1. Peri-Urban Upgrading Programme in Sambizanga, Angola: War refugees constitute the main population of the unplanned settlements in the peri-urban areas in the Municipality of Sambizanga. Access to water was scarce and sewage, waste removal and sanitation services were non-existent. Living conditions were deteriorating and employment opportunities were few. The main programme components have been water supply, treatment and storage, basic sanitation, community health training and community development. The Sambizanga Project has been implemented by the NGO Development Workshop (Canada) together with CBOs, national NGOs, church organizations, local government, the provincial health office, water and solid waste companies and the residents themselves. Contact: Ms. Maribel Gonzalez, Development Workshop, C.P. 3360 Luanda, Angola Tel: (2442) 348-371, Fax: (2442) 393 445 marked Attention: Development Workshop, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
2. Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire: Given the hardships of structural adjustment the Mayor of Abidjan has opted to focus on unemployment, poverty and environmental degradation. Neighbourhood Committees (CDQs) were established to engage the energies and resources of local communities and channel efforts towards improving their living conditions and economic situation. CDQ activities range from environmental improvements that provide a sanitary setting for housing to the building and operation of community facilities and services. By building the capacity of CDQs, the municipality promotes individual self improvement initiatives and economic self-reliance among communities. Contact: Mona Serageldin, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, 48 Quincy Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA, Tel: 617-495-4964, Fax: 617- 495-9347, E-mail: MSerageldin@gsd.harvard.edu.
3. An Integrated Rural Development Program to Improve the Quality of Life of Women and their Families in Kibwezi, Kenya: By the early 1980s, many Kamba families had migrated to Kibwezi as drought, erosion and overpopulation took their toll on their lands of origin. Women were left to fend for themselves as menfolk went off in search of employment. The women engaged in subsistence agriculture for a number of years, but eventually the arid land failed to yield sufficient food to feed their children. An integrated development programme was implemented with the Council for Human Ecology - Kenya. The women were empowered to sustain themselves and their children through training in traditionally male-dominated skills: bee-keeping and earth- block making. Livestock entrepreneurial projects were implemented. The women constructed a canteen and set up a boarding school for girls. The projects are now self- supporting. Contact: Erica Mann, Council for Human Ecology - Kenya (CHEK), Box 20360, Nairobi. Tel: 254 2 720399. Fax: 718730.
4. Mbati Women's Groups and Shelter Improvement in Nyeri District, Kenya: The Mbati Women Groups' movement was started in Nyeri in the early 1960s for poor uneducated women left to fend for themselves as menfolk sought employment elsewhere. A top priority was to improve the quality of their houses. Traditionally, Kikuyu roofs were made of thatched grass. However, two factors made the women consider improved roofing technology: grass for thatching was becoming increasingly scarce, and has the tendency to rot. The women decided to roof their houses with "mbati" (iron sheets) and make other housing improvements: replacing walls and fencing their homesteads. They then undertook economic activities, including sewing and knitting classes for girls, and the establishment of a revolving loan fund to assist members. The fund has enabled women to educate their children and buy property. There are currently over 1,200 largely self- supporting women's groups in Nyeri. Contact: Dr. Joyce Malombe Housing & Building Research Institute, P O Box 30197, Nairobi.
5. Reduction and Prevention of Crime in Kisumu, Kenya: Working from the assumption that if parents can provide the basic necessities of life (food, clothing, shelter) then crime among children and youth will be reduced, the Citizen's Social Care Centre (CSCC) have reduced the number of street children\youth in Kisumu. The programme specifically targets children, youth and women who have run away from home because of poor living conditions. Counselling sessions are held with parents or guardians. Children and youth are encouraged to join drama groups set up by CSCC to sensitize the community to the needs of street children\youth. Women, particularly teenage and\or single mothers are trained as environmental educators. The programme has improved the lives of over 200 individuals. Contact: Mr. Joseph Mokaya, Citizen's Social Care Centre, Box 5320, Kisumu.
6. Tanzania-Bondeni Community Land Trust (CLT) Project, Kenya: Tanzania-Bondeni was a typical informal settlement in the southern part of Voi town: temporary structures, no infrastructure, limited income (half the settlement's 5,000 inhabitants earned less than US$ 40 per month), unemployment (30%), and no legal right to the publicly-owned land. Consultations between the community, the local authority, the Ministry of Local Government, and GTZ's Small Town Development Project agreed on a set of principles including the need for land tenure. Various pieces of legislation were used to institutionalise the system. A Society controls a charitable trust which holds the community's land. An elected management committee runs the CLT. Society members have saved Kshs 1.5 million, paying for surveys to register bona fide structure owners, 46% of whom are women. A development plan has been drawn up, and roads and water supply have been brought to the area. Contact: Ms. Ursula Eigel, GTZ Small Towns Development Project, Box 41607, Nairobi, Tel: 254 2 210234; Fax: 212434.
