Conventional Disarmament at Regional Levels
During the year, African States, through the African Union (AU) and several subregional organizations, focused their efforts on addressing the conflict and post-conflict situations on the continent. Combating illicit SALW proliferation and misuse was an important component of those efforts.
Significant activities by States, regional and subregional organizations, as well as civil society, took place in implementing the 2001 United Nations PoA on SALW. Those activities constituted important building blocks in the global efforts to tackle the scourge caused by illicit SALW. Though many challenges remain, these initiatives clearly demonstrate that progress was being made in this area.
At the regional level, the Second Extraordinary Session of the AU Assembly, (Sirte, Libya, 28 February), adopted the Common African Defence and Security Policy.1
The document cited the illicit proliferation, circulation and trafficking in SALW as one of the factors that engendered insecurity on the continent, and called for coordinated efforts to address the threat. At the AU's Third Ordinary Session (Addis Ababa, 6-8 July), the Assembly approved the measures taken by the Executive Council to operationalize the Peace and Security Council; requested the Chairperson of the AU Commission to take the necessary measures to operationalize all aspects of the Protocol, including, in particular, the Panel of the Wise, the Continental Early Warning System, the African Standby Force and the Military Staff Committee.2
A number of events took place at the subregional level. In West Africa, ECOWAS carried out activities to assist its member States in the full implementation of its Moratorium on the Importation, Exportation and Manufacture of Small Arms and Light Weapons in West Africa (ECOWAS Moratorium);3
and to start the process of transforming the Moratorium into a Convention. Having recognized the need to transform the Moratorium into a new legally-binding instrument, ECOWAS circulated a working draft entitled Protocol Regarding the Fight against the Proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons, Their Munitions and Other Related Material4
to member States, donors and civil society organizations with the aim of transforming the moratorium into a regional convention by the end of 2005.
In March, the ECOWAS Secretariat organized a conference on "Combating Illicit Small Arms Brokering and Trafficking" in Abuja, which was attended by SALW experts from the region. The conference identified the illicit spread of small arms as a major source of instability in the region. It recommended that ECOWAS take ownership of the processes of control of the trade and brokering activities on small arms and light weapons in the region, and intensify its coordination and harmonization role on this and related issues. The conference called for the adoption of a Convention on illicit brokering of small arms and light weapons to stem the flow of such weapons into West Africa. As proposed, the Convention would address certain loopholes in the ECOWAS Moratorium which were being exploited by illicit brokers to smuggle such weapons into the region. The Conference also proposed that the Small Arms Unit in the ECOWAS Secretariat should be charged with the responsibility for the coordination of issues on small arms with relevant organizations, including the United Nations, Regional Economic Communities such as the Southern African Development Conference (SADC) and non-governmental organizations.5
Participants noted that 13 of the 15 Member States had complied with a provision in the Moratorium for the establishment of National Commissions to execute and monitor its implementation and urged the strengthening of their capacity to cope with the challenges of the Moratorium.
In addition, from 25 to 26 October, the ECOWAS Secretariat organized a meeting for the Review and Adoption of the Successor Project Document to the Programme for Coordination and Assistance for Security and Development in Africa (PCASED). The meeting addressed the following issues, including examining the ECOWAS Small Arms Control Programme (ECOSAP); seeking commitments from development partners for financial and other resources in support of the successor programme to PCASED; sensitizing, networking and elaborating mDDAlities for partnership building and broad-based support for the new programme; and adopting a plan of action and schedule of activities that would allow for the transformation of the Moratorium into a Convention by December 2005.
A seminar on Developing West African and International Arms Control based on International Law was held in Dakar from 19 to 23 July. The seminar, organized by Oxfam and supported by the United Nations Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Africa, discussed several issues, including raising awareness of the latest initiatives to advance the PoA's recommendations on international export controls and international law; raising awareness and understanding of the international standards and principles underpinning the proposed Arms Trade Treaty (ATT); finding how the international law principles outlined in the ATT could apply in the West African context and how they could be used to strengthen the ECOWAS Moratorium; developing strategies to promote and develop the ATT; and strengthening the ECOWAS Moratorium through its development into a Convention.
