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Doing Good: The Best Practices List2

Sustainable Human Settlements Development


Africa

50. The Mabote Project: Coping with Rapid Urbanization in Maseru, Lesotho: Launched in 1982, the Mabote project is a major upgrading and settlement scheme in Maseru's largest informal settlement. In doing so, it developed a new system of land tenure and registration as it was realized that traditional land ownership methods could not keep up with rapid urbanization. In 1989 the Mabote project was incorporated into government as the new Department of Urban Development. The lessons learned during the Mabote project were applied to other urban centres. Contact: Mr. Makalo Theko, Commissioner of Lands, Private Bag A151, Maseru, Fax: 266 1 310502.

51. Build Together: The National Housing Programme, Namibia: Following independence, the Government embarked upon the Build Together Programme (BTP) to improve the dismal housing situation. The objective was to make resources available for the development of infrastructure and facilities so that every Namibian family would have a fair opportunity to acquire serviced land as well as gain access to shelter in suitable locations at costs and standards affordable to families and the Government. The BTP is implemented and monitored by local authorities and communities together. The BTP is open to all, including the private sector, NGOs and CBOs and the target population is primarily low-income families who now have access to serviced plots, shelter and credit from lending institutions. Contact: Mr. L. Lankatilleke, CTA, Directorate of Housing, Ministry of Regional and Local Government and Housing, Windhoek, Tel: 264 1 218105, Fax: 218020.

52. Health Through Sanitation and Water, (HESAWA) Programme, Tanzania: The aim of HESAWA is to improve the welfare of rural and urban populations of the regions bordering Lake Victoria through improved health education, environmental sanitation and drinking water supply. The government discovered that the high occurrence of water borne diseases among children was a community problem which could only be tackled with high community awareness and participation through capability and capacity building at village and district levels ensuring long-term sustainability. HESAWA has succeeded in reducing pollution and environmental health, extended safe water supply and sanitation, job- creation, and better opportunities for children and families. Contact: Mr. Makerere, HESAWA, Box 604, Mwanza, Tel: 255 68 40946\42185; Fax: 50564\50248.

53. The Mwanza Rural Housing Programme (MRHP) Missungwi, Tanzania: After a participative analysis (women, craftspeople, government leaders and influential locals) of the existing housing situation in the Mwanza region, a programme of improvement was undertaken. A total of 17 villages participated in the objectives of water catchment enhancement and preservation, energy conservation, health and sanitation improvement and promotion of farming for housing development. The activities were sensitive to the need for participatory and gender aware measures whenever possible. Some of the outcomes have been poverty alleviation and job creation, improvement in environmental health and reduction of pollution, affordable housing and services, as well as better opportunities for children and families. Contact: Mr. Alphonce Kyessi, Coordinator, Habitat II, Centre for Housing Studies, P.O. Box 35124, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, Fax: 255-051-71853/75479/75448.

54. The Sustainable Dar-es-Salaam Project, Tanzania: The rapid urbanization of Dar es Salaam has translated into the deterioration of environmental conditions in and around Tanzania's capital city. In 1991/92, Dar es Salaam City Council (DCC), with cooperation of UNDP and UNCHS held discussions with stakeholders within Dar es Salaam to establish a preliminary assessment of environmental issues. Working groups were established and nine environmental coordinators were appointed to deal with identified priorities. Working groups are made up of technical advisors, representatives of government ministries, parastatals, and commissions, and the private sector. Since 1992 the Sustainable Dar projects (SDP) has initiated significant changes principally at the community level and at the political and administrative levels; specifically, the development of a management process to identify crucial environmental issues and implement action plans in technical capacities mobilized involving the public, private, NGO, and CBO sectors. Contact: Brig. Gen. H.A. Hgwilizi, City Director, Dar es Salaam, Box 9084, Tel: 255 51 27878; Fax: 44888.

55. Local Level Capacity Strengthening: Improving Municipal Services and the Training of Municipal Officials: Jinga, Uganda and Guelph, Canada: This is a city to city co-operation which is part of The Federation of Canadian Municipalities' International Partnerships Programme. This programme focused on the fostering of participatory governance practices in Jinga, strengthening capacity at the local level in Jinja by improving community services and promoting community participation. Activities towards these ends are based on the Programmes four key principles: partnership, gender equity, capacity building and sustainability. Within this framework, two community based projects, a tree nursery and the rehabilitation Walukuba Community Centre, are in the process of achieving financial and technical sustainability. Contact: Mr. Brock Carlton, Federation of Canadian Municipalities, 24 Clarence Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 5P3; Tel: 1 613 2418484; Fax: 2417117.