7. Lesotho Urban Upgrading Project (LUUP), Mafeteng and Teyateyaneng, Lesotho: LUUP aims to improve social and economic opportunities by upgrading physical infrastructure, social facilities and facilitating access to housing by lower- income families. The project provides families with building material loans and 267 families (134 of which are women-headed) build themselves starter homes. The proximity of the project to urban facilities and schools means that more children attend school. Improvements in infrastructure facilitate communication and transport between villages and urban centres. The project also strengthened town administrations to enable them to assume the increased responsibility for future development and management of the respective urban centres. Contact: Mr. E.R. Mapetla, P.O. Box 460, Maseru. Tel: 266 313 736. Fax: 266 310 185.
8. Low-Cost Housing in Malawi: Habitat for Humanity (Malawi) works in partnership with local communities and the government to build simple, decent houses and latrines. A locally-elected committee chooses applicants based on total combined income, their willingness to provide volunteer labour, and their willingness and ability to repay the cost of the inputs. Habitat for Humanity provides all materials and skilled labour. Repayments are put into a revolving fund which stays in the community to build more houses and latrines. Contact: Matthew Maury, Int. Programme Coordinator, Habitat for Humanity, Box 2436, Blantyre. Tel: 265 640 073. Fax: 265 643 117. Em: HFHM@iac.pix.za.
9. Piped Supplies for Small Communities in Malawi Urban Areas: Development and Impact of a Gender Strategy: After an earlier water project failed, a study concluded that it was not lack of willingness or capacity to pay, but a lack of sensitivity towards gender issues and the management of water resources. After a gendered strategy was developed the results of the implementation were a success. More women occupied key positions in the water committees and special training programmes were organized for women which aimed at increasing their leadership and management capacities. Hygiene education and sanitation promotion were also important to the success rate. All partners involved learned that simply including women in water management organization was not sufficient. The degree and quality of participation of women and men during the whole process of the project were essential for ensuring a sustainable impact. Contact: Mr. Fabiano Kwaule, Ministry of Works/Water Department, Private Bag 390, Lilongwe 3, Malawi, Tel: 265-780-344/784-200, Fax: 265-730-389.
10. Community-Based Refuse Collection and Recycling, Municipality of Rufisque, Senegal: Rufisque Municipality, part of Greater Dakar, named after Rio Fresco (Fresh Water River in Portuguese), faced by 1990 serious sanitation problems: lack of sewage and garbage collection and disposal, a beach used as a public toilet and a garbage dump, and diarrhoea topping the list of health complaints. The scheme, run by elected Local Management Committees, with women and youth active at all levels, uses appropriate technology such as horse-drawn rubbish collection carts, low-cost sewers, recycling and composting, use of water lettuce to purify waste water. International funding is being replaced by a local revolving credit scheme. The combined efforts of 8 low-income communities, ENDA-Tiers Monde, Canadian funding, and the Municipality, are turning Rufisque back to Rio Fresco again. Contact: Mr. Malick Gaye, ENDA, 133, Rue Carnot, BP 1830, Dakar. Tel\Fax: 221 21 74 84.
11. Upgrading and Legalization of Squatter Settlements in Senegal: The expansion of irregular urban settlements has considerably increased in Senegal during the last decades, particularly in the Dakar area, which lacks basic infrastructure. The strategy for implementing the upgrading and land legalization operations was based on five principles which are flexible enough to be adapted to the specificities of the different neighborhoods and executing agencies. The five principles adopted were access to land security, community participation, cost recovery, providing infrastructure in relation to ability to pay, concern for protecting the environment and management of the living environment. Contact: Dua/GTZ Project, B.P. 2100, Dakar. Tel: 22 89 02/ 22 32 04. Fax: 21 57 84.
12. Mobilizing the Community to Upgrade and Construct their Own Infrastructure and Amenities, Soweto, South Africa: Soweto was developed as a black township with no institutional arrangement to manage the city, to invest in new infrastructure or to develop a tax base. Low standards of infrastructure, and its temporary status discouraged commercial and industrial development, affecting the quality of life of the 1.5 million inhabitants. A community development strategy was undertaken by the City's Engineering Department employing community based-contractors. Professional management, supervision and training were used to improve project management skills and productivity. A contractor development programme focusing on labour, transport, materials, plant and finance was implemented. Today, physical development parallels human development: infrastructure has been installed, skills and competencies gained remain within the community. Contact: Dick Hallett, Deputy City Engineer, Soweto Administration. Tel: 27 11 93 31 622. Fax: 27 11 40 41 728.
13. Urban Poverty Reduction through Sustainable Development: The Katwe Case, Uganda: The urban low-cost water, sanitation, drainage and waste disposal project in Katwe began in 1993. Unlike many other projects which provide handouts to communities, Katwe Urban Pilot Project is geared to community empowerment by using community-based participatory approaches with special emphasis on sustainable development. The community ranks environmental problems according to priority. Workshops and seminars were conducted. A review of the project objectives, its mode of operations, and analysis of roles went a long way to improve collaboration and communication between different parties during the implementation phase. Contact: Mr. M. Mpabaisi, Ministry of Lands, Housing and Physical Planning, P.O. Box 7122, Kampala, Uganda, Tel: 256-242-931/3, Fax: 256-235-856.
