The Security Council this morning took note that the mandate of the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA) expired today and affirmed that notwithstanding its expiration, the status of forces agreement applicable to the Mission would remain in force until the departure of MONUA's final elements from Angola.
The Council took that action by unanimously adopting resolution 1129 (1999). By its terms, the Council also endorsed the recommendations contained in paragraphs 32 and 33 of the Secretary-General's 24 February report on the technical liquidation of MONUA.
The report stated that it is now estimated that up to 260 personnel would form the security detachment that would remain temporarily in Luanda to protect United Nations property during the liquidation phase, following the expiration of MONUA's mandate today. The technical liquidation of MONUA and its predecessors, whose presence in Angola spanned an almost 10-year period, was a significant challenge to the Organization.
Also according to the report, that task, which might take over six months to complete, would demand the presence in Angola of a substantial number of administrative, logistical and other personnel, as well as of a small medical unit. It would also require retaining, for up to two to three months after the end of the mandate, about 30 staff officers and a dozen police officers who would assist in the liquidation. Most of the remaining military police and civilian personnel would be repatriated by the end of March.
Further by the resolution, the Council also endorsed the recommendations contained in the report of the Security Council Committee on Angola, and reiterated its readiness to take steps to reinforce measures against the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) contained in resolutions 864 (1993), 1127 (1997) and 1173 (1998). It called upon all Member States to fully implement those measures.
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In the Committee's report, States were urged to take additional measures to: enact appropriate legislation or other legal measures which would make sanctions violations a criminal offence; prohibit all logistical assistance consistent with the provisions of Council resolution 864 (1993) and military services to UNITA; obtain information on the transfer of military equipment to UNITA, as well as activities involving illicit diamond trade with that organization; and enlist the assistance of banks and financial data sources to identify and track the financial flows of UNITA.
The Committee also proposed that Member States, particularly African and those neighbouring Angola, be requested to provide information on illegal arms flows to that country, the illicit diamond trade, the supply of petrol and petroleum products to UNITA and their capacity for monitoring and interdicting such flows, as well as their views on tightening the embargo. The Committee also urged potential donors to consider assisting States, in particular those neighbouring Angola, in efforts to improve their implementation of sanctions against UNITA.
Addressing the Council, Higino Carneiro, Vice-Minister for Territorial Administration of Angola, said that the moment, perhaps, would be an excellent opportunity for Angolans, the United Nations, Africa and the international community to celebrate the end of one more peace mission, provided that it had been successful. Unfortunately, however, that was not the case. Jonas Savimbi had once again "dashed our best hopes" for peace since the signing of the Lusaka Protocol in 1994. Concerning Zambia, he said the Angolan Government firmly believed that the current diplomatic démarches would prompt the country's authorities to become more vigilant in preventing its territory from being used as a "point of transit" for military and logistics matériel, which Mr. Savimbi needed for his military campaign.
Also addressing the Council, S.K. Walubita, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Zambia, said it was unfortunate that his country, an ardent advocate of peace, stood accused by the Government of Angola of undermining the peace and stability which the international community, through the United Nations and Angolan parties, had worked so hard to achieve. It was curious that those allegations were being repeated in spite of the fact that most of them had been jointly investigated with Angola before. However, because of the persistent allegations, his Government had extended an invitation to the Secretary-General to once again send a mission to Zambia to investigate them.
The meeting, which was called to order at 10:43 a.m., adjourned at 11:06 a.m.
Council Work Programme
The Security Council met this morning, to consider the situation in Angola. It had before it the Secretary-General's 24 February report on the situation in that country (document S/1999/202) and a related draft resolution, as well as the report of the Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 864 (1993) concerning the situation in Angola.
The present report is submitted pursuant to a presidential statement issued on 21 January (document S/PRST/1999/3), in which the Secretary-General was requested to report on consultations with the Government of Angola on a continued multidisciplinary presence of the United Nations in the country. It covers developments since the last report of the Secretary-General (document S/1999/49, of 17 January) until 23 February.
On 12 January, the Council unanimously adopted resolution 1221 (1999), in which, acting under Chapter VII of the Charter, it reiterated its demand that the leader of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), Jonas Savimbi, cooperate immediately and in good faith in the search for survivors of recent crashes of United Nations and other commercial aircraft in UNITA-controlled territory. The Council condemned the downing of the Organization's two planes, deplored the loss under suspicious circumstances of other commercial aircraft and demanded that all such attacks cease immediately.
On 21 January, the Council met again on Angola, and alarmed at the serious deterioration of the political and military situation there, it underlined the great importance of a continued multidisciplinary United Nations presence in that country. Recognizing that a continued presence by the Organization depended on the safety of its personnel and required the agreement of the Angolan Government and the cooperation of all concerned, the Council, in a presidential statement, appealed to the Government to provide such agreement and to UNITA to cooperate fully.