At the Second Ministerial Review Conference of the Nairobi Declaration on the Problem of the Proliferation of Illicit SALW in the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa6
(Nairobi, 20-21 April), the participating countries signed The Nairobi Protocol for the Prevention, Control and Reduction of Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa (Nairobi Protocol).7
The instrument's objectives were to (a) prevent, combat and eradicate the illicit manufacturing of, trafficking in, possession and use of SALW in the subregion; (b) prevent the excessive and destabilizing accumulation of small arms and light weapons in the subregion; (c) promote and facilitate information sharing and cooperation between the governments in the subregion as well as between governments, inter-governmental organizations and civil society, in all matters relating to the illicit trafficking and proliferation of small arms and light weapons; (d) promote cooperation at the subregional level as well as in international fora to effectively combat the small arms and light weapons problem, in collaboration with relevant partners; and (e) encourage accountability, law enforcement and efficient control and management of small arms and light weapons held by States parties and civilians. The Conference also issued a Ministerial Declaration for Improved Capacity for Action on SALW in the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa,8
in which the participating States undertook to ratify the Nairobi Protocol by 31 December 2004.9
The declaration also welcomed the Republic of Kenya's proposal to establish a Committee of Experts to draft an agreement that would serve as the legal basis for the establishment of RECSA (Regional Centre on Small Arms), an inter-governmental entity designed to ensure a coordinated implementation of the Nairobi Declaration and the Nairobi Protocol.10
The Nairobi Secretariat was mandated to set up the Committee of Experts which would submit a final draft of the RECSA agreement to the third Ministerial Review Conference to be held in 2005.
During the year, the Nairobi Secretariat on SALW published its Annual Report for the Year 2003. The report reviewed progress made so far in combating the spread of SALW in the Great Lakes region, identified challenges, and outlined lessons learned. It also set out the Nairobi Secretariat Strategic Plan covering the period 2004-2007.11
In the Southern African subregion, the Protocol on the Control of Firearms, Ammunition and Other Related Materials in the Southern African Development Community (SADC)12
region, adopted in 2001, entered into force on 8 November, constituting a step forward in the efforts by countries in that region to address the problems arising from the influx of SALW into the region as well as cross-border trafficking of arms within the region.
At a joint Ministerial meeting between SADC and the European Union (EU) (Netherlands, 20 October), Ministers from both regions agreed to strengthen bilateral collaboration covering broad areas, including peace support, training in peacekeeping operations, post-conflict reconstruction and reintegration, de-mining, and the elimination of the illicit trade in drugs and SALW.13
The United Nations Standing Advisory Committee on Security Questions in Central Africa (the Standing Advisory Committee) continued to actively promote peace and security in the region. The Committee held its 21st Ministerial Meeting in Malabo, Equatorial Guinea from 21 to 25 June 2004. The Committee, aimed at promoting peace and security in the Central African region through confidence-building measures, discussed among other things, the attempted coup in March 2004 in Equatorial Guinea which took place with the help of mercenaries. Reflecting on the seriousness of the matter, the Committee decided to include on the agenda of its 23rd Ministerial Meeting an item on the threat of mercenaries in the Central African region. The Committee also looked into cooperation between the United Nations and the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) with a view to strengthening collaboration between the two organizations. Further, the Committee undertook a critical assessment of its own work with a view to rendering itself more responsive to the needs of the Central African region.
United Nations Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Africa
During the year, the United Nations Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Africa14
continued to receive a number of requests from Member States in the region for substantive support for peace initiatives and conflict resolution activities. The Africa Regional Centre continued to promote the implementation of global instruments relating to disarmament, including the UN PoA on SALW. The Centre's activities focused on four main areas: support for peace processes and peace initiatives in Africa; disarmament and arms control; information, research and publication; and advocacy and resource mobilization. In collaboration with regional and subregional organizations and Member States, the Centre promoted the implementation of the PoA, including through regional and subregional frameworks such as the Bamako Declaration on SALW, the SADC Protocol on Firearms, the ECOWAS Moratorium and the Nairobi Protocol on Firearms on SALW.
The Centre organized, in collaboration with the African Union, the Government of Mali and the UNDP Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery (BCPR), a regional workshop on "Promoting Transparency in the Flows of Small Arms and Light Weapons in Africa" (Bamako, 26-30 July). Representatives from ten countries,15
relevant United Nations institutions, including the United Nations Office for West Africa, and several NGOs participated in the workshop. One of the workshop's recommendations was that a questionnaire16
be created to guide the Member States in their data and information collection processes. The ten countries agreed to provide detailed information covered by the questionnaire. They also agreed to provide, if necessary, more specific information, including countries of origin of weapons and the nature of dealers concerned.