Arab States

56. Tehran's Action Plan for Improving the Living Environment, Iran: Tehran, by its own admission, is one of the most polluted cities in the world. In response, Tehran Municipality will convert 1500 diesel fuelled buses to Compressed Natural Gas (CNG); enforces a mandatory emissions inspection and control program for motor vehicles permitted to enter the city's Restricted Traffic Zone (RTZ); lanes have been specifically designated for buses. As a result, urban bus services, including ridership and average trip time, have increased in the last three years by 35% and, since 1989, the green space per person has increased from 2.5m2 to 10m2 in 1993. Contact: Ms. P. Hastie, Air Quality Control Company, Municipality of Tehran. Fax: 98 21 865180.

57. Integrated Urban Management, Municipality of Dubai, United Arab Emirates: In combining rapid urbanization with economic diversification, Dubai Municipality has developed a highly responsive and efficient urban management reform process. The municipal structure was designed in the 1950s for a population of approximately 50,000; currently, it serves the needs of 700,000. In a bottom-up approach, the Municipality has integrated structural change with administrative improvements, including a system of delegation of authority, decentralization of services, human resource development and the introduction of a legal framework. Contact: Obaid Al-Shamsi, Municipality of Dubai, Box 67, Dubai, UAE, Tel: 971 4 221141, Fax: 971 4 222424.

Asia and Pacific Region

58. Australian National Kerbside Taskforce, Australia: The Australian National Kerbside Taskforce is a nation-wide association of three tiers of government in partnership with the private sector. When kerbside recovery was still organized on a state-by-state basis, recovery levels were rather low (3- 6%). Through the partnership initiative, all major cities now have comprehensive kerbside recycling systems; the participation rate is high and the recovery rate has increased to as much as 15-25 %. Industries produce voluntary waste reduction targets; participation rates average about 60 - 70 %. Due to long-term buy-back contracts, prices of recovered materials have stabilized, increasing the sustainability. The Kerbside Taskforce programme has expanded greatly without the need for changes in legislation or other regulatory measures. Contact: Mr John Stanley, Recycling and Resource Recovery Council, 6/355 Exhibition Street, Melbourne, Vic 3000. Tel: 61-3-96390922. Fax: 94823262.

59. Building a Beautiful and Ecologically Balanced Coastal City in Weihai, China: The coastal city of Weihai, with a population of 420,000, adopted the principles of Agenda 21 and embarked on a programme to turn the city into a garden. Special attention has been paid to architectural and urban design, the use of less polluting coal gas, the recycling, re- use and conservation of water, including the use of sea water for cooling, the greening of the city and the relocation of industry. Water re-use in industry has reached 75%, 95.6% of households use coal gas instead of coal, emissions have been reduced and per capita green space is 16.8 m2. Contact: Mr. Shen, Jianguo, Ministry of Construction, 9 San Li He Road, Beijing 100835, Tel: 86 10 8323295; Fax: 8313559.

60. Carrying Out the Integrated Environmental Improvement Program Devoted to Upgrading the Quality of Human Settlements, Zhangjiagang People's Municipal Government, China: Starting in 1990, Zhangjiagang City (pop 820,000) launched its Integrated Environmental Improvement (IEI) initiative. A key component of the strategy is public participation in decision-making. The initiative has resulted in the establishment of several planning tools and instruments including an Economic Development Plan, an Environmental Protection Plan, an Urban System Plan and changes to rules, bylaws and administrative and management systems. In addition to attaining full employment, the city provides 120,000 jobs for workers from surrounding provinces. Substantial improvements have been attained in areas of housing, infrastructure, basic services, public transport, sewage and solid waste treatment, emissions control, green space and welfare services for the elderly. Contact: Mr. Hu Jiangpeng, Mayor, Zhangjigang City. Tel: 05222 240800. Fax: 05222 253164.

