enforcement agencies, special services and defence departments;
Active use of the mechanism of meetings of the Secretaries of the member States’ Security Councils;
Elaboration of effective measures and mechanisms for responding jointly to situations that pose a threat to peace, security and stability in the region;
Joint planning and conduct of counter-terrorism measures;
Harmonization of national legislation on security issues;
Cooperation in developing and utilizing modern technology to combat new challenges and threats;
Establishment of an effective information mechanism to counter the new challenges and threats;
Training of specialists in relevant fields.

The States members of SCO will suppress attempts in their territories to plan or commit terrorist acts, including acts directed against the interests of other States, they will not grant asylum to persons accused or suspected of conducting terrorist, separatist or extremist activities and they will extradite such persons on receiving applications to that effect from other member States formulated in strict compliance with the legislation in force in those States.

Measures will be taken to improve and increase the effectiveness of the work of the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure.

It is important for SCO, within the framework of efforts to combat international terrorism, to tackle the problem of eliminating its material base, first and foremost, by combating the illicit traffic in weapons, ammunition, explosives and narcotic drugs, organized transborder crime, illegal migration and mercenarism. Special attention must be given to preventing the use by terrorists of components of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery and information terrorism.

In order to combat the financing of terrorism, separatism and extremism, including the legalization of income and funds obtained by illegal means, there is an urgent need to develop within SCO common approaches and standards for monitoring money transfers and movements of funds belonging to individuals and entities suspected of participation in terrorism and to ensure that SCO is actively involved in relevant international efforts.

Priority attention must be given to expanding cooperation in combating the illicit traffic in narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and their precursors, in accordance with the Agreement on Cooperation against Illicit Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances and Their Precursors of 17 June 2004. SCO is ready to take an active part in international efforts to establish an anti-drug belt around Afghanistan and in the development and implementation of special programmes to provide assistance to Afghanistan in stabilizing its socio-economic and humanitarian situation.

We support and will continue to support the efforts of the international coalition conducting counter-terrorism operations in Afghanistan. Today, we note the positive trend towards stabilization of the internal political situation in Afghanistan. A number of SCO countries made their ground infrastructure available for the temporary accommodation of the coalition members’ military contingents and granted the use of their territories and airspace for military transit to facilitate counter-terrorism operations.

In the light of the completion of the active military phase of counter-terrorism operations in Afghanistan, the States members of SCO believe that the participants in the anti-terrorism coalition should establish end dates for their temporary use of the aforementioned infrastructure facilities and the presence of their military contingents in the territories of the SCO countries.

The protection and development of key infrastructure and transport facilities are becoming ever more urgent given the need to prevent and deal with various types of man-made disasters, the consequences of which are already emerging as a significant element in the new order of threats. The States members of SCO are developing multilateral mechanisms for monitoring and exchanging analytical information concerning potential disasters and their consequences and are establishing the necessary legal and organizational conditions for the conduct of joint rescue operations, including preparation and training of personnel in the use of common methods, rapid transfer of personnel and compatibility of technical equipment.

The SCO will make a constructive contribution to the efforts of the world community to address security issues on land, at sea, in the air and in outer space.

In order to increase their capacity to combat terrorism, separatism, extremism and other challenges and threats, the States members of SCO will consistently expand cooperation in the economic sphere, guided by the Programme on multilateral trade and economic cooperation and the Plan of Measures to give effect to the Programme. Practical steps will be taken in the fields of environmental protection and rational use of natural resources.

There is an urgent need to develop agreed methods and recommendations for conducting preventive measures and appropriate public awareness activities in order to counter attempts to exert a destructive influence on public opinion. The member States will actively promote the expansion of cooperation within SCO in such areas as education, culture, sport and tourism.

The heads of State are proceeding on the basis that combining their efforts within the framework of SCO for the purpose of safeguarding security and expanding the Organization’s potential does not infringe on the interests of other countries or signify a movement towards the establishment of a bloc and that it is fully consistent with the principle of openness of SCO and with the spirit of broad international cooperation in confronting new challenges and threats.