The Centre organized several consultations within the framework of the African Disarmament Forum that aimed at providing regular information on peace, security and disarmament issues to the diplomatic corps and the research17
community in and around Lomé; gaining more visibility and prominence in Africa for issues of peace, security and disarmament; improving its links with Member States of the African region, universities and research institutes, regional and subregional organizations; and facilitating the organization of round-table discussions on the question of democracy and the culture of peace for crisis prevention and conflict management in Africa.
The Centre provided African States with technical assistance and expertise in the area of SALW, such as establishing and strengthening their national focal points, national commissions and relevant civil society organizations; implementing the Small Arms Transparency and Control Regime in Africa project (SATCRA);18
and assisting the National Commissions on SALW, including in the destruction of confiscated weapons. In that context, with the French Government's financial support, the Centre organized a capacity-building workshop on 9-10 February for the 16 members of the Togolese national commission, which helped Togo establish and launch its national coalition of civil society organizations for the fight against the proliferation of SALW. The Centre assisted the Togolese National Commissions on SALW with the elaboration of a national action plan on small arms, which was validated on 16 July. The Centre also assisted the Government of Togo in destroying more than 5,134 locally manufactured and confiscated rifles on 9 July and in the destruction of more than 309 firearms, as well as ammunition on 16 December.
The Centre also undertook disarmament education activities, including through gathering information, conducting research and publishing. It published editions 29 and 30 of its quarterly African Peace Bulletin
during the year, and one of those editions focused on conflict resolution efforts in Africa. The Centre's library continued to serve the research and diplomatic community and others within and outside Lomé.
The Centre continued to be involved in promoting the implementation of the civil-military relations programme in Africa, launched in July 2001.19
The Centre, in collaboration with the Commission of the AU, the French Government, the Geneva Centre for Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), the Friedrich Ebert Foundation (FES), and the Open Society Initiative for West Africa (OSIWA), organized a pilot training workshop for the ECOWAS States on 21-24 April which focused on the role of parliamentary defence committees in military matters.20
The Centre continued to experience considerable financial difficulties which did not allow it to operate at an optimum level and continuously weakened its staffing and institutional base. (See also chapter VI, section of the Centre).
The Organization of American States (OAS) continued its involvement in a number of regional initiatives in the fields of disarmament and non-proliferation.
At the Special Summit of the Americas, (Monterrey, Mexico, 12-13 January), 34 Heads of State and Government reiterated their commitment to the objectives and purposes contained in the 2003 Declaration on Security in the Americas.21
At its 34th Regular Session (Quito, 6-8 June), the OAS General Assembly adopted a number of resolutions related to disarmament and non-proliferation. They included: Consolidation of the Regime Established in the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco)
,22 Inter-American Support for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
,23 Americas as a Biological- and Chemical-Weapons-Free Region
,24 Limitation of Military Spending
,25 The Americas as an Antipersonnel-Land-Mine-Free Zone
,26 Proliferation of and Illicit Trafficking in Small Arms and Light Weapons
,27 Adoption of a Comprehensive Inter-American Strategy to Combat Threats to Cyber security
and Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Education
The Sixth Conference of Ministers of Defense of the Americas30
(Quito, 16-21 November) issued a declaration reiterating the region's commitment to the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and to the universal application of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT), Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). In connection with Security Council resolution 1540 (2004), the declaration supported establishing national controls for the export and import of materials, equipment, technology, and specialized know-how that could contribute to the manufacture and use of WMD and their means of delivery.
At the First Conference of the States Parties to the Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials (CIFTA),31
(Bogotá, 8-9 March), the Declaration of Bogotá on the Functioning and Application of CIFTA was adopted.32
A Seminar on the Identification, Collection, Stockpile Management, and Destruction of Small Arms and Light Weapons, organized by the OAS General Secretariat and the Inter-American Defense College and hosted by the Nicaraguan government, was held in Managua, 12-13 May.33
United Nations Regional Centre for Peace, Disarmament and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean
During the year, the United Nations Regional Centre for Peace, Disarmament and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (UN-LiREC) carried out a wide range of activities in close collaboration with Member States, the United Nations, regional and subregional organizations and NGOs. These included: supporting the multilateral WMD regimes; creating confidence-building measures involving transparency in the procurement of conventional arms; organizing capacity-building courses, workshops and seminars on combating illicit trafficking of firearms; assisting States in practical disarmament activities such as the destruction of firearms, ammunition and explosives, as well as improving practices related to the safety of stockpile facilities; raising awareness of the disarmament-development relationship; and developing information-sharing databases.