On 26 January, the Council met once more on the situation in Angola and welcomed recommendations for improving the implementation of the measures imposed on UNITA contained in the Secretary-General's report. In that connection it supported the commissioning of an expert study on possible ways of tracing violations of the measures regarding arms trafficking, oil supply, the diamond trade and the movement of UNITA funds.
The Secretary-General's report before the Council today states that the political situation in Angola remains grave, with heavy fighting in several parts of the country. Deep animosity and distrust have persisted between the Government of Angola and UNITA, led by Mr. Savimbi. On 27 January, the National Assembly of Angola adopted several resolutions, including one
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accusing the international community of complacency, acquiescence and bias and of making it easy for Mr. Savimbi to rearm and prepare for war. The Assembly also reiterated its view that the mandate of the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA) should be ended. In another resolution, it declared Mr. Savimbi a war criminal and international terrorist and called for his and his collaborators' arrest and prosecution and total annihilation of his subversion.
On 3 February, continues the Secretary-General, the Standing Committee of the Political Commission of UNITA issued a statement from Bailundo expressing serious disagreement with the assessment of the three Observer States (Portugal, Russian Federation and the United States) regarding the current situation in Angola. UNITA laid the blame for the current crisis on the Government and, in particular, President José Eduardo dos Santos who, it claimed, had openly declared war on UNITA.
The UNITA leadership also claimed that it believed in dialogue and consultations on the basis of a new and realistic platform, the report goes on to say. In a letter addressed to the Secretary-General dated 18 February, Mr. Savimbi claimed that the war was the sole and exclusive responsibility of the Government of Angola. According to the letter, the UNITA leadership maintained its position that MONUA should continue in its original format as a useful witness and as a facilitator of a rapprochement between the parties. Mr. Savimbi also stated that the current conflict could never be resolved by military means.
The report also details the military situation and notes that there has been a marked escalation in fighting between Government and UNITA forces. It also addresses the issue of the security of United Nations personnel; human rights aspects; the humanitarian situation; and the drawdown of MONUA and its liquidation phase.
According to the report, the technical liquidation of MONUA and its predecessors, whose combined presence in Angola spans a period of almost 10 years, presents a significant challenge to the Organization. That task, which may take over six months to complete, will demand the presence in Angola of a substantial number of administrative, logistical and other personnel, as well as a small medical unit. In addition, it will require the retaining, for a period of up to two to three months after the mandate ends, of about 30 staff officers and a dozen police officers who would assist in the liquidation. Most of the remaining military, police and civilian personnel would be repatriated by the end of March.
The Secretary-General states that the Government of Angola informed his Special Representative that, in its view, a continued multidisciplinary presence of the United Nations in Angola was not necessary. It also expressed the view that the United Nations should continue its activities through the
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specialized agencies, under the coordination of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
The Secretary-General says that pursuant to the 21 February presidential statement, he wrote a letter to President dos Santos on 1 February, soliciting his personal views on the matter so that those could be conveyed to the Council. His Special Representative delivered the letter during an audience with the President on 9 February.
In his reply (document S/1999/166), dated 11 February, President dos Santos indicated that his Government would continue to deal with representatives of United Nations agencies and programmes on issues related to humanitarian assistance, human rights and other matters of interest to the people of Angola, the report states. As for MONUA, the Government considered that conditions for maintaining its presence had ceased to exist. In his letter, President dos Santos further emphasized that his Government was not opposed to the appointment of a representative of the Secretary-General who, from New York, could maintain contact with the Government of Angola in monitoring the evolution of the situation in the country.
The Secretary-General says he intends to continue consultations with the Government of Angola concerning the modalities of the future presence of the United Nations and will inform the Security Council in due course of the outcome of those consultations.
In conclusion, he states: "I would like to pay tribute to my Special Representative, to the Force Commander and to all military, police and civilian personnel of MONUA, as well as to humanitarian workers and representatives of non-governmental organizations, for the courageous and dedicated way in which they have been carrying out their duties in the dangerous situation prevailing in Angola. They, as well as their colleagues who served with MONUA's predecessors, can and should take pride in their efforts to help the Angolans to finally achieve lasting peace and national reconciliation. These goals should continue to guide the future presence of the United Nations in this country."
The report of the Committee established pursuant to resolution 864 (1993) concerning the situation in Angola was requested in paragraph 8 of resolution 1221 (1999) of 12 January. It says that on 20 January, the Committee considered the Secretary-General's report on Angola and supported his recommendations. In addition to detailing those recommendations, the report also lists a number of proposals which are based on further examination of the measures imposed against UNITA in resolutions 864 (1993), 1127 (1997) and 1173 (1998).
