16 December 1998


Press Release
SC/6610



SECURITY COUNCIL BEGINS DEBATE ON MAINTENANCE OF PEACE AND SECURITY, POST-CONFLICT PEACE-BUILDING

19981216
Absolute impartiality, clearly defined mandates, interaction with regional organizations and coordination among political, development and humanitarian institutions were critical to the success of international peace- building activities, several speakers told the Security Council this morning.

As the Council met to consider the maintenance of peace and security and post-conflict peace-building, the representative of the United Kingdom said that to place peace-building efforts on firm foundations, account must be taken of the role of international financial institutions and such regional organizations as the European Union. The Council must devise ways to ensure that its political objectives complemented the financial recovery packages of those bodies. He stressed that the lack of a consistent consultation between the Council and the Organization of African Unity (OAU) on peace and security in Africa must be addressed sooner, rather than later.

Coordination must start in the field to be effective, he added. The development of a "strategic framework" for United Nations action had the potential to produce improved results in the building of peace. Peacekeeping would work best if it incorporated post-conflict peace-building. "We must not, in constructing mandates for our operations, lose sight of the need to ensure that when a peacekeeping force withdraws the war does not resume", he added.

Equal attention should be given to all post-conflict regions with no double standard in providing assistance, the representative of China said. Further, the form of development chosen by the country should be respected. He was opposed to attaching political connections to assistance. He also opposed putting all problems in Council hands. It was not good for the normal function of other United Nations organs and might dilute the Council's efficiency.

Council involvement in the affairs of countries must be in accordance with the Charter and the wishes of the countries concerned, he continued. He opposed any act of power politics that unilaterally resorted to the use of force or threat of force while circumventing the Council. That, in itself, was a grave threat to international peace and security.


Security Council - 1a - Press Release SC/6610 3954th Meeting (AM) 16 December 1998

The representative of the Russian Federation said that use of force to resolve conflict was an exceptional and extreme measure to be used only when a real threat to international peace existed, as defined in the Charter. Also, the use of such force could only be implemented through a Council decision. Interaction with regional organizations was a positive practice that must be encouraged and strengthened. It was clear that unilateral action through regional efforts could not replace the Charter functions of the United Nations.

The successful conclusion of a peace process in situations of intra- State conflict was premised on national reconciliation, which could not be achieved without safeguarding the rights of individuals, the representative of Portugal said. Not only must their humanitarian and human rights be protected, but they must also be given a chance to secure their socio-economic well-being. While peacekeeping operations focused primarily on the military aspects of a peace agreement, peace-building activities were increasingly important to ensure the timely and full implementation of peace agreements and the fulfilment of peacekeeping mandates.

The representative of Brazil said that, as one of the strongest advocates of a Security Council reform capable of correcting present inadequacies and equipping it for the future, he was uneasy over current attempts that could undermine the foundations of collective security. National governments, no matter how powerful they might be individually or in the context of restricted groups, could not legitimately aspire to promote a more peaceful world on their own, while ignoring the views of the international community.

Statements were also made by the representatives of United States, Costa Rica, France, Gambia, Gabon, Slovenia, Kenya, Japan, Sweden and Bahrain.

The meeting was suspended at 11:43 a.m. It will be resumed at a date and time to be announced.


Council Work Programme

The Security Council met this morning to consider the maintenance of peace and security and post-conflict peace-building.

Statements

QIN HUASUN (China) said the world was undergoing profound changes. The desire for peace, stability and development was the shared pursuit of all nations. It was the top priority of the international community and called for the support of the United Nations. It was a responsibility that was unshirkable and unshakable. The Council must respond to the repeated appeals of African countries such as Somalia, Sierra Leone and those in the Great Lake region.

He said the Council had become more, rather than less, involved in the affairs of some countries. It must respect the Charter and act in accordance with the wishes of the countries. He was not in favour of interfering in the affairs of sovereign nations. His Government opposed any act of power politics that unilaterally resorted to the use of force or threat of force while circumventing the Council. That, in itself, was a grave threat to international peace and security.

He supported active efforts in supporting peace-building but equal attention should be given to all post-conflict regions. Some areas were given attention, while others were put on the back burner. Countries in Africa, and others experiencing economic difficulties, had trouble getting economic assistance. There should be no double standard in providing assistance. International efforts should be attuned to the will of the country concerned. Further, the form of development chosen by the country should be respected. His Government had always been opposed to attaching political connections to assistance.