The Centre cooperated with the PrepCom for the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) and the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in assisting States to better understand the obligations and benefits of adhering to those related legal instruments and to improve their national capacity to implement them. A series of national consultations held in the Caribbean region has increased interest in the CTBT and the CWC by those Caribbean countries that had not yet ratified those two instruments.
The Centre worked with the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and the United Nations Department for Political Affairs (DPA) in the development of a common standardized methodological tool for the comparison of military expenditures. This project focused on lessons learned from the confidence-building measures (CBMs) initiative by Argentina and Chile developed from 1998 to 2000. The Centre was also involved in an ECLAC-led study to develop a common methodology for comparing military expenditures between Chile and Peru. It also worked in close cooperation with DPA, UNDP, the United Nations Foundation (UNF), independent experts and civil society in the region to assess basic principles for developing defense white books.34
The Centre intensified activities under its Regional Clearinghouse Programme on Firearms, Ammunition and Explosives in 2004. One of its strategic initiatives was to support the Brazilian Ministry of Justice in the creation of a Regional Public Security Training Centre in Brasilia, a platform aimed at improving the control of the legal firearms trade and preventing its illicit trafficking through training on public security, intelligence and other related issues. It also assisted in setting up subregional training centres in Costa Rica, Trinidad and Tobago, and Uruguay.
UN-LiREC concluded a series of training courses with the support of its partners in 2004. These included training law enforcement instructors, members of parliament and their advisors for drafting of national firearms legislation, and civil society members involved in the implementation of the PoA.35
In order to provide a platform for States in the region to discuss the implementation of and reporting on the PoA, the Centre and its partners initiated a series of regional seminars to evaluate the advances made since the adoption of the PoA in 2001.
The 2006 Lima Challenge project supported by the Centre and UNDP and OAS/CICAD (Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission) carried out major activities related to weapons destruction and stockpile management in 2004. Assistance was provided to several countries in the destruction of some 20,000 firearms and in the initiation of new projects in Paraguay and Peru. Work was carried out to improve stockpile management practices in several weapons storage facilities, in particular, the development of an Integrated Weapons Management System (SIGA) database to manage facilities where firearms, ammunition and explosives are stockpiled.
The Centre's Small Arms and Light Weapons Administration (SALSA) System became fully operational during 2004. This database provides a range of information on firearms-related issues, such as documents, points of contact, statistics and reports on activities by countries and by themes.
The Centre, in cooperation with UNDP, organized the first region-wide workshop on Disarmament and Development with 24 country officers in the region. This three-day workshop offered participants an opportunity to discuss the 2004 Report of the Group of Governmental Experts36
on the subject and its implications in the region.
Asia and the Pacific
Activities related to disarmament and non-proliferation in Asia and the Pacific were undertaken by States at the national level as well as through a number of subregional organizations, such as ASEAN and its Regional Forum (ARF) and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO).