61. Comprehensive Development of Urban Infrastructure in Foshan City, China: Since 1980, the City of Foshan (pop. 428,000) has embarked on a comprehensive policy reform programme involving the integration of physical planning, capital investment, construction and environmental protection. The City has changed its pricing policies for public goods and services, including water, power, telecommunications and land- use resulting in increased capacity of the public sector to invest in infrastructure development and construction. Per capita GDP has increased 13-fold in the period from 1980 to 1994 with no damage to the environment. Investments in sewage treatment, garbage treatment, water source protection, more rational use of land, increases in parks and green space, changes in production and consumption patterns have resulted in better living conditions on all fronts as well as a cleaner environment. Energy is provided at cost-price for sewage and discharge treatment to encourage industry to protect the environment. Contact: Mayor Zhonge Guangchao, Construction Committee, 4 West Chengmentou Road, Foshan City. Tel: 81 757 2281530; Fax: 2285525.

62. Integrated Wetland System for Low-Cost Treatment and Reuse of Municipal Waste-Water: The Case of Calcutta, India: The Government of West Bengal and the Calcutta Metropolitan Authority developed a three-part strategy for the reuse of waste-water: vegetables are grown on garbage substrata with treated sewage used to irrigate the garbage farms; next, 3,000 hectares of fish ponds integrate sewage treatment with fish farming - the sun destroys most harmful bacteria and the fish feed from the ponds; finally, the treated sewage is used to grow crops. Through this process, all the sewage from Calcutta is treated, the garbage fields produce 150 tons of vegetables per day, the fish ponds produce approximately 8,000 tons of fish per year, and the paddy fields produce 16,000 tons of winter paddy. The project is managed by community groups, utilizes appropriate technology, with entrepreneurs taking away all sales proceeds in return for rental of land and water. Contact: Mr. A.P. Sinha, Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment, New Delhi, Tel: 91 11 3014459; Fax: 3014459.

63. Bantay Puerto Programme: Puerta Princesa Watch, Philippines: The ecology and natural environment of the City of Puerto Princesa, with a population of 120,000, was suffering from illegal logging, illegal fishing, over- exploitation of its other natural resources. In 1992, the Mayor of the City embarked on a programme to preserve the natural environment of the city through regulation, crime prevention and monitoring of the use of dangerous substances (primarily cyanide for fishing). The leadership exercised in environmental protection and conservation led the central government to turn over the management of the St. Paul Subterranean River Park (5,753 ha) to the City - creating a precedent in the history of the Philippines. The Park generates considerable income from tourism. The City has won numerous awards including the Earth Day Award and the Galing Pook Award. Contact: Nelson D. Lavina, Ambassador to Kenya, Box 47941, Nairobi, Tel: 254 2 721791, Fax: 725897.

64. Partnerships for Poverty Alleviation Cebu City, Phillipines: In 1988, Cebu City initiated an enabling partnership among city government departments, CBOs, NGOs and the private sector. The strength of the partnership allowed the government to address several issues of concern to the urban poor: improvements in health, education and social services, expanded training programmes, extension of credit to informal sector and urban poor groups, increase in employment and apprenticeships in cooperation with private sector, improvement in land security, development of special services for marginalized groups. Contact: Mayor Thomas Osmena, Cebu City, Fax: 63 32 52991.

Europe

65. Total Energy Design in Skotteparken, Egebjerggard in Ballerup, Denmark: Skotteparken, in Ballerup is an EU- supported experimental project with 100 solar-heating, low- energy dwellings. The aim is to reduce gas consumption for heating and domestic hot water by 60% compared to normal building projects and at the same time reduce the consumption of electricity and water by 20% and 35% respectively. The project was given financial support in 1987 from the EU Thermi programme to demonstrate local solar heating design in combination to low temperature district heating in connection with the establishment of "the housing quarter of the future" in Ballerup. The results from the Skotteparken project has inspired projects in 6 other European countries. Contact: Peder Pedersen, Cenergia Energy Consultants, Sct. Jacobsvej 4, DK- 2750 Ballerup, Tel: 45 44 660099, Fax: 660136.

