The Security Council this afternoon decided to extend the mandate of the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA) for one month, until 15 September, and in the strongest possible terms, called upon the Government of Unity and National Reconciliation and, in particular, the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) to refrain from any steps which could further exacerbate the present situation in the country.
Unanimously adopting resolution 1190 (1998), the Council called upon them to cease hostile propaganda, refrain from laying new mines and to stop forced conscriptions. The two parties were urged to renew efforts towards national reconciliation, including by implementing confidence-building measures, such as the reactivation of the joint mechanisms in the provinces and the disengagement of military forces on the ground.
The Council demanded that the Angolan Government and particularly UNITA cooperate fully with MONUA in providing full access for its verification activities and guarantee unconditionally the safety and freedom of movement of all United Nations and international personnel.
It also demanded that UNITA comply immediately and without conditions with its obligations under the 1994 Lusaka Protocol and with Security Council resolutions, by, among other measures, completely demilitarizing its forces. It demanded that UNITA cooperate fully in the immediate and unconditional extension of State administration throughout Angola. The Government was also called upon to ensure that the Angolan national police refrained from practices inconsistent with the Lusaka Protocol and to respect the legal activities of UNITA as a political party in accordance with the agreement.
The Council welcomed the dispatch by the Secretary-General of a Special Envoy, Lakhdar Brahimi, to assess the situation in Angola and advise on a possible course of action. It requested the Secretary-General to submit no later than 31 August, a report with recommendations regarding the future role
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of the United Nations in Angola, and encouraged him to continue his personal engagement in the peace process. The appointment of the new Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Angola, Issa Diallo, was welcomed by the Council.
Statements were made by the representatives of Brazil, United Kingdom, Portugal, Sweden, Costa Rica, China, Gambia, Japan, France, Russian Federation, Gabon, Bahrain, Kenya, United States and Slovenia. A representative of Angola also spoke.
The meeting, which was called to order at 5:29 p.m., adjourned at 6:32 p.m.
Council Work Programme
The Security Council met this afternoon to consider the situation in Angola. It had before it a report of the Secretary-General in which he recommends a one-month extension of the mandate of the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA) until 15 September (document S/1998/723 of 6 August).
The Secretary-General says that he will be in a better position to make recommendations about the future role of the United Nations in Angola after the completion of the assessment mission of his Special Envoy, Lakhdar Brahimi, who visited the country in early August. Brahimi, who arrived in Luanda on 31 July, met Angolan President Jose Eduardo dos Santos on 3 August and the leader of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), Jonas Savimbi, in Andulo, the following day.
The Secretary-General observes that there has been no improvement in the "already deplorable situation in Angola" and that the country "continues to drift towards full-fledged hostilities, despite the renewed efforts of the international community to avoid a precipitous turn of events". There has also not been sustained dialogue between the Government and UNITA and hostile propaganda has been intensified.
The Secretary-General strongly urges the Government and UNITA to exercise the utmost restraint and to refrain from any steps which would further exacerbate the present situation. He is most disturbed by the failure of UNITA to demobilize fully its forces and to facilitate the extension of State administration throughout the country, requirements which are the pillars of the Lusaka Protocol -- the 1994 peace accord. The Secretary- General says that UNITA also must stop its attacks against Government- controlled areas and other attempts to destabilize the country. Similarly, he asserts that the Angolan National Police must refrain from practices inconsistent with its status as defined in the peace agreement.
The Secretary-General calls on the Government, and in particular on UNITA to renew their efforts towards national reconciliation, cease the exchange of threats and war rhetoric and to initiate immediately confidence- building measures, both at the national and local levels. Those measures should include, the expeditious reactivation of the joint mechanisms in the provinces, with practical steps also taken to disengage the military forces on the ground, under effective MONUA verification. He observes that genuine and meaningful dialogue would be possible only when the high-level UNITA representatives return to Luanda and participate constructively in the work of the Joint Commission set up under the agreement.