At the Eleventh Ministerial Meeting of the ARF (Jakarta, 2 July), the Ministers reaffirmed the importance of ARF as the main political and security forum in the region, and reiterated the importance of further strengthening it. The Ministers also reiterated their support for ASEAN as the primary driving force of ARF and further encouraged the contribution of all its participants in moving the ARF process forward. The Ministers exchanged views on recent developments on the Korean Peninsula and encouraged the efforts of concerned parties towards the maintenance of peace and security on the Peninsula and the region by achieving a peaceful solution through dialogue to denuclearization on the Korean Peninsula.37
The Ministers reiterated the importance of addressing the issue of non-proliferation and disarmament in all its aspects. They underlined the importance of close collaboration between participants to prevent proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery. The Ministers also stressed the need to strengthen technical cooperation in order to enhance countries' capabilities and to strengthen national legal measures to address the issue of non-proliferation in all its aspects, in accordance with international law. The Ministers adopted the ARF Statement on non-proliferation.38
Furthermore, the Ministers of the NPT States Parties agreed to make further efforts for the successful outcome of the 2005 NPT Review Conference.39
The Ministers noted the importance of all countries in the region taking strong measures to eliminate the illicit trafficking of SALW to non-State actors.40
The Fourth Summit of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) (Tashkent, 17 June)41
adopted the Tashkent Declaration. The declaration summarized the outcome of the SCO's work since its establishment, evaluated the activities of the organization and set new goals.42
The six Heads of State attending the Summit declared that the SCO was ready to actively participate in a constructive formation of a new architecture of security, capable of consolidating wide international efforts to counteract new threats to global and regional stability. To achieve these goals, SCO would cooperate with other States and international structures, in particular with the United Nations, to contribute to security and stability not only in the SCO region, but also in the world in general. They believed that answers to the new complex challenges, whether international terrorism or regional conflicts and crises, could and should be found on the basis of multilateralism and cooperation without dividing States into various categories and adhering to norms and principles of international law. The leaders expressed their readiness to formulate plans and actions within the SCO framework to combat new threats, including trafficking of illegal weapons and ammunition, explosives, asphyxiate, poisonous and radioactive substances, and the recruitment of mercenaries.43
On January 15, the Official Inauguration Ceremony of the Secretariat of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization took place in Beijing. The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and National Coordinators of SCO Member States attended the ceremony.
United Nations Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Asia and the Pacific
During the year, the activities of the UN Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Asia and the Pacific were focused on nuclear-weapon-free zone issues44
and organizing several regional conferences and seminars on both nuclear and conventional arms issues.
The Centre organized several meetings for the five Central Asian States (C5) to facilitate their negotiations on a CANWFZ treaty. The Centre continued to assist Mongolia in taking the necessary measures to consolidate its nuclear-weapon-free status. The Centre held a series of consultations with Mongolia, the five nuclear-weapon States and other interested States on ways and means to promote Mongolia's nuclear-weapon-free status at the international level. In that regard, Mongolia is considering the conclusion of a legal instrument on its nuclear-weapon-free status with China and the Russian Federation and the promotion of its nuclear-weapon-free status through the creation of an international custom on the status.
The Centre, in cooperation with the Governments of Kazakhstan and Japan, organized a subregional conference on SALW (Almaty, 16-18 March). Approximately 40 participants, including experts from the five Central Asian States, attended the conference. The conference reviewed issues such as the role of national contact points and coordination agencies, trans-border cooperation and information sharing, national laws and legislation and administrative procedures, export/import licensing systems and marking, stockpile management and the role of civil society. In a final communiqué, the Central Asian States expressed their determination to jointly tackle the illicit trade in SALW in the region.
A United Nations regional seminar on SALW for the South Pacific (Nadi, Fiji, 18-20 August) was organized by the Centre in close cooperation with the Governments of Australia and Japan. The seminar was attended by representatives from the South Pacific States, members of the diplomatic corps in Fiji and NGOs in the Pacific region. The seminar addressed issues related to the implementation of the weapons control bill adopted by the Pacific Island Forum in 2003, cooperation in strengthening SALW stockpile management, regional cooperation and capacity building, and transparency in armaments and brokering.
The Centre provided technical and substantive assistance to the United Nations Association of Japan for its organization of the tenth Kanazawa Symposium on North-East Asia held from 7 to 9 June, on the occasion of the tenth anniversary of the Kanazawa Process. The symposium addressed issues such as community building in North-East Asia and its future, conflict prevention, crisis management, nuclear black markets, nuclear fuel cycle, the rapidly changing world and the adaptation of international institutions, the role of the military tDDAy, including the Proliferation Security Initiative, and food, energy and ecological security. The Korean peninsula nuclear issue and the Six-Party Talks, security assurances and humanitarian aspects of the DPRK nuclear issue were also discussed. The symposium adopted a commemorative resolution encouraging the Kanazawa process to explore a road map for peace and prosperity in the region, institutional arrangements and broadening its financial basis.
To promote awareness of disarmament issues in the region, the United Nations Conference on Mounting Challenges to Peace and Security and Disarmament TDDAy was held in Sapporo, Japan, 19-22 August. It addressed, among other issues, the mounting challenges to nuclear non-proliferation and international response, challenges and prospects of the 2005 NPT Review Conference and regional security in Northeast Asia. It also dealt with the role of civil society, including its role in the fields of peace, security and disarmament, gender issues in armed conflict and disarmament, and non-proliferation education. More than 70 participants from Governments, academic institutes and NGOs in the Asia and Pacific region as well as representatives from the Untied Nations attended the conference.
