Conference on Facilitating the Entry into Force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, New York, 20051
Final Declaration and Measures to Promote the Entry into Force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
1. We the ratifiers, together with the State Signatories, met in New York from 21-23 September 2005 to promote the entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty at the earliest possible date. In accordance with the mandate given to us in Article XIV of the Treaty, we decided by consensus what measures consistent with international law may be undertaken to accelerate the ratification process in order to facilitate the early entry into force of the Treaty, thus ridding the world of nuclear weapon test explosions.
2. We reiterate that the cessation of all nuclear weapon test explosions and all other nuclear explosions, by constraining the development and qualitative improvement of nuclear weapons and ending the development of advanced new types of nuclear weapons, constitutes an effective measure of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation in all its aspects. The end to all nuclear weapons testing is, thus, a meaningful step in the realization of a systematic process to achieve nuclear disarmament.
3. The international community is committed to establishing a universal and internationally and effectively verifiable comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty as a major instrument in the field of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. The overwhelming support for the Treaty and its early entry into force has been expressed by the United Nations General Assembly and other multilateral and regional organs and initiatives, which have called for signature and ratification of the Treaty as soon as possible, and have urged all States to remain seized of the issue at the highest political level. We reaffirmed the importance of the Treaty and its early entry into force for the practical steps and effective measures for the systematic and progressive efforts towards nuclear disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation which were agreed to by the participating States at international forums dealing with nuclear disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation.
4. We note that significant progress has been made in signing and ratifying the CTBT, which has achieved near universal adherence with signature by 176 States and ratification by 125 States as of tDDAy, of which 8 have signed and 21 have ratified since the 2003 Conference on Facilitating the Entry into Force of the CTBT. This progress demonstrates the strong determination of the vast majority of States not to carry out any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion, and to prohibit and prevent any such nuclear explosion at any place under their jurisdiction or control. Of the 44 States listed in Annex 2 of the Treaty whose ratification is required for its entry into force, 41 have signed and of these, 33 have also ratified the Treaty. A list of those States is provided in the Appendix.
5. Despite the progress made and the near universal international support that exists for the Treaty, we note with concern that it has not entered into force nine years after its opening for signature on 24 September 1996. Relevant international developments since the 2003 Conference on Facilitating the Entry into Force of the CTBT make entry into force of the Treaty more urgent tDDAy than ever before, within the broader framework of multilateral disarmament, arms control and non-proliferation efforts. We renew our strong conviction that entry into force of the CTBT will enhance international peace and security.
6. We call upon all States which have not yet done so to sign and ratify the Treaty without delay, in particular, those States whose ratification is needed for entry into force. We strongly encourage such Annex 2 States to take individual initiatives to ratify the Treaty. We also commend efforts to create conditions facilitating ratification by such Annex 2 States, including confidence-building measures through which such States could be encouraged to consider, as an option, ratifying the Treaty in a coordinated manner. At the same time, we renew our commitment to work for universal ratification of the Treaty and its early entry into force.
7. We recognize the extensive range of bilateral and joint outreach efforts by signatories and ratifiers to encourage and assist States which have not yet signed and ratified the Treaty to do so, and agreed to intensify our efforts to encourage ratification. We expressed appreciation for the efforts of the Special Representative in promoting entry into force of the Treaty, and agreed that he should continue to support the Article XIV Coordinator.
8. In accordance with the letter and spirit of the Treaty, we reaffirm our firm determination to end nuclear weapon test explosions and any other nuclear explosions. We call upon all States not to carry out such explosions. Continuing and sustained voluntary adherence to a moratorium is of the highest importance, but does not have the same effect as the entry into force of the Treaty, which offers the global community the prospect of a permanent and legally binding commitment to end nuclear weapon test explosions or any other nuclear explosions. We reaffirm our commitment to the Treaty's basic obligations and call on all States to refrain from acts which would defeat the object and purpose of the Treaty pending its entry into force.
9. We reaffirmed our strong belief that it is essential to maintain momentum in building all elements of the verification regime, which will be capable of verifying compliance with the Treaty at its entry into force. The verification regime will be unprecedented in its global reach after entry into force of the Treaty and will thereby ensure confidence that States are maintaining their Treaty commitments. In this context, we will continue to provide the support required to enable the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization to complete all its tasks in the most efficient and cost-effective way including the On-Site Inspection programme and the progressive development and coverage of the International Monitoring System which will be capable of meeting the verification requirements of the Treaty at its entry into force.
10. We agree that in addition to its essential function, the CTBT verification system currently being built up would be capable of bringing scientific and civil benefits, including for tsunami warning systems and possibly other disaster alert systems. We will continue to consider ways to ensure that these benefits can be broadly shared by the international community in conformity with the Treaty.
11. We reaffirm our determination to continue to work towards early entry into force of the Treaty and to this end adopt the following measures.
Measures to Promote the Entry into Force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
Convinced of the importance of achieving universal adherence to the Treaty, we:
(a) Will spare no efforts and use all avenues open to us in conformity with international law to encourage further signature and ratification of the Treaty, and urge all States to sustain the momentum generated by this Conference to remain seized of the issue at the highest political level;
(b) Support and encourage bilateral, regional and multilateral initiatives by interested countries and the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization to promote the entry into force of the Treaty;
(c) Agree that ratifying States will continue the practice of selecting one of their number as a coordinator to promote cooperation, through informal consultations with all interested countries, aimed at promoting further signatures and ratifications;
(d) Will maintain a contact list of countries among ratifiers which volunteer to assist the coordinator in various regions in promoting activities enhancing the entry into force of the Treaty;
(e) Agree that the Special Representative appointed following the 2003 Conference on Facilitating the Entry into Force of the CTBT will continue to assist the coordinating State in the performance of its function in promoting the entry into force of the Treaty;
(f) Recommend that ratifying States will consider establishing a trust fund, financed through voluntary contributions, to support an outreach programme for promoting the Treaty;
(g) Encourage the organization of regional seminars in conjunction with other regional meetings in order to increase the awareness of the important role that the Treaty plays;
(h) Call upon the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization to continue its international cooperation activities and organizing workshops, seminars and training programmes in the legal and technical fields;
(i) Call upon the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty Organization to continue promoting understanding of the Treaty and demonstrating, on a provisional basis, the benefits of the civil and scientific applications of the verification technologies, inter alia, in such areas as environment, earth science and technology, tsunami warning systems and possibly other disaster alert systems;
(j) Recommend that the Provisional Technical Secretariat continue to provide States with legal assistance with respect to the ratification process and implementation measures and, in order to enhance these activities and their visibility, maintain a contact point for the exchange and dissemination of relevant information and documentation;
(k) Request the Provisional Technical Secretariat to continue to act as a "focal point" where information about activities undertaken by ratifiers and signatories is collected in order to assist in promoting the entry into force of the Treaty;
(l) Encourage cooperation with non-governmental organizations and other elements of civil society to raise awareness of and support for the Treaty and its objectives, as well as the need for its early entry into force.