14. East Wehdat Upgrading Site Project, Amman, Jordan: The comprehensive upgrading of East Wehdat involved a major intervention with extensive replotting, new infrastructure and circulation patterns. It aimed to improve the living conditions of about 400 families that were informally settling on an extremely undeveloped site, by enabling them to secure land tenure and providing them with basic infrastructure, shelter and communal facilities. Today there are 524 serviced plots with well built houses and a sustainable upgraded environment, as well as 58 shops and 24 workshops that are mainly owned by community individuals. Contact: Mr. Yousef Hiasat, Housing and Urban Development Corporation, Box 927198, Amman. Fax: 962 6 628 938.
15. Planning and Participatory Strategies for Sustainable Development and Capacity Building Approach in Aqaba, Jordan: As part of a study on Sustainable Improvement Strategies, the Housing and Urban Development Corporation organized a community assessment exercise to establish linkages between the community, public administration and the effective use of open space. The assessment highlighted the role of open spaces in structuring cooperative arrangements among individual residents, community groups and the public sector. Training workshops introduced new concepts: gender planning, needs assessment, team approaches and community outreach to local officials and organizations. Working groups created a cooperative framework for municipal government, NGOs and community leaders to plan and manage ongoing environmental improvement. Contact: Mrs. Hidaya Khairi, Housing and Urban Development Corporation, Box 927198, Amman. Fax: 962 6 817786.
16. Shelter Upgrading in Agadir, Morocco: After an earthquake in 1960 destroyed much of the metropolitan region of le Grand Agadir, it was recognized that the living conditions of low income families were inadequate. Work began in reconstruction and upgrading of low income neighbourhoods where a large percentage of the households were headed by women. A strategy was adopted that focused on improving living conditions as well as integrating inhabitants into the economic, social and political life of the town. The integrated programme is characterized by the adoption of a long term vision and encompasses the whole region. Contact: Erna Kerst, Housing Officer, 137, Ave. Allal Ben Abdallah, B.P. 120, Rabat. Tel: 212 7 762 265. Fax: 212 7 707 930.
17. Improving the Living Environment for Low-Income Households in Saudi Arabia: Faced with an enormous influx of rural and desert peoples into urban areas and the proliferation of squatter settlements, the Saudi Government initiated a massive low-income housing programme. Two components were key to its success: the Free Land Plots initiative providing plots ranging from 400 to 900 m2; and the Real Estate Development Fund's Easy Term and Interest-Free Loans to citizens who owned land plots. In the last 20 years, the Fund provided 425,000 loans with which 510,000 residential units were built at a cost of SR.105,646 billion. Loans are concurrently given to Saudi investors to build housing compounds with no less than six units each. A total of 2,485 investment loans created 29,500 such units at a cost of SR. 5,170 million. Contact: M.A. Al-Hammad, Director- General, Arab Urban Development Institute, Box 6892, Riyadh. Tel: 4418180. Fax: 441 8235.
Asia and Pacific Region
18. Leveraging Public and Private Sector Resources for Housing, Hong Kong: In Hong Kong, there is keen competition for building land. The six million people crowded into the territory also prefer to live in the urban and extended urban areas. Housing them adequately is a major task of the government. Those who cannot afford high prices and rents in the private sector turn to the Hong Kong Housing Authority for help. The Authority has provided homes for half the population and is continuing to build at an average of some 45,000 flats a year at approximately 45 % of market value. Contact: Mr. A.G. Cooper, Government Secretariat Planning, Environment & Lands Branch, Murray Building, Garden Road, Hong Kong. Tel: 55 848 2945. Fax: 55 530 5264.
19. Xin Xing Housing Cooperative of Da Xing County, Beijing, China: In 1987, 1347 families in Da Xing county had no housing or were housed in extremely poor conditions. The estimated cost of providing housing for these families was RMB 25 million while the County could only spend RMB 0.5 million. The families were organized into a cooperative, one of the first in China, with individuals bearing 65% of total investment and 35% provided by work units (employers). To date, Xin Xing Cooperative has invested a total of RMB 180 million, built 318,000 m2 of dwelling space and housed 5132 families. The programme is being replicated by 6 branches of the cooperative in other towns and villages. Contact: Fu, Guanya, Head of Da Xing Real Estate Administrative Bureau, Da Xing Real Estate Administrative Bureau, Beijing. Tel: 010 924 3726. Fax: 010 924 3726.