He maintained that the role and capacity of United Nations organs in the social and economic field should be strengthened. He was opposed to putting all the problems of all areas in the hands of the Council. That was not good for the normal function of other United Nations organs and might dilute the efficiency of the Council. Improvement in those aspects would be helpful in the development of peace and international peace and security.

SERGEY LAVROV (Russian Federation) said the peacekeeping efforts of the international community must be made more effective. There was also a need for absolute impartiality and the existence of clearly defined mandates. The use of force to resolve conflict was an exceptional and extreme measure that should only be taken when a real threat to international peace existed, as defined under Article 37 of the United Nations Charter. Also, the use of such force could only be implemented through a decision of the Security Council.


Security Council - 3 - Press Release SC/6610 3954th Meeting (AM) 16 December 1998

Interaction with regional organizations was a positive practice that must be encouraged and strengthened. The use of force by individual States, however, needed to be sanctioned by the Security Council. It was clear that unilateral action through regional efforts could not replace the Charter functions of the United Nations.

He was concerned over the need to strengthen the role of United Nations peacekeeping efforts and supported efforts to enhance the effectiveness of peacekeeping deployments. The most effective means to address peacekeeping was through the existing United Nations standby arrangements and the most important component in the whole process was post-conflict peace-building. Without effective efforts in that area it would be impossible to establish reliable prerequisites. On the whole, post-conflict peace-building was an independent aspect of peacekeeping operations. When concentrating on the social, economic and humanitarian aspects, peace-building fell within the sphere of the Economic and Social Council. The structure of the Charter was fully applicable at the preventive level. The indispensable political role in peace-building must be carried out by the General Assembly, with full respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of States.

PETER BURLEIGH (United States) said that some of the tasks assigned to peacekeeping operations might go beyond peacekeeping to the area of peace- building, a transition that Member States needed to understand and manage better. There were three sets of concerns: the division of labour between peacekeeping and peace-building; resources; and coordination.

He said peacekeeping mandates needed to include some short-term activities that would enhance the ability of peacekeeping troops, military observers and or civilian police to stabilize the immediate situation and maintain the momentum of peace. Long-term support to rebuild or restructure basic public security institutions fell beyond the scope of peacekeeping and into the area of peace-building. Both the United Nations and the host government must focus on longer-term peace-building tasks and seek the appropriate domestic, multilateral and bilateral backing for them. Ideally, the Council should work out with the host government a timetable for accomplishing specific objectives in peace-building.

Countries that sought peacekeeping support needed to recognize that it was important for them to marshall resources to secure the peace, he said. United Nations agencies, international financial institutions, bilateral donors and the host countries themselves must know that devoting a share of limited resources to furthering good governance would help create a climate in which economic growth could occur. The United Nations would never have adequate resources to do the enormous job that serious peace-building entailed, but it could play important role as coordinator of the United Nations system and the international community overall.


Security Council - 4 - Press Release SC/6610 3954th Meeting (AM) 16 December 1998

Coordinating peacekeeping and peace-building activities required strong leadership, he said. That political leadership could be provided by a special representative of the Secretary-General, a social coordinator, a transitional administrator or other high representative of the Secretary-General. It would be particularly important to clarify the lines of authority among the United Nations agencies involved to establish the basis for full cooperation. It was important for humanitarian and development assistance donors to coordinate closely and to share experiences from previous endeavours.

BERND NIEHAUS (Costa Rica) said that since the establishment of the United Nations, peacekeeping had been restricted to monitoring and compliance, but that had proved unrealistic. After 1989, there was a broadening of the concept of maintaining international peace and security. The Secretary-General had supported post-conflict peace-building to prevent the return to violence. Peace-building was not an unfounded political proposal, but a deep-rooted concept with juridical validity. The new vision corresponded to the necessity of a new set of possibilities that emerged after 1989.

Once the military aspects had been dealt with, he said, a full and multi-disciplinary approach was necessary for the new situations. Peace-building must be a link in the chain of maintaining peace and security. It must involve a ceasefire and attention to the structural problems that might have led to the confrontation. The concept of comprehensiveness was essential to achieving lasting peace and the true commitment of the parties to peace was the indispensable condition. Agreements containing integral responses required political and diplomatic negotiation and peaceful negotiations could serve as a tool for resolving the conflicts. Facilitation, good offices and mediation on the part of regional bodies were effective tools.

He said peace-building was a political concept and must be looked at from an integral perspective. Areas that had been previously reserved for domestic responsibility might need international assistance. The concept presupposed the acceptance of exceptional treatment where there had been armed conflict. If the international community was truly committed to meeting the challenges of today's world, it must be committed to finding the right answers.