66. Revitalization of a Contaminated Industrial Urban Area - The Povel Experience, Nordhorn, Germany: The textile factory in Povel-van Delden left behind a legacy of its 100 years of operation in Nordhorn: a dump of toxic metals and other substances. After careful analysis, the town embarked on an ambitious biological soil treatment programme: 200,000 cubic metres of soil were excavated, sorted, and where necessary cleaned, mostly in bacteria- and fungi-rich humus beds. Less polluted areas were simply covered with humus, while a small number of highly contaminated sites were either mechanically cleaned or dug up and incinerated. The factory site is now home to 500 people, with building continuing. The cost of the clean-up (DM 26 million) is far less than the DM 200 million attracted so far in private investments. Contact: Ms. Christina Mahlmann, City of Nordhorn, Postfach 24 29, 48522 Nordhorn, Tel: 49 5921 878-433, Fax: 878416.

67. Urban Management of Structural Transformation, Duisburg, Germany: Its economy centered around coal mining and steel production, the City of Duisburg suffered profound economic and social shocks with the decline of these industries in the 1960s and 1970s. The 1988 "Duisburg 2000" plan served as a catalyst for a long-term management approach incorporating the various actors and focal points into an integrated, partnership-based and sustainable whole. Six distinct projects emerged: the City's administration was decentralized; the Large Cities Stastical Project (LCSP) to assist with strategic planning; the Business Report of the `Company' of Duisburg to stimulate citizen feedback; the Vocational Training Report; the "Inner Harbour Duisburg" revitalization; and, the Integrated Neighbourhood Development project. Contact: Ms. Anna Maria Paschos, City of Duisburg, Bismarckstr 150-158, 47049; Duisberg, Tel: 49 203 2833276. Fax: 2834404.

68. Sustainable Rural Settlements Development - The Case of Keramitsa, Greece: Keramitsa is a typical remote rural village subject to socio-economic disturbances caused by isolation, migration, low economic base and periodic earthquakes. In response, the 328 inhabitants of the Keramitsa Commune united and with the help of several CBOs organized several interventions such as renovating the water and power supply systems, and telecommunications and television networks. Reforestation and major construction efforts carried out solely by the community have provided safety from future rockslides. The community cemetry was relocated and in its place new buildings were constructed to house administrative, social and recreational facilities. Keramitsa is now a unique village where the young population exceeds the aged. Contact: Tsavalos Lampros, President, Commune of Keramitsa, 460 33 Keramitsa. Tel: 30 664 41215. Fax: 30 664 41226.

69. City of Tilburg, The Netherlands: The Tilburg model redesigned government into divisions where profits are measured in terms of quality of product and level of transparency and accountability. City management is based on the concept of standards of quality. Indicators were developed and applied to a number of areas of concern to the City, including: housing, safety, traffic, and the environment. Quality is measured on a neighbourhood-by-neighbourhood basis. Citizens are consulted and priorities for each neighbourhood are established on which city budget decisions are made. It has also led to greater participation in the day-to-day operation of managing the city as neighbourhood consultations allows the government to fine-tune the policies and programmes of Tilburg. Contact: Dr. Ron Spreekmeester, Head of Division, Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning, and Environment, 8 Rinjstraat, PO Box 30941, 2500 GK The Hague. Fax: 31 70 339 1249.

70. Oslo Old Town: People's Participation in Improving the Living Environment, Norway: Oslo Old Town has a population of 22,000, a third of whom are immigrants, and is one of the most deprived areas of Norway. In the late 1980s, the local administration initiated an Environmental Health Promotion Plan. Solutions were formulated in a "Vision for Oslo Old Town Year 2000", including tunnels for main through- traffic and the rehabilitation of medieval town's waterfront and creation of a medieval park. In 1993, the Environmental Town of Old Oslo, a joint City-State programme for integrated socio-economic development and environmental improvement, was established. This programme has achieved a reduction in pollution levels, traffic and traffic-noise, an increase in green areas and improved school facilities. Contact: May Sommerfelt, Norwegian Building Research Institute, Forskeningsveien 3b P O Box 123 Blindern N-0314, Tel: 47 2 2965500, Fax: 2699438.

71. Katowice, Poland: After two years of planning, local authorities of the 13 Katowice Agglomeration municipalities combined efforts with partners from the public and private sector and UNCHS to fulfil goals towards becoming sustainable cities. The project is based on the EPM (Environmental Planning and Management) model which implements a wide range of measures to solve conflicts. Hence it is not only a type of technical training, but a process focused on determination and systematization of problems. Contact: Prof. Slawomir Gzell, Polish Committee for Habitat II, Fax: 48 03 1539209.