20. A Woman's Self-Help Organization for Poverty Alleviation in India: The Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA) Bank was established in 1974 at the initiative of 4,000 self-employed women working as hawkers, vendors, home-based workers, manual labourers and service providers. SEWA's objective is to empower women by providing them access to credit. From a bank of 4,000 women with a share capital of Rs 60,000 in 1974, SEWA has grown to 51,000 clients with a share capital of Rs 100 million. The Bank provides loans for: working capital; work tools; and housing. The Bank borrows and lends at market rates. Its success has enabled it to pursue its development aims: training women interested in starting savings and loan cooperatives; securing land in womens' names; and, supporting programmes that directly improve the lives of women. SEWA Bank has proven that poor women save, use loans productively and repay loans in a timely manner. Contact: Mr. A.P. Sinha, Chairman, National Steering Committee for Habitat II, Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment, New Delhi, India. Tel: 91 11 3014459. Fax: 91 11 3014459.
21. Gender-Sensitive Approach to Shelter Issues of the Urban Poor: The Work of SPARC, India Before 1987 demolition of pavement-dweller shanties was commonplace. SPARC, partnering with the National Slum Dwellers Organization (NSDO) and Mahila Milan (Women Together) educated pavement- dwellers, mostly women with children, to avert or deal with demolition or eviction. Demolitions are faced collectively which helps break isolation and create solidarity. Relevant state government departments provide plans for more permanent shelter; Area Committees led by female pavement- dwellers plan for alternative settlement arrangements for demolition victims. Dwellings are designed with the help of architects and engineers. Approximately 1,800 individuals have accessed such loans and each family has saved about Rs 5,000 towards future housing. Mass demolitions of pavement dweller shanties have stopped. Contact: Mr. A.P. Sinha, ibid.
22. Cost-Effective and Appropriate Sanitation Systems: The Case of Sulabh International, India: Most cities and towns in India use single pit latrines to meet sanitation needs with scavengers keeping the situation bearable. Previous solutions proposed by Government, institutes and NGOs were rejected by local populations. In 1970, Sulabh Shauchalaya Sansthan, an NGO, acted as a catalyst between Government, local bodies and residents to improve sanitation: persuading residents in several towns to convert their bucket latrines to low-cost pour-flush toilets (Sulabh Shauchalayas). Loans and subsidies were provided and five-year guarantee cards were issued in case of technical problems. Sulabh has constructed over 700,000 private latrines, 3,000 public toilets, serving 10 million people in all. Over 35,000 "liberated" scavengers have benefitted from vocational training. Funds are provided by the Government or local authority, with Sulabh charging a supervisory fee. Contact: Mr. A.P. Sinha, ibid.
23. Cost-Effective, Environmentally-Friendly (CEEF) Shelter Development Strategy: The Nirmithi Kendras (Building Centres) in Kerala, India: The 1985 floods in Kerala State revealed systemic shortcomings in relief assistance. Using Government finance and land, a new strategy established partnerships with scientific and voluntary organizations focusing on: use of locally available materials, de- emphasizing energy-intensive materials (cement and steel); local participation in construction; combining new and traditional styles; and designing with the landscape. The system has spread throughout India: new specifications for cost-effective building materials and techniques were adopted by the Bureau of Standards; training organized in masonry, carpentry, plumbing, electricity - up to 40% of trainees were women, a novelty in the construction field. State governments have waived building taxes for Nirmithi-designed industrial estates. Contact: Mr. A.P. Sinha, ibid.
24. Community Participation for Clean Surroundings: The Work of EXNORA in Madras, India: Madras' rapid growth resulted water supply contamination, sewage problems and informal garbage dumps. Government-provided garbage containers did not work as residents found it inconvenient to carry garbage to collection points. EXNORA International intervened, beginning in 1989, and developed "Civic Exnoras," independent resident committees affiliated with the parent organization, each comprising of 75 to 100 families. A `street beautifier' is paid from neighbourhood funds to collect refuse from households using specially designed tricycles, and to sweep the streets. The Civic Exnoras operate not only in middle- and upper-class neighbourhoods, but also in slums, where residents are provided with free tricycles and youth are involved. 900 Civic Exnoras are operating in Madras, encouraging committees to implement other programmes such as composting, tree planting, rain harvesting, a women's guild and a student education programme. Contact: Mr. A.P. Sinha, ibid.
25. Poverty Alleviation Through Community Cooperation: Urban Basic Services for the Poor (UBSP), Delhi, India: Since 1992, UBSP developed a participatory community development structure for poor women. In 296 cities, over 100,000 women, earning around US$ 32 per month, serve as planning volunteers. UBSP empowers women to express their needs and demands (60 volunteers have been elected to Municipal Government). Results include: 2,000 pre-school centres serving 100,000 children, community centres, play areas, primary schools, environmental health programmes, credit societies for women in 11 States. In one State, 8,000 jobs were created for women in 18 months. State and District authorities monitor the programme which is implemented by the communities. UBPS brings communities together to exchange information and knowledge; resulting in effective partnerships, access to education, reduced adult illiteracy, improved water and sanitation. Contact: Ms. Marty Rajandran, UNICEF House, 73, Lodi Estate, New Delhi- 110 003. Tel: 91 11 469 0401. Fax: 91 11 462 7521.