In response to an invitation from the Government of Myanmar, the Centre, in collaboration with the OPCW and the PrepCom for the CTBTO, conducted a series of lectures on disarmament issues for Myanmar's Foreign Ministry officials (Yangon, 31 August- 4 September). The lectures were aimed at familiarizing the relevant officials with a wide spectrum of disarmament issues, helping them to develop expertise in those areas.
The Centre and the Republic of Korea jointly organized the third conference on disarmament and non-proliferation issues entitled Challenges to Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Norms in East Asia
(Jeju Island, 6-8 December). The conference dealt with broad issues such as proliferation and disarmament challenges in East Asia, the response to threats of WMD proliferation and issues of verification. Within this framework, a number of specific issues were discussed, including prospects for the NPT, CWC compliance, export controls, the Proliferation Security Initiative, the Missile Technology Control Regime, and verification of WMD and missiles.
League of Arab States
Following the 2003 Conference on Implementation by the Arab States of the PoA, jointly organized by DDA and the League of Arab States, in Cairo, the cooperation between the League and DDA continued during the general meeting between the representatives of the United Nations system and the League of Arab States that took place in Cairo from 10 to 12 February.
A further step in strengthening the cooperation between the Arab States and international partners was a subregional workshop on the PoA organized by DDA and UNDP and hosted by the government of Tunisia (Salambô 14-15 June). In addition to representatives of the host country, participants from the four other States of the Maghreb, (Algeria, Libya, Mauritania and Morocco), as well as the Secretariat of the League of Arab States attended the workshop. Representatives of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and civil society organizations participated as facilitators or trainers. The workshop examined in detail the national reports submitted by countries of the subregion on their implementation of the PoA and the establishment of national focal points and national coordinating agencies, as well as the development of national plans of action. Participants noted with satisfaction the designation of a regional focal point inside the organization of the League of Arab States.
In the European region, security and disarmament issues continued to be addressed within regional institutional frameworks such as the OSCE, EU, NATO, the Stability Pact, South Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SEESAC),45
and Regional Arms Control Verification and Implementation Assistance Centre (RACVIAC).46
The OSCE's core activities in the field SALW have been shaped by the continued implementation of the 2000 OSCE Document on SALW. The serious threats posed by illegal trafficking of SALW led participating States to continue their efforts to ensure effective and comprehensive export controls on SALW.
The OSCE's Forum for Security Co-operation (FSC)47
adopted three decisions that were designed to enhance the control of SALW and other conventional arms exports. The first decision, adopted on 26 May, was aimed at strengthening export controls over Man-Portable Air Defence Systems (MANPADS). The FSC agreed on principles drawn from the Wassenaar Arrangement's Elements for Export Controls of Man-Portable Air Defence Systems. Participating States also agreed to incorporate these principles into their national practices, policies and regulations, and to promote the application of the principles to non-OSCE countries. The second decision on Standard Elements for End-User Certificates and Verification Procedures for SALW Exports, adopted on 17 November, relates to the content of End-User Certificates (EUC) provided prior to the approval of an export-license for SALW (including SALW manufactured under license) or the transfer of SALW-related technology. The Decision contained a list of standard elements of EUC and verification procedures for SALW exports. This would allow participating States to work out a common approach regarding the application of EUCs while taking due account of their respective national legislations. In addition, the Decision foresees commitments for participating States to implement verification measures and to further strengthen transparency in this field. The third decision, adopted on 24 November, set forth OSCE Principles on the Control of Brokering in SALW. The Decision was designed to stop circumvention of sanctions adopted by the United Nations Security Council, of OSCE decisions and agreements on SALW, minimize the risk of diversion of SALW into illegal markets and reinforce the export control of SALW. This Decision contained principles that allowed participating States to take all necessary measures to control brokering activities taking place within their territory. It also allowed participating States to consider controlling those brokering activities outside their territory that were carried out by brokers of their nationality or by brokers established in their territory. As a concrete measure, the Decision foresees the adoption of appropriate national legislation if existing legislation is not in conformity with agreed principles.
These export-related decisions were augmented by further activities developed by the OSCE's Conflict Prevention Centre. For instance, the pilot project on Combating illicit trafficking of SALW through border management assistance, initiated in 2003 on the Uzbek side of the Uzbek-Afghan border, was further developed to encompass border checkpoints on the Afghan side.