ALAIN DEJAMMET (France) said each peacekeeping situation was unique. It would, therefore, be presumptuous to try and determine or prioritize the contents of such actions. However, there were three guidelines which must be followed: the strengthening of confidence and national reconciliation, including the demobilization and reintegration of combatants, the development of dialogue and human rights; the establishment of an economic and social infrastructure, including the strengthening of educational systems; and the


Security Council - 5 - Press Release SC/6610 3954th Meeting (AM) 16 December 1998

rebuilding of institutions that had been damaged and destroyed by the conflict.

The overall objective was to achieve good governance, he continued. There was also a need for those emerging from conflict situations to learn how to share power. When a conflict changed focus, international attention often dwindled, even when the colossal task of peace-building remained. The Security Council needed to take that aspect into account early and to provide for it in a peacekeeping operation.

He said that, at the outset, there was a need to provide forward-thinking on peacekeeping operations and the activities that followed those operations. Peace-building depended on the will of the parties to the conflict and the international community. Close cooperation was required to ensure that all peacekeeping operations were aimed at the same objective, to avoid duplication and waste. The lack of continuity between the different stages of international action after a conflict could seriously damage a peacekeeping operation. Transitions from the various stages must, therefore, be planned.

ANTONIO MONTEIRO (Portugal) said the successful conclusion of a peace process in situations of intra-State conflict was premised on national reconciliation, which could not be achieved without safeguarding the rights of individuals. Not only must their humanitarian and human rights be protected and upheld, but they must also be given a chance to secure their socio-economic well-being. While peacekeeping operations still focused primarily on the military aspects of a peace agreement, the fact was that peace-building activities were increasingly important to ensure the timely and full implementation of the terms of peace agreements and the fulfilment of peacekeeping mandates.

Peace-building was, thus, essential in the peacekeeping phase, he continued. Peace-building might be post-conflict, but it was not, nor should it be, post-peacekeeping. The proper use of peace-building activities -- in appropriate time, before the end of peacekeeping mandates -- would help bridge the transitional gap that inevitably appeared between the withdrawal of peacekeepers and the effective functioning of development activities that addressed the long-term causes of conflict.

Continuing, he said that in that so-called "twilight zone", conflict could very easily erupt again, unless steps had been taken to disarm, demobilize and find relevant occupations for ex-combatants, as well as help the wider process of national reconciliation through a participatory political process, which included democratic elections. While peace-building tasks were usually pre-determined in the peace-building agreements that ended the fighting and were subsequently integrated into the mandates of peacekeeping operations by the Security Council, it was up to the Secretary-General to


Security Council - 6 - Press Release SC/6610 3954th Meeting (AM) 16 December 1998

ensure the effective coordination on the ground of all activities of the various components of the operations. For that to happen in optimal conditions, there should be clear leadership and a coordinating structure on the ground, headed by the Secretary-General's special representative.

BABOURCARR-BLAISE ISMAILA JAGNE (Gambia) said that since the absence of conflict did not necessarily mean the prevalence of peace, the consolidation process for the restoration of durable peace should start almost immediately. With the help of the international community, coupled with the required degree of political will, reintegration, rehabilitation and reconstruction programmes should be put into place as quickly as possible. That presupposed that there would be a large number of refugees and displaced persons. The priority would be to ensure their safe repatriation and resettlement, with special attention to women, children and the elderly.

He said much could be learned from the experience acquired by the first United Nations Peace-building Support Office in Liberia. The presence of the United Nations, no matter how symbolic, always provided a feeling of security for the population and, by extension, had a salutary effect on confidence- building measures.

The success of any peace-building programme depended on the availability of resources, he said. A concerted and coordinated effort was indispensable to the effective mobilization of domestic and international resources. In addition to basic short-term peace-building programmes, there should be a sustained effort to support medium and long-term programmes, as well. The crux of the matter, however, was to address with equal zeal the question of sustainable development. Widespread poverty bred conflict. In order to achieve durable peace, the people must first be empowered.

CHARLES ESSONGHE (Gabon) said since the establishment of its peacekeeping operations some 50 years ago, the United Nations had considerably improved their activities in that area, despite such gaps as Somalia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Due to the nature of current conflicts, peace accords were more frequently complex. The United Nations had, however, displayed a pragmatism in that respect, particularly in Africa. The continent, for its part, and in accordance with Chapter 8 of the United Nations Charter, had undertaken peacekeeping operations in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea Bissau. He welcomed the inclusion in peacekeeping of a dimension that combined conventional peacekeeping tasks with political and humanitarian activities.