26. Slum Networking: A Participative and Holistic Approach for the Improvement of Urban Infrastructure and Environment Through Slum Fabrics in Indore, Baroda and Ahmedabad, India: The Indore Development Authority, local NGOs, local communities, and Britain's ODA implemented the `slum networking' concept: integrated city-wide upgrading using slums as an urban network rather than isolated islands. The spatial spread of slums and their contiguity provide opportunities for city- wide infrastructure networks. Six years of work produced 300 km of sewer lines, 360 km of roads, 240 km of storm drains, 240 km of water lines, 500,000 square metres of green space and 158 community halls. A large part of this infrastructure borders slum areas serving both slums and residential areas. Since 1988, slums in Indore have benefitted from environmental and sanitation improvements and extensive community development programmes in health, education, and income generation. Slum networking has been extended to Baroda and Ahmedabad. Contact: Mr. A.P. Sinha, ibid.
27. "Khuda-Ki-Basti" - Innovation and Success in Sheltering the Poor, Karachi, Pakistan: Government and private sector housing schemes in Pakistan focus mainly on upper and middle-income consumers. Land policies have resulted in over-supply for upper income developments with 200,000 vacant plots and flats in Karachi where 40% of the population have inadequate shelter. The Saiban, an NGO, initiated the Incremental Development Scheme ("Khuda-Ki-Basti") to deliver affordable housing to low-income groups. Plots are allocated to families upon payment of a low deposit, and services are provided as allottees pay their monthly installments. Families are given title to the land. The community is involved from planning to execution: groups of 200 houses are organized into blocks which decide on the type of services they want. Employment opportunities for 1,000 people have been generated and contractors are appointed from the community. Income- generating schemes using small loans provided 115 people (a third of them women) with regular income. Contact: Mr. Tasneem Ahmed Siddiqui, SAIBAN, GRE: 319 (2-B) Britto Road, Karachi, Pakistan, Tel: 92 21 7219055, Fax: 7219049.
28. Orangi Pilot Project (OPP), Karachi, Pakistan: Many government-sponsored initiatives to regularize squatter settlements have failed because of opposition by administrators and land owners. Frustrated by lack of progress, a local NGO launched the OPP in 1980. For Orangi residents, the largest squatter settlement in Karachi, sewerage was top priority, but the local government refused because of its unauthorized status. The community designed, financed and built an innovative low-cost sewerage system. More than 72,000 latrines were installed and 1.3 million feet of sewer lines were laid. Despite the OPP sewer system not being connected to city pipes because of its status, it attracted the attention of donors and similar sewer projects were set up in 1990 in three squatter settlements in the Sukkur Municipality, Sindh Province, resulting in improved sanitary conditions. Contact: S.M. Irfan, Managing Director, Pakistan Environmental Planning and Architectural Consultants Ltd (PEPAC), 58-Abu Bakar Block, New Garden Town, Lahore, Tel: 92 42 5868741, Fax: 92 42 5868742.
29. Naga Kaantabay Sa Kauswagan: An Urban Poor Programme in Naga City, Philippines: In 1990 over 5000 families, or 25% of the 19,500 households in Naga City were squatters and slum dwellers, double the figure in 1980. These households lacked basic services and were constantly threatened by evictions and demolitions. The Naga Kaantabay sa Kauswagan (Partners in Development Programme), in conjunction with the local authority initiated legislative change, established a tripartite Urban Development and Housing Board, resulting in: land-swapping and sharing schemes for land and security of tenure for squatters, local resource mobilization schemes with beneficiary equity contributions, and basic services for the urban poor. In 1994, the programme received the Galing Pook Award and has been the subject of numerous study tours, seminars and other means of exchange of experience. Contact: Nelson D. Lavina, Ambassador to Kenya and Permanent Representative to UNCHS (Habitat), P.O. Box 47941, Nairobi, Kenya, Tel: 254 2 721791, Fax: 254 2 725897.
30. Community Action Planning (CAP), Sri Lanka: Learning from the Million Housing Programme (1984-1989), the National Housing Development Authority and the Urban Development Authority, in conjunction with UNCHS (Habitat) and community groups utilized CAP methodology to provide homes for low-income groups. The government realized that the best way to provide homes was to support a building programme where the State participates in the home building activities of the people. The CAP methodology assesses the needs of the communities through workshops. Eleven CAP modules are in use and half-day issue workshops are implemented as a planning process. The use of the CAP methodology has led to concerted government-community efforts for settlement upgrading and home improvements in low-income urban communities. Contact: Mr. K.A.S. Gunasekera, Secretary, Ministry of Housing, Construction, & Public Utilities, Colombo, Fax: 94 1 862 583.