Conveying those proposals, the report states that the Committee urges all States to take additional measures to: consider enacting appropriate
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legislation or other legal measures making violations of sanctions a criminal offence; prohibit all logistical assistance consistent with the provisions of Council resolution 864 (1993) and military services to UNITA; obtain, from private companies and individuals, information on the transfer of military equipment to UNITA as well as activities involving illicit diamond trade with UNITA; enlist the assistance of banks and sources of financial information and expertise to identify and track the financial flows of UNITA and those of its senior officials and adult members of their immediate families.
The Committee also proposes to remind Member States that they are requested to provide information on steps taken to implement the measures contained in resolutions 864 (1993), 1127 (1997) and 1173 (1998), request them to provide specific details in that regard and to continue to update that information. Member States, particularly African and those neighbouring Angola, are requested to provide information on illegal arms flows to that country, the illicit diamond trade, the supply of petrol and petroleum products to UNITA and their capacity for monitoring and interdicting such flows, as well as their views on tightening the embargo.
According to the report, the Committee proposes to renew its request to the Angolan Government to provide additional information on senior UNITA officials, including those abroad, and adult members of their immediate families designated by the Committee under paragraph 11 (a) of Council resolution 1127 (1997), namely, full names, dates of birth, passport numbers, all known addresses and any known aliases. It also proposes to renew its request to the Angolan Government to provide a list of all aircraft registered in Angola, in accordance with paragraph 4 (d) (iii) of resolution 1127, to which prohibitions do not apply.
The Committee recommends discussing in consultation with the Government of Angola and other interested parties in the diamond industry, improving the enforcement of sanctions against the diamond trade with UNITA. The Government should be requested to provide samples of all stamps and signatures that can appear on a certificate of origin and a definitive list of names of those authorized signatories. The Committee also requests Governments of States with companies that are major traders in diamonds and have expert monitoring facilities to notify it and relevant enforcement agencies of any trader or company that offers them illegal Angolan diamonds, as well as diamonds originating from neighbouring States, to ensure that all documentation is subject to official scrutiny.
The Committee also proposes to commission expert studies pursuant to the Secretary-General's recommendation, to trace violations in arms trafficking, oil supplies and the diamond trade, as well as the movement of UNITA funds, says the report. In regard to the possible imposition of measures in the area of telecommunications, as referred to in paragraph 8 of Security Council resolution 1221 (1999), the report says that the Committee will report to the
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Council as soon as it has the opportunity to consider responses to its Chairman's letters of 26 January to the International Telecommunication Union and the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization. The Committee has already received information from some Member States and anticipates additional responses from other Member States and expert sources.
The draft resolution before the Council (document S/1999/203) reads as follows:
"The Security Council,
"Reaffirming its resolution 696 (1991) of 30 May 1991 and all subsequent relevant resolutions, in particular resolutions 864 (19943) of 15 September 1993, 1127 (1997) of 28 August 1997 and 1173 (1998) of 13 June 1998, as well as resolutions 1219 (1998) of 31 December 1998 and 1221 (1999) of 13 January 1999,
"Recalling the statements of its President of 23 December 1998 (S/PRST/1998/37) and of 21 January 1999 (S/PRST/1999/3),
"Reaffirming its commitment to preserve the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Angola,
"Reiterating that the primary cause of the present situation in Angola is the failure of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) under the leadership of Mr. Jonas Savimbi to comply with its obligations under the "Acordos de Paz" (S/22609, annex), the Lusaka Protocol (S/1994/1441, annex) and relevant Security Council resolutions,
"Expressing its concern at the humanitarian effects of the present situation on the civilian population of Angola,
"Reiterating that lasting peace and national reconciliation can only be achieved through peaceful means and in this regard reaffirming the importance of the "Acordos de Paz", the Lusaka Protocol and relevant Security Council resolutions,
"Underscoring the contribution of the United Nations to the past four years of relative peace in Angola, and expressing its deep regret that the present political and security situation in the country has prevented the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA) from fully carrying out its mandated role,
"Taking note of the letter of the President of the Republic of Angola to the Secretary-General of 11 February 1999 (S/1999/166),
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"Reaffirming its view that a continued presence of the United Nations in Angola can contribute greatly to national reconciliation, and noting the ongoing consultations with the Government of Angola to obtain its agreement regarding the practical arrangements for this presence,
"Having considered the report of the Secretary-General of 24 February 1999 (S/1999/202),
"1. Takes note that the mandate of MONUA expires on 26 February 1999;
"2. Endorses the recommendations contained in paragraphs 32 and 33 of the report of the Secretary-General of 24 February 1999 regarding the technical liquidation of MONUA;
"3. Affirms that notwithstanding the expiration of the mandate of MONUA, the Status of Forces Agreement applicable to MONUA remains in force, pursuant to relevant provisions thereof, until the departure of the final elements of MONUA from Angola;
"4. Decides that the human rights component of MONUA will continue its current activities during the liquidation period;
"5. Requests the Secretary-General to designate a channel to liaise with the Government of Angola pending the conclusion of the consultations with the Government of Angola regarding the follow-up configuration of the United Nations presence in Angola;
"6. Calls upon all concerned to cooperate with the United Nations humanitarian assistance activities throughout the national territory of Angola on the basis of the principles of neutrality and non-discrimination and to guarantee the security and freedom of movement of humanitarian personnel;
"7. Expresses its deep concern at the lack of progress in investigating the downing of the two aircraft chartered by the United Nations and the loss under suspicious circumstances of other commercial aircraft over UNITA controlled areas, and reiterates its call upon all concerned, especially UNITA, to cooperate fully with and to facilitate an immediate and objective international investigation of these incidents;
"8. Endorses the recommendations contained in the report of 12 February 1999 of the Committee established pursuant to resolution 864 (1993) (S/1999/147), reiterates its readiness to take steps to reinforce the measures against UNITA contained in resolutions 864 (1993), 1127 (1997) and 1173 (1998) and calls upon all Member States to implement fully these measures,
"9. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter."