Hu Jintao, President of the People's Republic of China

N.Nazarbaev, President of the Republic of Kazakhstan

K.Bakiev, Acting President of the Kyrgyz Republic

V.Putin, President of the Russian Federation

E.Rakhmonov, President of the Republic of Tajikistan

I.Karimov, President of the Republic of Uzbekistan


1A/59/2005, Report of the Secretary-General: In larger freedom: towards development, security and human rights for all, para. 213.
2A/35/416, Study on All Aspects of Regional Disarmament, (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.81.IX.2).
3Ibid.
4UN Disarmament Commission "Guidelines and recommendations for regional approaches to disarmament within the context of global security," (A/48/42), Annex II. See also "Establishment of nuclear-weapon-free zones on the basis of arrangements freely arrived at among the States of the region concerned" (A/54/42), Annex I.
5Ibid.
6For details, see the latest report of the Secretary-General on Antarctica, (A/60/222), available at www.ods.un.org.
7Report of the Disarmament Commission (A/54/42).
8For the texts of the CFE Treaty and Vienna Documents on CSBMs, updated at the Istanbul Summit meeting in 1999, see documents CFE.DOCUMENT/2/99/ available at www.osce.org/item/13517.html. and FSC.DOCUMENT/1/99. The latter and all subsequent documents of the Forum for Security Cooperation are available at www.osce.org/fsc/documents.html.
9A/53/78, Annex. The text is reproduced in The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook, vol. 22: 1997, Appendix III. (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.98.IX.1).
10AG/RES.1607 (XXXIX-0/99). The text is reproduced in The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook, vol. 24: 1999, Appendix II. (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.00.IX.1).
11Non-mandatory CBMs discussed and implemented within the ARF include: exchange of information on observation and prior notification of military exercises, exchange of visits to military establishments and naval vessels, holding seminars and workshops with defence and military officials, visits to defence facilities and dialogue on defence policy and conversion.
12Member States of SCO are China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.
13A/CONF.192/15, Report of the United Nations Conference on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.
14See chapter III, The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook, volumes 27, 2002, 28, 2003 and 29, 2004.
15www.un.org/secureworld/.
16www.un.org/largerfreedom/.
17The following regional and other intergovernmental organizations attended the sixth High-level meeting: Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), African Union (AU), Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Secretariat, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Council of Europe, Commonwealth Secretariat, Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP), Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO), Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), European Union (represented by the European Commission, the Council and the Presidency of the Council of the EU), Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD), International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol), League of Arab States, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Organization of American States (OAS), Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), Pacific Islands Forum (PIF), South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), and Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO).
18Statement by the President of the Security Council, (S/PRST/2005/7, para. 5).
19A/60/121.
20"Declaration for the Conference of Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones," CZLAN/CONF/5, available at www.opanal.org/Docs/seminars/nwfz /DNU-02931C.pdf.
21"Santiago de Chile Declaration," CG/Res.487, available at www.opanal.org/index-i.html.
22A/RES/60/52.
23NPT/CONF.1995/32 (Part I), annex, available at http://disarmament .un.org/wmd/npt/1995nptrevconf.html.
24Available at www.smallarmsnet.org/docs/saaf14.pdf.
25Information on ECOWAS and the Moratorium is available at www.ecowas.int.
26Adopted by the Special Conference on Security on 28 October 2003. For the document, see http://www.oas.org. For the Declaration, see The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook, vol. 28, 2003, p.185 (United Nations Sales Publication. E.04.IX.1).
27AG/RES. 2094 (XXXV-O/05). This and all subsequent documents of the OAS General Assembly are available at www.oas.org.
28 AG/RES. 2104 (XXXV-O/05).
29 AG/RES. 2107 (XXXV-O/05).
30 AG/RES. 2108 (XXXV-O/05).
31 AG/RES. 2109 (XXXV-O/05).
32 AG/RES. 2110 (XXXV-O/05).
33 AG/RES. 2111 (XXXV-O/05).
34 AG/RES. 2142 (XXXV-O/05).
35 The Convention is available at: www.oas.org/juridico/english/arms /htm#.
36Ibid.
37Chairman's statement is available at www.aseanregionalforum.org.
38See Declaration of Heads of Member States of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation available at www.sectsco.org/html/00500.html.
39Chairman's statement available at www.aseansec.org/18104.htm.
40See A/59/364, "Mongolia's international security and nuclear-weapon- free status", report of the Secretary-General for findings of the two studies.
41Eighteen Arab States participated in the symposium: Algeria, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. The following States also participated: Austria, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mali, Niger, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russian Federation, Spain, Switzerland, Netherlands, United Kingdom and United States; see: http://disarmament2.un.org/rdb.
42Regional organizations such as the Arab League and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, several UN Departments and Agencies and civil society participated in the symposium.
43The following States participated in the meeting: Algeria, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.
44Detailed information on the project is available at www.undp.org.
45Adopted at the OSCE Ministerial Council in Maastricht, December 2003, available at http://www.osce.org/item/16350.html.
46FSC.DEC/7/05, op. cit. footnote 8.
47MC.DEC/7/05.
48FSC.DEC/5/05.
49FSC/DEC.5/96.
50MC.DEC/8/05.
51Available at www.un.org/docs/sc/committees/1373/handbook.pdf.
52The HLTF was established in 1986 and meets about six times a year to develop policy and coordinate the Alliance's participation in conventional arms control negotiations.
53The VCC was chartered in 1990 to coordinate verification activities of Alliance members focusing on implementation of the Vienna Document of 1999 on the Negotiations on Confidence-and Security-Building Measures and the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe.
54The EAPC's Ad Hoc Working Group on Small Arms and Light Weapons and Mine Action was established in 1999 to provide a forum for addressing the impact of the proliferation of SALW on Alliance joint peacekeeping operations.
55The PMSC provides overall guidance to the Alliance's Partnership for Peace (PfP) programme and manages its Trust Fund Mechanism.
56www.nato.int.
57www.racviac.org.
58www.seesac.org.
59The United Kingdom spoke on behalf of the European Union, the acceding countries of Bulgaria and Romania, the candidate countries of Turkey and Croatia, the countries of the Stabilization and Association Process and potential candidates Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro, the European Free Trade Association country of Liechtenstein, member of the European Economic Area, as well as Ukraine.
60A/45/435.
61See A/60/92, Report of the Secretary-General on "Conventional arms control at the regional and subregional levels", submitted to the Sixtieth session of the General Assembly.
62See A/60/166, Report of the Secretary-General on "Regional confidence-building measures: activities of the United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on security questions in Central Africa", submitted to the Sixtieth session of the General Assembly.
63op. cit., footnote 59.
64CZLAN/CONF/5, see A/60/121, annex IV.
65op.cit., footnote 38.