31. The Government Housing Bank, Bangkok, Thailand: The Government Housing Bank (GHB) has played a key role in the development of Thailand's housing sector. The GHB has brought together the private sector, lending institutions, governments and home buyers to improve housing affordability in Thailand. It fostered partnerships which created interdependence among stakeholders to deliver a home to buyers. This created demand which led to a decrease in housing prices. The GHB has been able to break away from traditional practices and initiated a new savings deposit scheme with higher interest rates resulting in a substantial in-flow of funds. In offering low- interest loans to home buyers and developers alike the GHB has provided less restrictive access to borrowers and, as a result, forced commercial lenders to follow suit. Contact: Mr. Sidhijai Tanphipat, President, Government Housing Bank, 212 Rama Road, Huaykwang, Bankok 10310, Thailand. Tel: (66-2) 2460303; Fax (66-2) 246 1789.
32. Worker's Housing Organization Projects on the Western District of the Urban Extension of Kalamata, Greece: The Workers' Housing Organization (WHO) has served for forty years the needs of Greek employees. WHO was established in 1954, to secure housing for workers. WHO is a public organization and functions under the supervision of the Ministry of Employment. The Organization considers those who do not own a home, nor have the assets enabling them to purchase a home, "homeless". It is this orientation towards home-ownership which for the Greek families is a "dream of a lifetime", marks the work of WHO and distinguishes it from other social housing organizations in Europe. Contact: The Ministry of Environment and Public Works, Director for Ekistic Policy & Housing, National Committee Habitat II, Trikalon 36, 116 26 Athens.
33. Community Planning Process and City-Neighbourhood Partnership, Lublin, Poland: In 1990 the City of Lublin initiated a participatory planning process for urban re- development - a new concept for Poland, city planners and concerned citizens. The program was launched in two low-income districts lacking infrastructure. Extensive consultations were held resulting in neighbourhood development plans approved by the City Council, and the regularization of unauthorized buildings. The City adopted an Act to stimulate partnerships in local infrastructure development. Residents negotiate with the city on the desired sequence of improvements. New houses have been built, run-down houses have been renovated, shops and businesses established and infrastructure improved. Young people who had left the area have returned and multi- generation families have been re-established. Contact: Dr. Mona Serageldin, Unit for Housing and Urbanization, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, 48 Quincy Street, Cambridge Massachusetts 02138, USA, Tel: 1 617 4954964, Fax: 1 617 4959347.
34. Single-Family Housing Project, Timisoara, Romania: Braytim Ltd., established at the end of 1990 was commissioned for the urban layout plan of an un-built area of 22 ha, for the development of individual housing with the encouragement of the Ministry of Public Works and Regional Planning. A focus on single dwellings was observed because it was felt that changing the way of living from collective to individual dwelling would strengthen a sense of property and ownership, increase the degree of civic engagement with an important educational effect for the next generation. Owners co- operated in land subdivisions and land swapping to further the project. A greater flexibility of housing was achieved by using a diversity of dwelling-types and plot sizes in accordance with demand, offering housing possibilities for various categories of families. Contact: BRAYTIM ltd. c/o IPROTIM- Plc- Urban planning- 2A, Paris Street. Timisoara, Romania, Tel: 56-190-297.
35. The Batikent Project, Ankara, Turkey: Kent-Koop (Union of Housing Cooperatives in Batikent) was founded in 1979 by trade unions, associations of tradespeople, artisans and other groups in cooperation with the Metropolitan Municipality of Ankara. The Batikent project was launched to create sustainable living environments and a durable solution to the housing problem. The project has been planned for 50,000 housing units for approximately 250,000 people. The major factor contributing the success of the Batikent project as an alternative model for housing production is the civil and democratic participation inherent in the Kent-Koop organization. Contact: Muammer Niksarli, Kent Koop. Tel: 90 312 431 34 00. Fax: 90 312 432 04 75.
36. Implementation of Collective Housing Settlement Projects, Ankara, Turkey: Ankara, like many other cities, faces the challenges of a rising population growth rate and increasing immigration. Consequently, Ankara has a housing backlog of 100,000 units, and an annual housing demand of 25,000. Turkkonut, the Central Union of Construction Co- operatives of Turkey, with a membership of 1,200 co- operatives, manages to build houses at 2/3 the cost of other sectors and in less time. In addition, Turkkonut's annual output in Ankara (5,000 units) is equal to the combined output of the State and private construction sectors. Contact: Mr. Yilmaz Odatasi, Housing Cooperatives Central Union of Turkey, Ataturk Bulvari 79-81, Ankara 06420, Tel: 90 312 4332801\4354366; Fax: 4320197/ 4323198.
37. Prime Ministry Housing Development Administration (HDA), Turkey: The housing estates that have been developed by the HDA on sites in Ankara, Istanbul and Kocaeli comprise of 34,000 housing units and represent significant achievements in lowering construction costs, qualities of building and environmental design. Property rights are transferred to medium-to-low income households in need of housing. Due to the success of the housing project along with an innovative mortgage scheme, future plans are to produce over 367,000 housing units in 16 provinces. Contact: Ömer Kiral, Prime Ministry, Housing Development Administration, Atatürk Bulvari No: 163, Bakanlikar, 06680 Ankara. Tel: 312 418 21 04.