72. The Urban Renewal of the Slums Area in Madrid, Spain: Between 1978 and 1990, Madrid transformed its low- income south-east area. The remodelling work affected 28 areas with a total of 37,000 dwellings built for a housed population of around 150,000 people. The remodelling of these areas was led fully by the neighbourhood movement. The inhabitants were guaranteed to remain in the same area as their shanty towns had occupied without resorting to eviction orders. Contact: Sr. Felix Arias Goytre, Actuaciones Concertadas en las Ciudades, Ministerio de Obras Publicas, Transportes y Meio Ambiente, Paseo de la Castellana 67, 28071 Madrid, Tel: 34-1-597-5008, Fax: 597-5010.

73. Improving Living Environments through Comprehensive Local Policy in Gothenburg, Sweden Environmental problems in Gothenburg (regional population 750,000) were apparent from the 1960s, caused primarily by increasing industrialization and urbanization. Gothenburg has adopted a multidimensional approach, including co-operation with business and industry, the adoption of a strong municipal environmental policy and the implementation of changes in public consumption patterns. By cooperating with industry, the City has acted as a catalyst for change: environmental considerations have been integrated into mainstream production methods. The municipality also adopted an Environmental Policy in 1992 under which all municipal departments are expected to develop and test environmental management plans. Contact: Lars Berggrund, City Planning Authority of Gothenburg, Box 2554, S-403 17 Gothenburg. Tel: 46-31-611711. Fax: 611733.

74. Action for Warm Houses, Glasgow, Scotland, UK: The deteriorating condition of the housing stock, rising fuel prices, poverty and the weather combined to make many Glasgow homes cold and damp, with families paying up to 30% of their net income on heating, and created some serious health concerns. The city and the local health administration are co- operating to provide an entire house with power and heating for no more than 10% of net household income. This involves a mass energy audit, a major investment shift, and a new emphasis on partnerships. 12,000 city council homes have so far been fitted with new central heating, 18,000 with new windows, and 110,000 have received draught - proofing. Contact: David Comley, Head of Glasgow District Council Housing Office, Wheatley House, Glasgow, 25 Cochrane Street, Glasgow, G1 1HL, Tel: 44 141 2219600, Fax: 2874701.

Latin America and Caribbean

75. Bureaucratic and Popular Participation in the Public Field: The Experience of the Participative Budget in Porto Alegre, Brazil: Despite initial opposition, the Participative Budget in Porto Alegre has proven that the democratic and transparent administration of resources is an effective way to avoid corruption and the mishandling of public funds. Since it began, the projects chosen through this process represent investments of over US$ 700 million, primarily in urban infrastructure and improvements in the quality of life of the population. Contact: Mr. Marcelo Miele, SECAR, Rua Andre Puente No. 50, Barrio Independencia, 90035-150, Porto Alegre, RS, Tel\Fax: 55 51 2251417; Fax: 2254520/2251589.

76. Integrated Children's and Family Program, Santos, Brazil: In 1989, the municipal government of Santos, a port city of about 0.5 million located 65 km south of So Paulo, expanded and created programmes aimed at children, with a number of objectives: services to reduce infant mortality, improve dental health, promote mental health, reduce school drop-out and failure rates, replace discriminatory special classes with special support services and other cultural and sports activities. A broad and diversified program of services was begun for street children. Since 1993, the municipality decided to organize and integrate these projects, defining and meeting goals by incorporating them into the health, educational and advocacy policies. Contact: Secretariat of Community Action, Rua Augusto Servo, 7-14 andar, 11010-050, Santos SP. Tel: 55 13 232 6769. Fax: 232 5380.

77. Selective Solid Waste Collection and Recycling in Recife, Brazil: Recife (pop 1,300,000) is plagued by poor infrastructure that has resulted in the limited collection and treatment of domestic sewage and solid waste. The contamination of water and the incidence of water-related diseases are high. Facing serious financial problems, the municipal institutions have turned to social structures and community approaches as alternatives to public service provision. The Programme of Selective Collection and Recycling of Solid Waste was initiated in 1993 and has as its objectives: behavioural change in order to reduce the production of solid waste, the encouragement and promotion of the commercialization of recyclable material and the generation of income. Contact: Arch. Silvia Cavalcanti, Av. Gov. Carlos de Lima Cavalcanti, 09-Derby, 50070-110, Recife, Tel: 55 81 2212392, Fax: 2211274.

