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Revision to the Chad Appeal
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Chad 2004 Appeal

See also the Sudan appeal




Midyear Review


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List of all humanitarian contributions since March 2004 to Chad and Darfur (Sudan) crisis


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Revision to the 2004 Appeal

Executive Summary: Rationale for CAP Revision

Given the fluidity of the evolving refugee situation during the first part of 2004, the possibility of a revision was already anticipated in March, when the CAP for Chad was launched. This revision is necessary for a number of reasons. First, there has been a steady increase in the number of refugees fleeing from the Darfur conflict into Chad. The total number of beneficiaries has risen from 110,000 in March 2004 to 200,000 as of the end of July. Of these, some 165,000 refugees are being assisted in ten camps.[1]  Second, field operations have encountered enormous logistics and transport difficulties that have significantly added to the cost of providing assistance to a growing number of beneficiaries. Third, efforts to meet even minimal standards in water, health and nutrition in the under-developed desert and semi-desert of Chad have made it necessary to rely extensively on expatriate specialists. Finally, the many protection challenges faced by a refugee population, which had experienced significant trauma before fleeing the conflict in Darfur and is now confronted with a hostile living and security environment, have been elaborated and additional assistance sought to address these concerns.

Chad is one of the most landlocked countries in Africa, some 2,000 kilometres from the Atlantic Ocean and 1,200 kilometres from the Mediterranean Sea. The 270-kilometre overland-journey from N’Djamena to Abéché takes at least two days. Since the start of the rainy season in June, heavy rains have already cut off several roads.  As the season advances, the southern part of the refugee-hosting area is expected to be totally cut off, making it necessary to pre-position stocks. Road transport has been further compromised by a lack of commercial fuel supplies. 

As a result of the difficulties associated with land transportation through vast desert areas, the humanitarian community has had to resort to expensive air transport to reach populations in need.  For example, from January to present, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) airlift operation for non-food items (NFI) has included a total of 39 flights, originating from Europe, Pakistan and Tanzania. The World Food Programme (WFP) has also had to rely heavily on air transport to distribute non-food items and has included in their contingency plan the use of airdrops to reach isolated communities as a last resort. Three aircrafts are also being used to transport staff and light cargo, two operated by UNHCR and one by WFP.

Some of the refugees are scattered along a 600-kilometre stretch of the border Chad shares with Sudan. The majority, however, has now been transferred to camps further inland. These camps are located in a hostile environment, which expose refugees to the extremes of heavy rains, temperatures, and sand storms. Water is scarce and placements of refugee camps are dependent on identifying adequate water resources. Water identification has been an expensive process, which has included satellite imaging and test diggings. Given this remote and barren environment, refugees are almost entirely dependant on international assistance.

To address the needs of a refugee population spread over such a vast area, UNHCR, WFP and UNICEF have established a total of 11 field offices (5 for UNHCR, 5 for WFP and 1for UNICEF) in the main cities along the border. WFP has also erected 11 Extended Delivery Points (EDP) at a cost of US$ 60,000 each to address the lack of storage infrastructure. Associated requirements such as additional staffing, extension of communication systems, and additional security equipment, are also significantly adding to the cost of the operations. In addition, due to the scarcity of construction material, in particular wood, more than 31,100 tents have been flown or shipped in since the beginning of the year.

The revised 2004 CAP for Chad requests some US$ 166 million to implement 15 projects. The large increase from US$ 54.5 million[2] reflects costs associated with a significantly increased caseload as well as the higher than anticipated operational costs associated with reaching populations in need in a harsh and under-developed desert environment.  As of 26 August, donors had generously provided just over US$ 80.2 million to address urgent needs in Chad. Additional pledges are urgently needed to meet the significant challenges in the months ahead.

[1] Camps include:  Iridimi, Touloum, Kounoungo, Mile, Farchana, Bredjing, Djabal, Goz Amer, Amna Bak, Oure Cassoni and Treguine. The latter camp is still under construction.
2] Of the US$ 54.5 million in original requirements, US$ 24.4 million were available when the CAP was launched to make the total requested amount US$ 30 million.