Latin America and Caribbean
38. Sites and Services for Low-income Families, North of Gran, Buenos Aires, Argentina: APAC - Association for Community Support, an Argentinean NGO, started a program with the San Juan Bosco Foundation, to offer affordable systems for low-income families to access land, basic infrastructure and build self-help housing. The programme, based on the Barrio Esperanza experience, is on the periphery of Benavidez, a town of 20,000 inhabitants. About 10.5 ha. of undeveloped land wasbought; legislation was adopted by the Town Hall for a subdivision of 173 plots of differing dimensions. Lot costs were reduced from 20-22 US$/sq.m to $8.20. Roads were lengthened and paved, services provided and improved (water, electricity, telephone), and public transportation availed. Possession of 160 lots have been granted and the owners have started construction of their homes through a community self- help program. Contact: Ezequiel Zapiola, APAC, Terrero 1413, San Isidro - 1642, Buenos Aires, Argentina Tel/Fax: 54 1 747 4895.
39. Housing Practices - The Barbados Experience: Low-income groups in Barbados confront: insecurity of tenure; little or no disposable income; limited access to housing finance; and insufficient supply of mortgage funds. The Government initiated a two-pronged strategy: construction of starter houses and joint-venture projects with the private sector. Starter houses are constructed on lots averaging 390m2 and purchasers are supplied, free of cost, with plans demonstrating how the houses could be expanded incrementally. In joint-venture initiatives, the Government supplies fully serviced land on which private sector builders construct and sell houses targeted at low-, low-middle, and middle-income groups. Under the joint-venture arrangement, the Government sets the land price, decides the size of the lots, and ensures access by first-time buyers. Contact: Ms. D. Briggs, Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Housing, Division of Housing, 5th Floor, Sir Frank Walcott Building, Culloden Road, St. Michael, Barbados, Fax: 1 809 4350174.
40. Alvorada Project: Security of Tenure for the Poor, Municipality of Belo Horizonte, Brazil: The strength of community organizations in belo Horizonte led to the enactment of a law (PROFAVELA) that recognizes the rights of squatter settlements and provides the framework for the regularization of land tenure. One of the innovative features of PROFAVELA legislation has been the special attention paid to the rights and needs of women. Women were recognized to be, far more than men, the cohesive force that holds families together in low- income settlements (favelas), and since relatively few couples are officially married, preference is given to women in the issuance of property title deeds. In the case of women- headed households, all previously existing legal and regulatory obstacles to the issuance of a title deed have been removed. Contact: Mr. Enrico Novara, AVSI/Projecto Alvorada, Rua Alem Prariba 208, 3o. a, Belo Horizonte (MG) cep. 31.210-120, Brazil, Tel (55-31) 4447378; Fax (55-31) 444- 8215.
41. The Architect of the Community: A Participative Designing Method, Cuba: In 1990, Cuba was facing a critical economic situation, shortages of construction materials and paralysis of State housing programs. Self-help dwelling and the local production of materials was promoted. People's self-help initiatives resulted often in incomplete or inadequate construction creating other problems caused by lack of technical assistance and knowledge. From 1991 to 1994, a group of architects adopted an Argentinean method of Participative Design to assist people with their housing. Between May 1994 and November 1995, 18 Community Architect groups have been working throughout the country, assisting 2,226 families and decreasing pressure on local authorities. Contact: Contact: National Institute on Housing, Arch Salvador Gomila, The First Vice President, J y 19, Municipio Plaza, Cuidad de la Habana, Cuba, Tel: 53-7-322042, Fax: 53-7- 330105.
42. Nation-Wide Low-Cost Housing Program in Cuba: In l99l more than 85% of Cuba's foreign relationships were canceled. As a result the housing construction sector entered a deep crisis. In l992 the National Institute on Housing (INV) launched a new low-cost housing program moving from the previously state centralized framework based on strong import dependence. Since the introduction of the program 54,595 housing units have been built and 32,500 low-cost houses are now under construction all across the country. More than 30,000 new jobs have been created at workshops, local industries and building sites. 20% of them are posted by women. Contact: National Institute on Housing, Arch Salvador Gomila, The First Vice President, J y 19, Municipio Plaza, Cuidad de la Habana, Cuba, Tel: 53-7-322042, Fax: 53-7- 330105.
43. Urban Land Tenure Legislation Process of Neighbourhoods in the V and VI Districts in Managua, Nicaragua: This process promotes land tenure in seven urban neighbourhoods within the context of the "Women, Habitat and Environment in the Consolidation of the Neighbourhoods of the City of Managua" programme (June 1994 - June 1996). Habitat (an NGO) focuses its efforts on fortifying community organization and giving them legal, financial and technical support in the processes of negotiations with authorities in the certification of 3,362 lots, benefitting 21,000 people. After the first year of implementation, 345 titles are being negotiated. Contact: Ninette Morales Ortega, Directora HABITAR, Centro de Investigacion y Promocion del Habitat Apartado Postal 2829, Managua, Nicaragua.