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The Secretary-General states that as soon as those steps are carried out and the security situation improves, MONUA will be prepared to re-establish its presence in key locations throughout the country to facilitate cooperation and promote confidence. Alternatively, the United Nations will be compelled to reconsider its deployment on the ground. The Secretary-General reaffirms the Organization's willingness to continue to help the Angolan people, provided there is an unequivocal commitment of the Government and UNITA to the peaceful resolution of the crisis on the basis of the Lusaka Protocol.
Owing to the prevailing insecurity, the downsizing of MONUA's military component has been temporarily suspended in accordance with Security Council resolution 1180 (1998) of 29 June. The military personnel now total 728.
The Secretary-General's report says that the worsening security conditions have had a severe impact on the humanitarian situation, and consequently, the much anticipated transition from relief-oriented to recovery and rehabilitation programmes has had to be postponed. Severe financial constraints, as well as the security situation, also continued to hamper the implementation of the demining programmes.
The Secretary-General pays tribute to the "ultimate sacrifice" of Alioune Blondin Beye, his Special Representative to Angola, the five MONUA staff and the two pilots who perished in a plane crash in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, on 26 June. He says their untimely death represents an incalculable loss for their families, for the international community and for the cause of peace. "The best way to honour Mr. Beye, in memory, therefore, would be for the Government and, in particular, UNITA to work resolutely towards the genuine peace and national reconciliation which the people of Angola deserve so much", he concludes.
Text of Draft Resolution
The Council also had before it the text of a draft resolution sponsored by Portugal, Russian Federation and the United States (document S/1998/749), as follows:
"The Security Council,
"Reaffirming its resolution 696 (1991) of 30 May 1991 and all subsequent relevant resolutions, including resolutions 864 (1993) of 15 September 1993, 1127 (1997) of 28 August 1997 and 1173 (1998) of 12 June 1998,
"Reaffirming its firm commitment to preserve the unity, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Angola,
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"Strongly deploring the deteriorating political and security situation in Angola, which is primarily the result of the failure of the Uniao Nacional para a IndependÍncia Total de Angola (UNITA) to complete its obligations under the 'Acordos de Paz' (S/22609, annex), the Lusaka Protocol (S/1994/1441, annex) and relevant Security Council resolutions,
"Taking note of recent positive steps to restore confidence in the peace process,
"Having considered the report of the Secretary-General of 6 August 1998 (S/1998/723),
"1. Welcomes the decision by the Secretary-General to dispatch a Special Envoy to assess the situation in Angola and advise on a possible course of action, and requests the Secretary-General to submit, no later than 31 August 1998, a report with recommendations regarding the future role of the United Nations in Angola;
"2. Expresses its intention to review the recommendations referred to in paragraph 1 above and to consider appropriate actions;
"3. Decides to extend the mandate of the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA) until 15 September 1998, and takes note of the considerations specified in paragraph 38 of the report of the Secretary- General of 6 August 1998 regarding the deployment of MONUA throughout the country;
"4. Calls on the Government of Unity and National Reconciliation (GURN) and in particular UNITA in the strongest terms to refrain from any steps which could further exacerbate the present situation;
"5. Demands that UNITA comply immediately and without conditions with its obligations under the Lusaka Protocol and with relevant Security Council resolutions, in particular the complete demilitarization of its forces and full cooperation in the immediate and unconditional extension of State administration throughout the national territory, in order to prevent a further deterioration of the political and security situation;
"6. Demands also that UNITA cease its reoccupation of localities where State administration was established and stop attacks by its members on civilians, GURN authorities, including police, and United Nations and international personnel;
"7. Calls on the GURN and UNITA to cease hostile propaganda, refrain from laying new mines, stop forced conscriptions and renew efforts towards national reconciliation, including by implementing confidence-building
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measures, such as the reactivation of the joint mechanisms in the provinces and the disengagement of military forces on the ground;
"8. Calls on the GURN to ensure that the Angolan National Police refrain from practices inconsistent with the Lusaka Protocol and to respect the legal activities of UNITA as a political party in accordance with the Lusaka Protocol;
"9. Demands that the GURN and in particular UNITA cooperate fully with MONUA in providing full access for its verification activities and guarantee unconditionally the safety and freedom of movement of all United Nations and international personnel, including those providing humanitarian assistance;
"10. Expresses its firm belief that a meeting in Angola between the President of the Republic of Angola and the leader of UNITA could provide momentum to the peace process;
"11. Calls on Member States to implement fully the relevant provisions of resolution 1173 (1998), resolution 1127 (1997) and resolution 864 (1993);
"12. Welcomes the appointment of a new Special Representative to Angola, and urges the GURN and UNITA to cooperate fully with him in promoting peace and national reconciliation;
"13. Encourages the Secretary-General to continue his personal engagement in the peace process;
"14. Expresses its appreciation to the personnel of MONUA;
"15. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter."
JOSEFA COELHO DA CRUZ (Angola) said the prospects of a long and lasting peace in Angola were still a mirage. After some promising and encouraging signs following the legalization of UNITA early this year, the peace process was taking now a serious and dangerous turn due to the progressive and rapid deterioration of the security situation in many parts of the country. Instead of fulfilling its commitments and obligations under the peace process, UNITA had chosen to launch armed attacks to occupy additional territory, targeting mainly the civilian population, local government authorities, as well as the national police and the armed forces. As a result of the wave of violence, more than 650 people had been killed, 500 wounded and more than 600 kidnapped, all mostly civilians. Furthermore, she said UNITA had reoccupied 90 localities, where State administration had already been normalized. That had led to a huge increase in the number of refugees and displaced persons.
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She said her Government strongly condemned those actions which constituted blatant violation of the Lusaka Protocol and Security Council resolutions. Besides, that pattern of violations cast serious doubts about UNITA's alleged commitment to the full implementation of the Lusaka Protocol. Angola would now be at peace, were it not for UNITA's systematic bad faith and stonewalling in the application of the peace accords. The present crisis and deadlock in the peace process was not just a result of the complexity of the process. UNITA's posture had led the Government to believe that the present scenario was a strategy by UNITA leadership to hamper the Government's ability to function, to worsen the social and economic situation and to provoke chaos hoping to create an environment for UNITA to assume power in Angola by force.
She said that to be more effective, the existing sanctions should be coupled with other measures likely to tighten the isolation of UNITA's military wing. UNITA's actions would only lead to further loss of innocent lives it claimed to defend and destruction of the country it claimed to fight for. The Angolan Government was still committed to a peaceful solution to the conflict and would continue to do its utmost to avoid the resumption of hostilities and achieve a successful outcome of the peace process.
CELSO AMORIM (Brazil) said that despite some progress, Angola was facing another critical juncture in its tortured peace process. Implementation of the Lusaka Protocol was once again off track, owing to the non-compliance by UNITA. It was hoped that the recent Security Council resolution condemning UNITA in that regard, and imposing financial sanctions against it, would impact on UNITA's attitudes. Indeed, those had not. In addition, the untimely accident of the Secretary-General's Special Representative for Angola had created a vacuum that negatively affected the peace process. Thus, despite action by the Security Council, the situation had further deteriorated.
Indeed, UNITA had been busy trying to take by force those four localities it had been asked to transfer to the Government's control, he said. A few positive signs were noticed after the arrival on 31 July of the Secretary-General's Special Representative in Support of Preventive and Peacemaking Efforts, Lakhdar Brahimi, who had met with the leadership both of the Government and of UNITA, as well as of concerned countries in the region. Hopefully, the Joint Commission would be able to resume its efforts towards peace, and a dialogue would resume. However, if UNITA did not fulfil its part in the peace agreement, the presence of force in Angola might be called into question.
His delegation would follow the Secretary-General's recommendation for a 30-day extension of the Mission, he said. With regard to the draft resolution itself, the text adequately stressed that UNITA bore the main responsibility for the setback of the peace process. It should be called upon to fully
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observe the provisions of the Lusaka Protocol, as well as those of the relevant Security Council resolutions. Only by taking such a firm stand, however, would the Council be able to positively influence the actual course of events in Angola and contribute to a long-standing peace there.
DAVID RICHMOND (United Kingdom) said after 10 years of United Nations involvement, the peace process in Angola was edging perilously close to collapse. It was not too late to pull back from the brink. Whether the Angolan people were dragged into further conflict or the peace process itself was put back on track would depend on the Government of that country and above all UNITA. The Secretary-General's current efforts in that country could only succeed if the parties to the conflict themselves exercised restraint. There was a particular onus on UNITA to honour its obligations. It must end its prevarication and complete the tasks set out in the Lusaka Protocol and reiterated in the resolution before the Council today. The UNITA must now cooperate in the extension of State administration to all areas of Angola. It must demilitarize its forces and cease armed attacks. Also, it must complete its transformation into a political organization.
He said there was an urgent need for the recommitment of all sides to the Lusaka process. His delegation hoped that under the guidance of the Secretary-General's new Special Representative for Angola, Issa Diallo, and with the support of the region, the leaders of the Angolan Government and UNITA would take the necessary steps to bring the peace process back from the brink.
JOSE TADEU SOARES (Portugal) said that the peace process in Angola was marked by the absence of sustained dialogue and the deepening of mutual mistrust. Due to irresponsible activity by UNITA, the military-political situation continued to deteriorate and the peace process was pushed to the brink of collapse. That had raised the danger of the resumption of civil war. The full implementation of the Lusaka Protocol was at stake due to UNITA's failure to fully demobilize its forces and to facilitate the extension of State administration country-wide. The continuation of UNITA's attacks against Government-controlled areas and United Nations personnel, and other attempts to destabilize the country, were of particular concern to Portugal.
He said that in the last three months, UNITA had missed several deadlines for compliance with the remaining tasks of the peace process. That persistent pattern in relation to obligations under the terms of the Acordos de Paz, the Lusaka Protocol and relevant Security Council resolutions must end. The UNITA must take decisive and irreversible steps towards the peaceful resolution of the crisis on the basis of the Protocol. He commended the Secretary-General for the expeditious manner in which he responded to the crisis, aggravated by the death of his Special Representative in Angola, Alioune Blondin Beye. His delegation welcomed the recent appointment of the
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new Special Representative, Issa Diallo, and hoped that it would bring new momentum to the peace process. Portugal called upon the Government of Angola to continue to exercise patience and restraint, and to persevere in its efforts towards the full completion of the peace process.
HANS DAHLGREN (Sweden) said that his country was deeply disturbed by the lack of progress in the peace process in Angola over the past months. There could be no alternative to the full implementation of the commitments made by UNITA and its obligations under the Peace Accords, including in particular the demilitarization of those forces which UNITA had retained. He hoped that both the Government and UNITA would use the coming weeks to set the peace process back on track and urged them, particularly UNITA, to cooperate with United Nations and humanitarian personnel.
His delegation welcomed the appointment of Issa Diallo as the new Special Representative of the Secretary-General, he said. Sweden believed that there would continue to be an important role for the United Nations in promoting and building peace in Angola. The various elements of MONUA had all made essential contributions to the peace process. Sweden looked forward to the recommendations of the Secretary-General on the future role of the United Nations in Angola. In anticipation of those recommendations, Sweden would fully support the draft resolution before the Council.
BERND H. NIEHAUS (Costa Rica) said that the United Nations long, frustrating and wearing presence in Angola had yielded no positive results whatsoever. The country now was facing an extremely serious situation in which there was not even a focused political dialogue. Committed people such as Mr. Beye had given their lives to the noble cause of reconciliation of the Angolan people. The international community had long attempted to establish the unity of the Angolan Government and ensure its membership in the international community. Yet, despite threats and sanctions, that had not been possible.
He said that Costa Rica was a faithful believer in solving problems by peaceful means, but that was possible only when the political will and confidence among the parties was present. Those elements, however, were absent in the Angolan situation, which was deteriorating daily. It had gone from UNITA's violations of human rights to increasing violence and the unwillingness of UNITA to implement the peace agreements and reinstate the State administration in all areas.
The Council must call upon UNITA and friends abroad to immediately and unconditionally comply with the Lusaka Protocol and its peace accords, he said. The increasing level of violence had caused an increase in the numbers of internally displaced persons, thereby rendering it more difficult to provide humanitarian assistance. The main job of the international community
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now was to ensure dialogue that would lead the parties towards full respect for human rights and for the fundamental principles of the Organization. Costa Rica supported the Secretary-General's recommendations and would vote in favour of the draft.
SHEN GUAFANG (China) said that UNITA should be held responsible for the current crisis in the peace process. The Security Council should do everything possible to keep the peace process back on track. The UNITA must demilitarize the armed forces under its control and facilitate the extension of State administration throughout the country. It must commit itself to the resolution of the present situation. China welcomed the appointment of the new Special Representative of the Secretary-General. His delegation would vote in favour of the resolution.
BABOUCARR-BLAISE ISMAILA JAGNE (Gambia) said that, on the part of the international community, everything humanly possible had been done to help bring peace to Angola, but those efforts had been consistently frustrated, culminating in a state of no-peace, no-war. The draft resolution before the Council was a last-ditch attempt before the mandate of MONUA expired to salvage the peace process. It was hoped that the parties concerned would understand once and for all that there was no alternative to the Lusaka Protocol. In that context, Gambia also welcomed the appointment of a new Special Representative to continue the good work that Mr. Beye had been doing.
In the same vein, Gambia noted with satisfaction that the Secretary- General had since then sent a Special Envoy to the region, he said. Gambia was anxious to share his assessment of the situation upon his return, and, until then, agreed with the recommendation of the Secretary-General to extend the mandate of MONUA for a month until 15 September. What would happen next would depend to a very large extent on the Angolans themselves. It was hoped that they would draw inspiration from the words of all those who had paid a well deserved tribute to the late Mr. Beye and his team.
YUKIO TAKASU (Japan) said the patience of the international community had worn thin as, time and time again, UNITA had failed to live up to its obligations under the Lusaka Protocol and relevant Council resolutions. Once again, UNITA was called upon to comply, fully and unconditionally, with the provisions of the Protocol and those resolutions. In particular, it was imperative that UNITA demilitarize its forces and complete the transfer of the localities it had occupied to the Government's control as soon as possible.
There could be no military solution to the situation in Angola, he said. It was urgently important that the Government and UNITA entered into political dialogue to put an immediate stop to that dangerous escalation of tensions. Japan strongly urged both parties to extend the fullest possible cooperation to the United Nations Observer Mission.
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That was a critical period in the Angolan peace process, he said. A great deal was at stake. The international community must not fail the Angolan people by allowing the situation to once again escalate into full- scale conflict. The draft resolution called for a one-month extension of MONUA's mandate, after which time its future would be subject to a review on the basis of an assessment of the situation by the Special Envoy. It was hoped that it would send a clear message to the parties involved regarding their respective roles and responsibilities.
PHILIPPE THIEBAUD (France) said the recently deteriorating situation in Angola was characterized by such occurrences as an increase in the number of acts of violence and banditry, the total absence of dialogue, the re-emergence of a general climate of fear and the forced displacement of additional persons. The report of the Secretary-General had also emphasized the growing insecurity, which was seriously affecting the activities of MONUA.
He said that the French delegation deeply deplored that turn of events, which flew in face of tireless efforts towards peace. France paid tribute to the work of Mr. Beye and his colleagues and welcomed the appointment of the new Special Representative of the Secretary-General, Mr. Diallo. Particularly deplorable was the position of UNITA, which still had not respected its principal obligations under the Lusaka Protocol. By employing delaying tactics and failing to meet the obligations and schedule it had promised to respect, UNITA was primarily responsible for the current turn of events.
The present draft resolution demanded that UNITA comply immediately with its obligations in that regard, and refrain from any activities inconsistent with the process of reconciliation, he said. The commitment of the Angolan Government, reiterated today to the Council, to continue to seek a political and a peaceful solution and to ensure full compliance with the Lusaka Protocol, was welcome. France would support the reconstruction and national reconciliation efforts. It hoped that the current mission of the Secretary- General's Special Envoy, Lakhdar Brahimi, would provide a full assessment of the situation in the field and ways and means to rekindle the peace process, as well as a better picture of the future role of the United Nations. France supported a one-month extension of MONUA's mandate and would vote in favour of the draft.
YURIY FEDOTOV (Russian Federation) said the situation in Angola had worsened and there was a great danger of war, the reason being the failure of UNITA to comply with its obligations. The UNITA was increasing its military potential and was attacking United Nations and international personnel, as well as civilians. The UNITA leadership, despite earlier promises, had been putting forward more and more demands, and was defying the will of the Security Council.
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Both the Angolan national police as well as UNITA must fulfil their obligations under the Lusaka Protocol, he said. The resolution before the Council was of a transitional nature. There was expectation that there would be major recommendations from the Secretary-General on the future of the United Nations in Angola and those must be assessed. His delegation was awaiting the report of the Secretary-General's Special Envoy, Mr. Brahimi. It was important that the Secretary-General took a personal role in the peace process. Successful implementation of the Lusaka Protocol and the achievement of national reconciliation would be the best tribute to be paid to the memory of Mr. Beye. He expressed confidence in the new Special Representative of the Secretary-General, Mr. Diallo, and hoped the parties would cooperate with him.
DANGUE REWAKA (Gabon) said that with signs recently pointing to peace in Angola, it was regrettable that due to UNITA's intransigent position, the political, security and humanitarian situation had further deteriorated. There were signs of abnormal troop movements under UNITA's control, giving rise to the possibility of a resumption of hostilities. That attitude must be condemned, as it was contrary to the spirit and letter of the Lusaka Protocol and to relevant Security Council resolutions.
He said that UNITA had been asked to keep its word and comply with the agreements it had entered into, namely the complete demilitarization of its combatants, the granting of State administration to the four areas under its control. Similarly, UNITA should serve the interest of the Angolan people who aspired to peace and to economic and social development. Further, it should allow the Government and international organizations, in possession of technical knowledge, to assist the Angolan population in mine clearance operations. Demining would improve the free movement of individuals and enhance their ability to cultivate arable land.
Gabon welcomed the recent appointment of the Secretary-General's new Special Representative for Angola, whose commitment to the African cause and to peace in general would be an undeniable advantage in MONUA's continuing mandate. For all those reasons, his delegation supported the extension of MONUA's mandate until 15 September, and it would vote in favour of the draft.
TAWFEEQ AHMED Al-MANSOOR (Bahrain) said his delegation hoped for the success of the new Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Angola, Mr. Diallo. The Secretary-General's report had characterized negative aspects of the implementation of the peace process and the intransigence of the UNITA leadership to comply with that process. He noted the failure of UNITA to comply with its obligations, which were necessary for the success of the peace process. The UNITA leaders must honour their obligations.
He appealed to both the Government and UNITA, in particular, to achieve work towards national reconciliation. He urged UNITA to demilitarized its
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armed forces, and added that any further delay would hamper the economic and social development of the country. It was necessary for the two parties to achieve reconciliation. To honour the memory of Mr. Beye and those who died with him, the two parties must fulfil their obligations.
ROSELYN A. ODERA (Kenya) said that in the light of the rapidly deteriorating situation in Angola, her delegation was greatly perturbed by the lack of political will of the parties, which had heightened tensions and was leading to a resumption of hostilities. The UNITA should exercise maximum restraint and move its people from the brink of war. Now, some 10 per cent of its population was internally displaced.
She said that Kenya would encourage the international community not to give up, but to continue its much needed efforts in alleviating the plight of the Angolan people. With recent events substantially eroding the confidence that either party would uphold their obligations under the Lusaka Protocol, the heart of the peace process, MONUA's presence had become even more important. The reversal of the temporary downsizing of the Mission was positive, as it would continue to serve as a stabilizing component in the peace process.
Kenya supported the extension of MONUA's mandate for one month, she said. It also strongly supported the Secretary-General's appeal to the Government, and in particular, to UNITA, to renew their efforts towards national reconciliation and confidence-building. Angola's leaders should look within themselves and come together to build a peaceful, prosperous and united Angola. The United Nations had to build quickly on the progress made by Mr. Beye to ensure that such gains were not lost forever. Kenya welcomed the new Special Representative, and assured him of its complete cooperation, not only as member of the Security Council and Chairman of the Sanctions Committee, but also as an African nation.
A. PETER BURLEIGH (United States) said the deteriorating political and security situation in Angola called for creative and constructive measures to bring about lasting peace. His country welcomed the Secretary-General's decision to send a Special Envoy, Lakhdar Brahimi, to Angola and was encouraged by his success in getting the Angolan parties to resume their dialogue and in the tentative forward movement in the peace process during and after his visit. The United States urged the parties to cooperate fully with the Secretary-General's new Representative for Angola, Mr. Diallo, in order to build on the present momentum. Today, his country would vote in favour of the draft resolution to extend the mandate of MONUA until 15 September. It also looked forward to an in-depth review of the future United Nations presence in Angola when the Secretary-General presented his recommendations to the Security Council at the end of the month.
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He said the responsibility for the peace process rested with the Angolans themselves. The United States urged both the Government of Angola and UNITA to respect fully and unconditionally the obligations undertaken in the Lusaka Protocol. The UNITA must demilitarize completely and cooperate in the immediate and unconditional extension of State administration throughout the country. The Angolan Government must respect and protect the rights of all Angolan citizens as well as UNITA's legitimate role as a political party. Indiscriminate violence, propaganda, forced conscription and the laying of new mines must stop. The United States strongly condemned the perpetrators of the July massacre in Lunda Norte Province and was deeply concerned at recent reports of similar loss of life in the province of Malange. The MONUA must be permitted full and immediate access, so that it could undertake its mandated verification activities.
DANILO TURK (Slovenia) said that the situation in Angola was particularly grim, in the light of the laying of new mines, increased attacks and the emergence of more than 1 million internally displaced persons, due to the derailment of the peace process. The UNITA bore the brunt for that state of affairs.
He said that the Council had recently imposed additional sanctions on UNITA with the view of eliciting further cooperation. The UNITA, however, had embarked on what appeared to be a carefully orchestrated campaign to take areas previously ceded to the Government. Such "brazen" behaviour coupled with the hostile propaganda perpetuated by the Government had deepened distrust. Particularly disturbing was the re-emergence of violence on the heels of the death of the Secretary-General's Special Representative. Equally noteworthy was the stabilizing effect of the recent presence of Mr. Brahimi. The appointment of the new Special Representative was welcome. He was encouraged to continue Mr. Beye's legacy and to put the peace process back on track as soon as possible.
Meanwhile, the Government and UNITA should refrain from any actions that could destroy the longest period of peace Angola had known in decades, he said. They must continue to search for a non-military solution to their differences. The protracted civil war had left its mark on an entire generation of Angolans for whom hunger and action by the gun had become a way of life. It was imperative that a solution to the current impasse be found and that the Lusaka Protocol be preserved. Slovenia would join the other Council members in voting in favour of draft.
The Council then unanimously adopted the draft text as Council resolution 1190 (1998).
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