78. Association of Colombian Recicladores, Colombia: Colombia has approximately 50,000 scavenger families (recicladores) that earn their livelihood collecting solid waste. In 1986 a programme was launched to organize the recicladores in local associations (Asociacion National de Recicladores (ANR)) by a local NGO. The purpose was to help recicladores improve their working conditions through enhancing their transport and quality control systems. The programme also addressed social needs such as child education, access to the social security system and issues related to women. Since 1986, ANR has benefitted 25,000 families in fifteen Colombian Municipalities. It has implemented facilities for storing the waste and has developed solid waste management systems within communities with a 30% increase in the revenues of the recicladores. Contact: Guillermo Torres, Santa Fe de Bogot D.C. Calle 59 # 10. Tel: 57 2 114600. Fax: 174141.

79. Association for the Urban and Environmental Development of the Catuche Ravine, Venezuela: From 1958 onwards the Catuche river banks had been occupied by city squatters resulting in an informal settlement of 10,000 people. Concerned with the health and sanitation problems generated by the contaminated river waters, the Catuche Association was formed in 1994. In partnership with a local municipality drafted a detailed preliminary plan on pollution control and urban development. The Association, through the directly-affected Catuche dwellers, started works on the topographical control of the river and channelling of the rain waters descending from the mountain above and built their first three communal public centres. Contact: Leandro De Quintana Uranga, Presidencia, Torre Oeste, Mezzanina 1, Parque Central, Caracas. Tel: 5751354, 5724532. Fax: 02-5717967.

North America

80. Metro Toronto's Changing Communities: Innovative Responses, Canada: Metro Toronto is Canada's major immigrant reception centre with a racial minority population that has risen to 25% of total population in 1995. By 2001, this figure is expected to rise to 50%. Metro Toronto has decided to adopt a proactive approach in response: ethno- specific agencies have been established in the Community Service Sector to provide culturally and linguistically appropriate services for immigrants and refugees; in the Social Services Division, operational changes were effected to enable customers to receive service in their own neighbourhoods in their own languages; Childcare programmes have anti- racism policies, training for staff. Contact: Hilda Birks, Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto, 55 John St, 6th Floor, Metro Hall, Toronto, ON, M5V 3C6. Tel: 1 416 3929716. Fax: 3923751.

81. Regional Municipality of Hamilton-Wentworth, Canada: The initiative's framework was developed in 1990 to address the various concerns and trends facing Hamilton- Wentworth, with an emphasis on environmental, social and economic issues. In order to achieve the required consensus, various participatory activities were implemented: Town Hall Meetings, Focus Discussion Groups, Vision Working Groups, and Implementation Teams. Dubbed "Vision 2020: The Sustainable Region", the study has led to long range planning and policy documents, including economic and transport strategies, which reflect the vision of the community. Contact: Mr. Jim Thoms, Commissioner of Planning and Development, 119 King St. West, 14th Floor, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3V9. Fax: 1 905 546 4364.

82. City of Chattanooga, USA: In 1969, Chattanooga was the most polluted city in the USA; by 1990 it was recognized by the US Environmental Protection Agency as the nation's best turn around story. Chattanooga's vision is to become a city where ecological initiatives generate a strong economic base, nurture social institutions and enhance the natural and made environment. Numerous collaborative efforts have generated the capital resources, the political commitment and the civic momentum to tackle complex problems such as affordable housing, public education, transportation alternatives, urban design, conservation of natural areas, parks and greenways, air and water pollution, recycling and job training, downtown river front development and neighbourhood vitality. This civic culture is key to Chattanooga's successes and future. Contact: Ms. Geri Spring, Coordinator, Neighbourhood Network, Chattanooga/Hamilton County 506 Broad St., Chattanooga TN 37402. Fax: 1 615 267 0018.

Source:
UNITED NATIONS
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE Distr. ON HUMAN SETTLEMENTS GENERAL (HABITAT II) A/CONF.165/CRP.3 11 April 1996
Istanbul, Turkey 3-14 June 1996 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH

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