44. Alternative Development Standards, Ottawa, Canada: In response to concerns related to the costs and amount of land devoted to residential development, the Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton (RMOC) has adopted guidelines for alternative development standards to reduce the cost of housing, create more compact development, and make better use of land and other resources. The guidelines include minimum standards for local road allowances, lot sizes and utility placement that are consistent with sound planning and engineering principles. The RMOC has undertaken a pilot project in partnership with Minto Developments Inc. and the City of Gloucester to test and monitor the performance of the alternative standards against the project's objectives of reducing development costs, offering affordable and marketable housing, and providing safe, effective and cost efficient servicing. Contact: Jack Smugler, Senior Officer, International Relations, CMHC, 700 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario. K1A 0P7. Tel: 613 748 2468. Fax: 613 748 2302. E- Mail: email@example.com.
45. Co-operative Housing in Canada: A Model for Empowered Communities: Co-operative housing flourished in the early 70s, in response to discontent with government low- income housing programmes. Co-op housing activists encouraged the National Government to support smaller scale, mixed-income housing to be built, owned and managed by community-based not- for-profit groups. 200,000 people in all parts of Canada now live in co-op housing, generally recognized as the most cost- effective form of government-assisted housing in Canada. Because many co-op households are led by single parents, mostly women, many co-ops underwrite child care costs for their members. As a result women participate actively at all levels of the housing movement. All co-ops contain units and common areas for the handicapped. Co-op members share their knowledge and experience internationally. Contact: Jack Smugler, Senior Officer, International Relations, CMHC, 700 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario. K1A 0P7. Tel: 613 748 2468. Fax: 613 748 2302. E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
46. New Downtown Waterfront, Vancouver, Canada: New water front neighbourhoods will house 20,000 residents, all within 2 km of the metropolitan business core. This proximity means that many residents will choose to travel by non-auto modes of transport. All new neighbourhoods are designed to be pedestrian friendly. A further 20% of the 12,000 units will be social housing, thus providing low cost housing for about 5,000 residents. A quarter of the units will be designed for families with children, a group that has traditionally had difficulty finding inner-city housing. These measures ensure the neighbourhoods are diverse places to live. Contact: ibid.
47. Campus Circle Comprehensive Neighbourhood Revitalization Initiative, Milwaukee, USA: In December 1991, Marquette University launched a neighbourhood revitalization project called Campus Circle, focusing on area housing and commercial needs. Allocating $9 million in University resources, Marquette joined forces with area businesses, community-based organizations and residents in a comprehensive approach to transforming a decaying area of 90 square blocks on Milwaukee's West Side. The project involved three parallel strategies: upgrade affordable neighbourhood housing; build off-campus student housing and initiate commercial development; and renovate student/neighbourhood housing. Through this strategy, the University was able to address quality of life issues including job creation, education, homeless needs, youth programmes, and crime and safety. Contact: Ken Smits, Vice-President, Administrative Affairs, Marquette University, 615 North 11th Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233, USA, Tel: 1 414 2881463; Fax: 1 414 2881451.
48. Don't Move, Improve, South Bronx, New York City, USA: Since 1977, "Don't Move, Improve," a community-owned and governed urban revitalization initiative in the South Bronx, implements comprehensive community development linking health, day care, economic, education, housing, environment, transport and capital development. Achievements include: raising or leveraging US$100 million of investment in the community; rehabilitating or constructing 25,000 units of safe, affordable housing; technical and financial assistance to 1,500 cooperative home owners; energy conservation for over 8,000 housing units; providing education, skills training and job placement for youth; technical and financial support to 125 small businesses; developing the South Bronx Community Health Project for pediatric and adolescent health care. The "Don't Move, Improve" community model has been replicated nationally in the USA as "Youthbuild". Contact: Mr. Akhtar Badshah. Mega-Cities, Inc., 915 Broadway, Ste. 1601, NY, NY 10010. Tel: 1 212 979 7644. Fax: 979 7624.
49. Homeless Families Programme, Beyond Shelter, Los Angeles, USA: In 1988, Beyond Shelter's Homeless Families Programme introduced innovation in the field of urban homelessness, bypassing traditional "transition housing", to move homeless families and adults directly into permanent rental housing in residential neighbourhoods. Traditional approaches to homelessness involve moving the homeless around from one provider to another, a cumbersome, disenfranchising and costly process, slowing or preventing social integration. Beyond Shelter's approach also provides individualized case management support for up to one year and, because it mobilizes existing resources, represents innovations in the financial and administrative dimensions as well. Contact: Tanya Tull, President and Executive Director, or Tracy Scruggs, Associate Director, Beyond Shelter, 4032 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 501, Los Angeles, California 90010, USA, Tel: 1 213 252-0772.