Updated 21 January 2016

A Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment,
including Socio-economic Aspects (Regular Process)

On 23 December 2015, the United Nations General Assembly adopted resolution 70/235 on “Oceans and the law of the sea,” in which it
welcomed with appreciation the first global integrated marine assessment and approved its summary.


A compilation of the individual files listed below is available here in PDF (20MB) New!


Title Page


Table of Contents


Foreword by the Secretary-General of the United Nations

Preface by the Joint Coordinators of the Group of Experts of the Regular Process

Part I

Part II
The Context of the Assessment

Chapter 1
Introduction – Planet, Oceans and Life

Chapter 2
Mandate, Information Sources and Method of Work

Part III
Assessment of Major Ecosystem Services from the Marine Environment
(other than provisioning services)

Chapter 3
Scientific Understanding of Ecosystem Services

Appendix [1] Appendix [2]

Chapter 7
Calcium Carbonate Production and Contribution to Coastal Sediments

Chapter 4
The Ocean’s Role in the Hydrological Cycle

Chapter 8
Aesthetic, Cultural, Religious and Spiritual Ecosystem Services Derived from the Marine Environment

Chapter 5
Sea/Air Interaction

Chapter 9
Conclusions on Major Ecosystem Services Other than Provisioning Services

Chapter 6
Primary Production, Cycling of Nutrients, Surface Layer and Plankton


Part IV
Assessment of the Cross-cutting Issues: Food Security and Food Safety

Chapter 10
The Oceans and Seas as Sources of Food

Chapter 14

Chapter 11
Capture Fisheries

Chapter 15
Social and Economic Aspects of Sea-Based Food and Fisheries

Chapter 12

Chapter 16
Syntehsis of Part IV Food Security and Safety

Chapter 13
Fish Stock Propagation



Part V
Assessment of Other Human Activities and the Marine Environment

Chapter 17

Chapter 25
Marine Debris


Chapter 18

Chapter 26
Land/Sea Physical Interaction

Chapter 19
Submarine Cables and Pipelines

Chapter 27
Tourism and Recreation


Chapter 20
Coastal, Riverine and Atmospheric Inputs from Land


Chapter 28

Chapter 21
Offshore Hydrocarbon Industries

Chapter 29
Use of Marine Genetic Resources

Chapter 22
Other Marine-Based Energy Industries

Chapter 30
Marine Scientific Research


Chapter 23
Offshore Mining Industries

Chapter 31
Conclusions on Other Human Activities

Chapter 24
Solid Waste Disposal

Chapter 32
Capacity-Building in Relation to Human Activities Affecting the Marine Environment

Part VI
Assessment of Marine Biological Diversity and Habitats

Chapter 33

Section A — Overview of Marine Biological Diversity

Chapter 34
Global Patterns in Marine Biodiversity


Chapter 36D.  South Pacific Ocean

Chapter 35
Extent of Assessment of Marine Biological Diversity

Chapter 36E.  Indian Ocean

Chapter 36. Overall Status of Major Groups of Species and Habitats

Chapter 36F.   Open Ocean Deep Sea

Chapter 36A.  North Atlantic Ocean

Chapter 36G.  Arctic Ocean

Chapter 36B.  South Atlantic Ocean

Chapter 36H.  Southern Ocean

Chapter 36C.  North Pacific Ocean


Section B — Marine Ecosystems, Species and Habitats Scientifically Identified as Threatened, Declining or Otherwise in need of Special Attention or Protection

I.          Marine Species

Chapter 37
Marine Mammals

Chapter 40
Sharks and Other Elasmobranchs

Chapter 38

Chapter 41
Tunas and Billfishes

Chapter 39
Marine Reptiles



II.         Marine Ecosystems and Habitats

Chapter 42
Cold-Water Corals

Chapter 47
Kelp Forests and Seagrass Meadows

Chapter 43
Tropical and Sub-Tropical Coral Reefs

Chapter 48

Chapter 44
Estuaries and Deltas


Chapter 49
Salt Marshes

Chapter 45
Hydrothermal Vents and Cold Seeps

Chapter 50
Sargasso Sea

Chapter 46
High-Latitude Ice and the Biodiversity Dependent on it

Chapter 51
Biological Communities on Seamounts and Other Submarine Features Potentially Threatened by Disturbance

Section C — Environmental, economic and/or social aspects of the conservation of marine species and habitats and capacity-building needs

Chapter 52
Synthesis of Part VI: Marine Biological Diversity and Habitats

Chapter 53
Capacity-Building Needs in Relation to the Status of Species and Habitats

Part VII
Overall Assessment

Chapter 54
Overall Assessment of Human Impact on the Oceans

Chapter 55
Overall Value of the Oceans to Humans



List of Contributors and Commentators