This year also saw the OSCE embark on a new type of activity. Following the adoption of the Document on Stockpiles of Conventional Ammunition (SCA) and respective decisions on SALW, the OSCE began to develop and implement projects for the destruction of excess stockpiles of SALW and ammunition and for the improvement of stockpile security. The FSC received three requests relating to the destruction of excess SALW and five relating to the destruction of conventional ammunition. These projects aimed at both the destruction of SALW and ammunition surpluses as well as those weapons collected in the course of post-conflict rehabilitation processes. Two further requests for assistance in improving SALW stockpile management and security were received from Belarus and Tajikistan. OSCE expert teams, led by the Conflict Prevention Centre, visited both countries in order to assess risks posed by the SALW and ammunition in question and to evaluate the scope of needed assistance.
The EU continued its work on conventional disarmament and arms control through the implementation of the EU Code of Conduct on Arms Exports (COARM).48
During its sixth year of operation, a number of new developments contributed to further strengthening and expanding the Code's application. The single most important development and challenge in this respect was the 1 May accession of the ten new Member States to the European Union.
Another significant development that took place regarding the Code of Conduct was its review, the first since the Code became operative in 1998. Under the Irish and the Netherlands Presidencies, a number of review meetings took place in which both Member States and NGOs participated. These on-going review discussions are expected to result in a significantly updated and upgraded Code with a deepened and widened scope of application. As of 1 January, the User's Guide, the first version of which was adopted in 2003,49
became fully applicable. It contains procedures to improve the denial notification and consultation system and to clarify responsibilities of Member States in this respect.
On 22 November, the European Council adopted Council Decision 2004/791/CFSP to extend and amend Decision 2002/842/CFSP implementing Joint Action 2002/589/CFSP with a view to the European Union's contribution to combating the destabilizing accumulation and spread of small arms and light weapons in South East Europe.
On 28-29 June, NATO Heads of State and Government met in Istanbul and launched a new partnership initiative promoting cooperation, as appropriate, and where NATO could add value in the field of border security, particularly in connection with terrorism, SALW and the fight against illegal trafficking. In this context, NATO will offer border security expertise and facilitate follow-up training.
The NATO Verification Coordinating Committee (VCC) held its annual Seminar on the implementation of conventional arms control agreements from 6-8 October. The Seminar focussed on the practical aspects of the on-going implementation of the CFE Treaty, considered to be a cornerstone of European security. Since the Treaty's entry into force in 1992, over 4,000 inspections have taken place under its inspection protocol.
The South Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of SALW (SEESAC), established as a partnership between UNDP and the Stability Pact, continued to provide operational assistance, technical assistance and management information in support of the formulation and implementation of SALW coordination, control and reduction measures in South Eastern Europe.
A Joint Conference on Countering SALW Trafficking in the Black Sea Region was held in Moldova in March and was one of the first initiatives to tackle SALW issues within the Black Sea region. It was jointly sponsored by the governments of Moldova, the Netherlands and Switzerland, in cooperation with SEESAC, and held under the auspices of the NATO Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) and the Partnership for Peace (PfP). It brought together Georgia, Moldova, Romania, the Russian Federation, Turkey, Ukraine and other countries to discuss concrete measures that could be taken to enhance SALW control in the region. The issue of illicit SALW trafficking was identified as being closely linked to improved border security and integrated border management.
On 25-26 May, the second Regional Arms Law Roundtable took place in Belgrade. Representatives of 30 Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Justice, Interior and Defence from Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, FYR Macedonia, Moldova, Romania, and Serbia and Montenegro gathered to discuss the legislative developments that their countries had made in SALW issues. SEESAC continued to update the compendium of SALW related legislation within the region. The second edition was also launched at the meeting.
In April, SEESAC and RACVIAC50
held a joint training course for civil society on the monitoring of SALW collection and destruction operations. Civil society so far played a limited role in South Eastern European SALW efforts, confined mainly to SALW awareness and some research work. In the future, it should also be possible for governments to draw upon the expertise of trained members of civil society that could provide their services at the request of their governments. On 1-2 June, SEESAC completed its second subregional training seminar for journalists on SALW reporting. The training was held in cooperation with Saferworld and the Institute for War and Peace Reporting.51
In 2004, RACVIAC continued to draw regional and international participation in a variety of seminars and workshops, including Arms Control in SEE Countries: An Instrument to Foster Security (Zagreb, 24-25 February); a joint RACVIAC/SEESAC seminar SALW Awareness Support Pack Outreach Workshop (12-14 July); the 2nd course on the Dayton Article IV (27 September - 8 October); the Orientation Course on the CFE and the Adapted CFE Treaty (8-11 November); a seminar on Dual-Use Export Control in cooperation with SIPRI (11-13 October); and a seminar on The 2nd Year of the Implementation of the SALW Stability Pact Plan52
organized in cooperation with SEESAC (Rakitje, 2-4 November).