He said without peace-building, any settlement efforts would be superficial, fragile and precarious. All peacekeeping decisions must be integrated and coordinated measures, while post-conflict peace-building must be considered a long-term strategy. The role of the various bodies of the United Nations was also important in any operation. Peacekeeping and peace- building operations should be constructed within a framework agreement with


Security Council - 7 - Press Release SC/6610 3954th Meeting (AM) 16 December 1998

the specific country in question, while taking territorial integrity and sovereignty into account.

CELSO L. N. AMORIM (Brazil) noted previous references to the increasing incidence of internal conflicts. Such conflicts had always existed. History had many instances where they had been internationalized. The French Revolution was one. On the other hand, the ongoing situation in Angola was an example of an internal conflict that was an outgrowth of international tension, in the form of the cold war. One of the parties to that conflict owed its existence to the role it had played during the cold war. The Security Council should resist the temptation to become a revived Trusteeship Council. The proper competence of different United Nations organs must be recognized.

He said that at the end of a year which had witnessed the outbreak of new crises, and a deterioration of several persisting conflicts, it did not seem possible for the Security Council to proceed much longer without critically scrutinizing its own performance. As one of the strongest advocates of a Security Council reform capable of correcting present inadequacies and equipping it for the future, Brazil viewed with uneasiness certain attempts currently being made that could undermine the foundations of collective security as defined by the Charter.

He said the United Nations had amassed a valuable capacity to deal with international crises and threats to peace. National governments, no matter how powerful they may be individually or in the context of restricted groups, could not legitimately aspire to promote a more peaceful world on their own, while ignoring the views of the international community. A blueprint for enhancing the Security Council's authority should necessarily include a review of recent peacekeeping experience. He cited the operation in Eastern Slavonia which, although established under Chapter VII of the Charter, had enjoyed the consent of the parties, thus not deviating from the general peacekeeping doctrine which had evolved since the days of the United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) and which remained the only widely accepted basis for the deployment of United Nations peacekeepers.

He said there was a growing perception that the shortcomings in the present machinery for ensuring compliance with Security Council resolutions needed to be addressed seriously. The fact that the United Nations had still not put into effect its original architecture for military reinforcement might give rise to regret or relief, depending on the point of view. However, that should neither encourage Member States to look for unorthodox solutions in defiance of the Charter, on the one hand, nor prevent consideration of the matter in the Security Council and in the General Assembly.

He said the founders of the United Nations had envisioned a partnership between the world body and regional arrangements and organizations. Moreover,


Security Council - 8 - Press Release SC/6610 3954th Meeting (AM) 16 December 1998

regional initiatives could be particularly effective in the preventive and post-conflict phases of stabilization efforts. Unfortunately, he went on, numerous actions of doubtful conformity with existing rules had taken place in the past year. Overt violations of sanctions regimes, or armed interventions and manifestations of readiness to use armed force by regional actors without the specific authority of the Security Council, raised serious legal as well as political questions. Enforcement interventions with no legal foundation would lack moral authority and would not meet with the approval of world opinion in the long run.

DANILO TURK (Slovenia) said international peace and security were not fully ensured without the establishment of conditions for durable peace after a military conflict. The rapidly deteriorating situation in Angola was an example. It showed how a failure in the transition from peacekeeping to post-conflict peace-building could seriously undermine peace and security in a larger region. Experience had shown that efforts to succeed were no less difficult than those aimed at containment and stoppage of war. The question before governments of Member States was what specifically they could contribute to post-conflict peace-building.

One of the first priorities of any process towards that end was mine action, consisting of de-mining, assistance to mine victims and the creation of mine awareness in the public at large, he said. Rehabilitation of mine victims was an important condition. For those reasons, mine action must be considered as early as possible in the peace settlement process.

Another set of priorities related to the stabilization of peace through justice and protection of human rights, he said. The credibility of justice often demanded that past violations of human rights were properly addressed. Justice was a basic condition for durability of peace. The international criminal tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia were of vital importance for building real and durable peace. The various truth commissions established in some countries in recent years had also had beneficial effects.

He said institution-building which characterized recent operations authorized by the Security Council was particularly important. Projects to reform or establish national and local police should include human rights training and education. The judicial systems often required reforms. The issue of impunity should be addressed and amnesty laws should accord with international law.