Executive Summary

As a result of the ongoing conflict in Darfur, thousands of Sudanese have fled their country to seek refuge in neighbouring Chad. The exact number of refugees, who are scattered along a 600 km stretch of border, is difficult to determine. This appeal will, therefore, use a working figure of 110,000 people.

The rebels are rebutting the unilateral statement from the Government of Sudan that the hostilities have ended. Recent situation reports provided by the field and various assessment missions show that the looting and burning of villages still continue, resulting in continuous movement across the border. The military activities in Darfur also enhance attacks on refugees who seek safe harbour just over the border in Chad. Occasionally Janjaweed (militia on horseback or camel) cross the border to attack the refugees in the spontaneous refugee settlements. Therefore, relocation of as many refugees as possible away from the border is a key protection concern.

An additional problem facing the refugees and their host communities in Chad is linked to the planting season. As the planting season is drawing near, it is necessary that the land is prepared and that seeds are planted. If the refugees are not able to return in time to plant crops either in Sudan or in Chad, or if they are faced with an insecure situation, no seeds will be planted and no crops will be harvested. This will lead to an increase in the hunger gap. Apart from the necessity to move fast from the border before the rainy season starts which leaves a large number of roads in Chad inaccessible.

The humanitarian community aims to achieve the following objectives:

• Provide immediate assistance to 110,000 people in eastern Chad;

• Reinforce the capacities and coping mechanisms of the refugees and their host community members, to make them less dependent on humanitarian aid;

• Alert the international community to the deteriorating humanitarian situation of the refugees as a result of the continuing crisis in Darfur;

• Introduce a coordinated approach to address the humanitarian needs of the affected population.

The Appeal requests US$ 30.1 million for 2004 to implement fourteen projects submitted by seven UN agencies and one Non-Governmental Organization (NGO), working in cooperation with local communities, national authorities, eight international and national NGOs, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and the Chadian Red Cross.

This appeal may be revised on the basis of more detailed assessments and in light of future developments related to the evolution of the humanitarian situation in the Darfur region.

It is important to realize that this is the first time the UN Country Team (UNCT) in Chad goes through the exercise of creating a consolidated appeal (CA). Apart from this, the collection of data for creating an appeal has been difficult due to the terrain and the insecure situation.

Emergency Programme for 2004 and Funding Requirements



2004 Funding Requirements in US$





Assist 110,000 people, provide humanitarian assistance, and ensure international protection.





EMOP 10327.0 to assist Sudanese refugees in eastern Chad.




SO: Humanitarian Air Services in Chad in support of EMOP




Sub-total WFP



Health and Nutrition: Emergency health care and nutritional support in refugee areas and host communities in Adre, Goz Beida, Iriba and Guereda.




Health: Control and prevention of measles outbreak and Vitamin A supplementation for 86,400 children under 15 in Adre, Goz Beida, Iriba and Guereda (phase I), and countrywide (phase II).




Water and Sanitation: Rehabilitation of existing infrastructures (60 hand pumps and wells) to provide water to refugees and host community members; provision of 25,000 water storage containers and soap; de-worming and construction of school latrines, in Ouadai and Wadi-Fira (former Biltine).




Child Protection: Protection and prevention of abuses against children and women (36,000 beneficiaries).




HIV/AIDS: Awareness and prevention targeting 33,000 youth (aged 10-24) and 25,300 women in refugee camps and host communities.




Education in crisis situations: School education targeting 33,000 children aged 6-14 years, 5,000 aged 3-5 years and 5,000 aged 15-18 years (refugees and host communities).




Sub-total UNICEF



Agriculture: Support agricultural production and food security to benefit 110,000 people.





Health: Technical support and coordination for humanitarian crisis.





Agriculture: Improvement of agricultural production, support to income generating projects of refugees and host communities, and campaign against desertification.





Prevent HIV spread and strengthen local capacity to cope with the impact of HIV/AIDS.





Reproductive health: Provision of reproductive health commodities for safe motherhood, management of post-sexual violence, and prevention of sexually transmissible infections and HIV/AIDS, for refugees for six months.




Grand Total




Copyright  © 2003  UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs