A mix – Adaptation involves a mix of hard (infrastructure, hardware) and soft (policy, know-how) technologies, such as:
- Crop rotation patterns (soft)
- Drought resistant seeds (hard)
- Early warning systems (soft and hard)
Technology transfer – According to the International Energy Agency, technology transfer to developing countries may induce “leapfrogging” to today’s best technologies thus avoiding the polluting technologies of the past.
Options – Governments can promote a range of options like natural gas and renewable energy technologies, and improve public awareness on energy efficiency. Current marketable clean technologies include solar panels, wind turbines, biomass, hydro-power generation, hybrid vehicles with electric and combustion engines and nuclear power. Government support for research and development (R&D) into innovative clean technologies is needed.
Diffusion of clean technologies – The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), established under the Kyoto Protocol, provides a legal framework and a marketplace for technology diffusion opportunities. The widespread diffusion of low-carbon technologies may take decades, even if early investments in such technologies are made.