Slovenia hoped the views expressed in the debate would help in advancing the effectiveness of post-conflict peace-building and consequently in the maintenance of international peace and security.


Security Council - 9 - Press Release SC/6610 3954th Meeting (AM) 16 December 1998

ROSE ODERA (Kenya) said there was a growing realization that societies emerging from situations of conflict were themselves in conflict situations and that specific national and international measures were needed. Certain specific measures and programmes were required to address the critical priorities involved. The objective was to encourage the delicate process of nurturing peace and, more importantly, to prevent the recurrence of the forces of conflict.

Many kinds of actions were needed to consolidate peace and prevent the recurrence of armed confrontation, she continued. Such actions included: efforts aimed at national reconciliation; the establishment of national unity; the safe, smooth and early repatriation and resettlement of refugees and displaced persons; the reintegration of ex-combatants and others into productive society; the establishment of well-managed regulatory institutions; the establishment of a fair and reliable legal/judicial system; and the establishment of a civilian police force.

She said that those programmes and measures were today popularly categorized as post-conflict peace-building activities. They might also include economic programmes. The Secretary-General's report entitled "The Causes of Conflict and the Promotion of Durable Peace and Sustainable Development in Africa", submitted to the Security Council in April, had rightly pointed out that "where a country's capacity to develop and implement a comprehensive economic programme had been disrupted by conflict, consideration must be given to relaxing the normally strict financial conditions imposed by international financial institutions". The Secretary- General had gone on to say that some conditionalities might be antithetical to the peace programme and suggested that "peace-friendly programmes" be tailored to fit the particular situation.

The multi-disciplinary nature of the post-conflict peace-building situation required effective and politically sensitive coordination, she said. Lessons learned from recent experiences in post-conflict peace-building situations pointed to the need for the Secretary-General to set up a peace- building support structure to coordinate those activities. In such a situation, the ideal person to head such an office would be a political representative of the Secretary-General, preferably assisted by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Resident Coordinator.

Such an arrangement must have the full support of the Security Council, she added. It had been argued elsewhere that such support from the Council would be outside its mandate. On the contrary, post-conflict peace-building activities were within the Council's proper scope and mandate, in precisely the same manner as diplomatic efforts, negotiations, mediation, good offices and fact-finding missions. They had the same objective of preventing conflict.


Security Council - 10 - Press Release SC/6610 3954th Meeting (AM) 16 December 1998

MASAKI KONISHI (Japan) said durable peace and sustainable development were two sides of the same coin. In a situation where the conflict had been settled and the roles of political, humanitarian and development actors were intertwined, coordination of their respective efforts was crucial. Political actors were those who played a political and security role in the country concerned. The Council fell into that category, as did regional organizations.

He said the humanitarian and development agencies had already done much to improve coordination among the actors in all three categories. Such efforts must also be made by the Council, within its own competence. In the post-conflict phase, there was a range of political and security tasks that required international support. First, there was the challenge of national reconciliation. The international community and particularly the Council must monitor the implementation of the peace accord and call upon the parties concerned to make the necessary efforts. The Council might also be required to support humanitarian agencies in times of political and social instability, during the post-conflict peace-building phase. The Council might also assist in the collection of weapons and mine clearance actions.

He said the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo posed the greatest threat to the security of the region as a whole. The international community should make clear to the parties participating in the negotiations for a ceasefire that a cession of hostilities was just the beginning of a long peace process. They should, therefore, consider the basic elements of post- conflict peace-building. It would be best if the ceasefire agreement would include a timetable for achieving a peace accord. It should also include an affirmation of their commitment to ensuring free and unhindered access by international humanitarian agencies. If those elements were clearly stated in the ceasefire agreement and observed by all parties, the security environment and social stability would be strengthened.

The major bodies of the United Nations must coordinate amongst themselves, he said. He hoped that the Council would establish a mechanism to ensure proper communication with other bodies and agencies in the United Nations system.

HANS DAHLGREN (Sweden) said his delegation welcomed the open debate on the subject, which reflected some of the most important challenges facing the Security Council and the United Nations as a whole. A long-term and comprehensive perspective was necessary to solve conflicts and consolidate peace. Building lasting peace would require solutions encompassing development, democracy, human rights, conflict prevention and resolution, peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance.

The Security Council had a responsibility to ensure that its efforts to prevent conflict and promote peace were followed by measures to prevent the


Security Council - 11 - Press Release SC/6610 3954th Meeting (AM) 16 December 1998

resurgence of conflict and the strengthening of peace, stability and reconciliation. Those long-term aims, when possible, should be taken into account at an early stage of the Council's deliberations on a particular crisis or conflict.