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HIGINO CARNEIRO, Vice-Minister for Territorial Administration of Angola, said that the moment, perhaps, would be an excellent opportunity for Angolans, the United Nations, Africa and the international community to celebrate the end of one more peace mission, provided that it had been successful. Unfortunately, however, that was not the case as the Council proceeded to adopt a resolution that terminated MONUA.
Jonas Savimbi had once again "dashed our best hopes" for peace since the signing of the Lusaka Protocol in 1994, he said. Mr. Savimbi, with that new act of betrayal of the peace efforts, should never again be counted upon to assist in resolving the Angolan conflict; his personal goals were incompatible with any understanding that might be agreed concerning the end of the Angolan conflict. Mr. Savimbi was trying to seize power at all costs, and would continue in his relentless campaign to seize power through the force of arms as long as he could count on the support and facilities from certain other countries.
He said the Angolan Government believed that if there was a greater commitment on the part of the international community and a more exacting mechanism for monitoring compliance with the United Nations sanctions, Mr. Savimbi would soon be neutralized militarily. Thereupon, the conditions would be obtained for the re-establishment of peace in Angola. That was possible only if everyone acted in concert towards a definitive end to the state of war that had been the scourge of Angola for the last 30 years.
In that sense, he appealed to the neighbouring countries to break off all contacts with Mr. Savimbi and to suspend all logistics support that enabled him to wage war in Angola. Concerning Zambia, he said the Angolan Government firmly believed that the current diplomatic demarches would prompt that country's authorities to become more vigilant in preventing its territory from being used as a "point of transit" for military and logistics materiel, which Mr. Savimbi needed for his military campaign.
He said that as a result of the new cooperation framework between the Angolan Government and the United Nations, new and more stringent measures would be taken to isolate and neutralize Mr. Savimbi. Following deliberations in New York with Council members on a wide range of concepts, his country was now ready to submit to a central Government those proposals that were best suited to the model that Angolan authorities would like to see in place. Within a few days, his Government would convey its decisions to the Council.
S. K. WALUBITA, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Zambia, said that it was unfortunate today that his country, an ardent advocate of peace, stood accused by the Government of Angola of undermining the peace and stability which the international community, through the United Nations and Angolan parties, had
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worked so hard to achieve. Zambia found it curious that those allegations were being repeated in spite of the fact that most of them had been jointly investigated with Angola before. However, because of the persistent allegations, his Government had extended an invitation to the Secretary- General to once again send a mission to Zambia to investigate them.
He said that it was a matter of regret that the Angolan peace process, embodied in the Lusaka Protocol, had collapsed due to UNITA's failure to comply fully with the provisions of the Protocol. The conduct of UNITA in that regard was unacceptable, and had been condemned by Zambia. The collapse of the peace process was still more lamentable in view of the fact that two- thirds of the Protocol had been implemented. It was his country's view, notwithstanding the current obstacles, that the Lusaka Protocol still remained the best framework for a peaceful settlement of the conflict.
He said that with the amount of time, energy and resources already invested and the progress made so far, it would be a great tragedy for the international community to abandon the Protocol. Therefore, as the Council considered the winding down of MONUA, every effort should be made to ensure that a vacuum was not created which would lead to the worsening of the security situation in the Southern African subregion. Such a situation would adversely impact on the security of his own country. In fact, since the resumption of hostilities in Angola, there had been an increase in the flow of illegal military weapons into Zambia which were being used for criminal activities. In addition, there had been an increase in the influx of refugees from Angola into Zambia. His Government was also concerned that the serious allegations by Angola were being made at a time when "our mediation efforts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo have reached an advanced stage". Such allegations were likely to undermine Zambia's mediation of that conflict.
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