The First Ordinary Session of the Assembly of the African Union adopted the Protocol relating to the establishment of the Peace and Security Council of the African Union (Durban, South Africa, 10 July 2002). Available from http://www.africa-union.org/home/ Welcome.htm.
The Moratorium was adopted by the heads of State and Government of ECOWAS, (Abuja, 31 October 1998). See http://www.ecowas.int.
The Protocol is available from http://www.fosda.org/resource /ecowas_protocol.htm. Also available from http://www.ecowas.int.
The instrument is available at: http://www.dfa.gov.za/foreign/ Multilateral/africa.
See "The Second Ministerial Review Conference of the Nairobi Declaration on the Problem of the Proliferation of Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes Region and the Horn of Africa, (Nairobi, 20-21 April 2004)", page 4 (available at: http://www.nbisecsalw.org).
The protocol was adopted on 14 August 2001, see footnote 38.
The web site for the African Regional Centre is http://www. unrec.org.
Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Djibouti, Gabon, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa and Togo.
The questionnaire focused on eight areas, namely, importation, exportation, manufacture, holdings, seizure/collection, donations, surplus, and licenses.See Regional Centre's web site http://www.unrec.org.
The Forum is a monthly gathering of the diplomatic, research and university communities to discuss peace, security and disarmament issues in Africa. Its web site is http://www.unrec.org.
SATCRA was launched on 1 October 2003. The project has pursued two strategic objectives: 1) to improve the understanding of how weapons find their way from legal into illicit channels. In that connection, it has attempted to help governments prevent such diversions by implementing tighter arms control measures; 2) to initiate a confidence-building process by creating greater openness in the legal flows and manufacture of SALW in Africa.
Adopted by the Special Conference on Security on 28 October 2003. For the document, see http://www.oas.org. For contents of the Declaration, see The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook
, vol. 28, 2003. page 185 (United Nations Sales Publication, E.04.IX.1).
AG/RES. 2009 (XXXIV-O/04). This and all subsequent documents of the OAS General Assembly are available from http://www.oas.org.
AG/RES. 2008 (XXXIV-O/04).
AG/RES. 2000 (XXXIV-O/04).
AG/RES. 2001 (XXXIV-O/04).
AG/RES. 2003 (XXXIV-O/04).
AG/RES/ 1997 (XXXIV-O/04).
AG/RES. 2004 (XXXIV-O/04).
AG/RES. 2007 (XXXIV-O/04).
30Sixth Conference of Ministers of Defense of the Americas, Declaration of Quito
, available from http://www.summit-americas.org.
The Convention is available from http://www.oas.org.
This initiative was part of a larger programme developed by DPA and was aimed at supporting the implementation of the Secretary General's report on the Prevention of Armed Conflict (A/55/985, of 7 June 2001).
For details of these activities, see UN-LiREC's web site at: http://www.unlirec.org.
See Recommendations by the Group of Governmental Experts on the relationship between disarmament and development, Part V. Secretary-General's Report: A/59/119, 23 June 2004.
Chairman's statement of the Eleventh ASEAN Regional Forum, (Jakarta, 2 July 2004), available from http://www.aseansec.org/16245.htm.
See SCO web site: http://www.sectsco.org/news.
See also section of this chapter on NWFZ.
Available on the "Security Related Export Controls" web site in the Common Foreign and Security Policy section of the Council internet site http://ue.eu.int.
As a project of the Stability Pact, the RACVIAC was designed to provide a forum for regional dialogue and cooperation in South Eastern Europe as well as an international forum for training personnel in all aspects of arms control implementation and verification. See footnote 75.
SEESACs biennial reports: 1 January-30 June 2004, and 1 July-31 December 2004 are available from http://www.seesac.org.
For more information, see RACVIAC web site, http://www.racviac.org.