He said the Council also had a responsibility to ensure that the transition to the post-conflict phase was as smooth as possible, whether or not that entailed decisions to change a United Nations presence on the ground or to end an operation mandated by the Council. The United Nations role in the peace process in Guatemala was a particularly clear example of post-conflict peace-building in action. It was also an example of the value of integrating a peace-building perspective in peace agreements themselves.

The mandates of United Nations peacekeeping operations must include the elements needed to help secure lasting peace, he went on. The Secretary-General should pursue that approach when recommending new peacekeeping operations. His Government hoped that such an approach would be considered in the planning of a possible peacekeeping operation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. A lasting solution to the conflict there would require comprehensive and long-term efforts by the international community.

Post-conflict peace-building efforts might include demobilization, disarmament and reintegration into society of former combatants, he said. He called for special attention to the plight of child soldiers. Other important peace-building elements were the transformation of armed movements into civilian parties and support for the restructuring of police and armed forces. Experience also showed the importance of strengthening the judicial system, demining, reconciliation and confidence-building measures, as well as international support for elections. His Government also attached importance to efforts to deal with refugees and other displaced persons in the post-conflict phase.

He strongly welcomed the continued development of the strategic framework within the United Nations and firmly supported its use as a tool for crisis response in a comprehensive, coherent and effective manner. The Council had a responsibility not to close an operation unless it had a clear view of the road ahead and knew that what had been invested to bring about peace would be maintained, he stated.

Sir JEREMY GREENSTOCK (United Kingdom) said the Security Council's role in conflict resolution could be effective only if it were part of a wider effort by the United Nations system. There was need to develop more coordinated means of identifying and responding to crises, so that the work of the Council was complemented by and integrated with the work of agencies including the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the Office of the Coordinator for Humanitarian


Security Council - 12 - Press Release SC/6610 3954th Meeting (AM) 16 December 1998

Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), and the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR). He said the lack of a consistent mechanism for consultation between the Security Council and the Organization of African Unity (OAU) on matters affecting peace and security in Africa was also a matter which needed to be addressed sooner rather than later.

If peace-building efforts were to be placed on firm foundations, account must be taken of the role of the international financial institutions and such regional organizations as the European Union in post-conflict situations. The Council must devise ways to ensure that its political objectives complemented the financial recovery packages which those bodies put in place. The United Kingdom believed that coordination must start in the field if it were to be effective. The development of a "strategic framework" for United Nations action had the potential to produce improved results in the building of peace. Peacekeeping would work best if it incorporated post-conflict peace-building. "We must not, in constructing mandates for our operations, lose sight of the need to ensure that when a peacekeeping force withdraws the war does not resume", he said.

Operations should ensure the development of local law and order capabilities, the restructuring of armed forces on a constitutional basis and the restoration of economic activity through properly planned infrastructure programmes. "We also need to ensure that conditions exist to resume the development process", he added. The wider aspects of peacekeeping operations were already being taken up by missions which no longer had a traditional peace keeping element. The United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA), the United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti (MIPONUH), and the United Nations Office in Liberia were three very different examples of that welcome evolution in the type of operation which could be undertaken by the United Nations. "We should continue to look for mechanisms, such as today's debate, which will allow us to pause, assess how we are doing and see whether we can do things better".

The President of the Council, JASSIM MOHAMMED BUALLAY (Bahrain) speaking for his country, said post-conflict peace-building called for concerted efforts. The critical need for post-conflict peace-building was to maintain security and rebuild the country. There must be re-integration programmes. A multi-disciplinary approach must be pursued.

There should not be a long interval after the end of peacekeeping efforts, he said. The idea of establishing structures to support peace- building should be entertained.

The priorities of peace-building required post-conflict development. In addition, securing the repatriation of refugees and their resettlement in safety, and reintegrating former combatants in society, were activities


Security Council - 13 - Press Release SC/6610 3954th Meeting (AM) 16 December 1998

requiring tremendous efforts by everyone, including the international community. The establishment of United Nations peace-building, peacekeeping or humanitarian missions, he added, required the guarantee of safety for United Nations personnel.

He said development was a primary objective for all countries and essential to reducing conflict. He stressed the importance of having United Nations organs implement their mandates as provided for by the Charter.

The President suspended the meeting at 11:43 a.m.

* *** *