12 December 1997


Press Release
GA/9380



GENERAL ASSEMBLY REAFFIRMS RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT AS FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHT

19971212
Acts on Reports of Third Committee; Adopts 78 Resolutions, Decisions on Broad Range of Social, Cultural, Humanitarian Questions

The General Assembly reaffirmed the right to development as an integral part of fundamental human rights, by one of 78 proposals adopted this afternoon on the recommendation of the Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural).

By other terms of the resolution, the Assembly recognized that the Declaration on the Right to Development constituted an integral link between the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action through its elaboration of a holistic vision integrating economic, social and cultural rights with civil and political rights. It also stressed that human rights should not be used as an instrument of trade protectionism. The text was adopted by a vote of 129 in favour to 12 against, with 32 abstentions. (For details of the vote, see Annex X.)

The Assembly adopted 15 other resolutions by recorded vote, and 54 without a vote, as well as eight decisions. It took action on such issues as social development, international drug control, crime prevention and criminal justice, eliminating racism and racial discrimination, promoting and protecting the rights of the child, the advancement of women, the rights of peoples to self- determination, indigenous people, and a range of human rights issues.

By a resolution on human rights and terrorism, the Assembly reiterated its unequivocal condemnation of the acts, methods and practices of terrorism, in all its forms and manifestations. It adopted that text by a vote of 115 in favour to none against, with 57 abstentions. (See Annex IX.)

By another resolution, the Assembly urged all States to take appropriate legislative measures to ensure that their territories and other territories under their control, as well as their nationals, are not used for the recruitment, assembly, financing, training and transit of mercenaries. The text was adopted by a vote of 113 in favour to 18 against, with 41 abstentions (Annex I).


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The Assembly, through adoption of a resolution by a vote of 91 in favour to 46 against, with 26 abstentions, rejected unilateral coercive measures as tools for political or economic pressure against any country, and reaffirmed that all countries have the obligation under the United Nations Charter to respect the right of others to self-determination and to determine freely their political status and pursue their economic, social and cultural development (Annex V).

By the terms of resolution concerning non-intervention in electoral processes, the Assembly condemned any act of armed aggression or threat or use of force against peoples, their elected governments or their legitimate leaders, and appealed strongly to all States to refrain from providing any overt or covert support for political parties or groups and from taking actions to undermine the electoral processes in any country. The resolution was approved by a recorded vote of 96 in favour to 58 against, with 12 abstentions (Annex IV).

Acting without a vote, the Assembly decided to continue the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees for a further period of five years, from 1 January 1999.

Also acting without a vote on social development issues, the Assembly:

-- Requested the Secretary-General to officially launch the International Year for Older Persons in 1998, the theme of which is "A Society for All Ages", on the occasion of the International Day of Older Persons;

-- Emphasized the need for a more focused and coordinated approach towards family issues within the United Nations system;

-- Encouraged governments and the non-governmental community to examine key social and economic policy issues related to the equalization of opportunities for persons with disabilities; -- Recommended that the results of the World Youth Forum at its second session, held in Vienna in November 1996, be duly taken into account at the World Conference of Ministers Responsible for Youth, to be held in Lisbon in August 1998; and -- Requested the Secretary-General, in cooperation with the Director- General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and in consultation with Member States, to consider effective ways to achieve the goal of education for all.

Acting without a vote on crime prevention and criminal justice, the Assembly:

-- Established an intersessional, open-ended, intergovernmental group of experts to elaborate a preliminary draft of a comprehensive international convention against organized transnational crime;


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-- Adopted the Model Strategies and Practical Measures on the Elimination of Violence against Women in the Field of Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice as a model of guidelines for governments to address the various manifestations of violence against women;

-- Requested the Secretary-General to intensify technical assistance to Member States and provide them with advisory services in combating corruption;

-- Requested the Secretary-General to elaborate model legislation to assist Member States in giving effect to the Model Treaty on Extradition in line with recommendations of the Intergovernmental Expert Group on Extradition;

-- Urged the members of the United Nations African Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders to meet their obligations;

-- Called upon States and United Nations funding agencies to make significant financial contributions to the operational activities of the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme; and

-- Decided to hold the Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and Treatment of Offenders in the year 2000, whose provisional agenda would include the issues of promoting the rule of law, international cooperation in combating transnational crime and "offenders and victims: accountability and fairness in the justice process".

On drug control issues, the Assembly, acting without a vote, called upon all States to intensify cooperation to combat drug abuse and illicit trafficking, on a basis of equal rights and mutual respect. The United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) was asked to strengthen dialogue and cooperation with multilateral development banks on lending and programming activities relating to drug control in affected countries, and the Commission on Narcotic Drugs was urged to complete its work on a draft declaration on guiding principles for demand reduction, for submission to the Assembly at its special session in 1998.

Concerning the advancement of women, the Assembly, acting without a vote:

-- Invited Member States to attach greater importance to improving the situation of rural women in their national development strategies and to end land rights discrimination;

-- Emphasized the important work of the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) in women's empowerment and gender equality within the framework of implementing the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women;

-- Welcomed the appointment of the Director of the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW);


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-- Requested the Secretary-General to hold individual managers accountable for implementing the strategic plan for the goal of 50/50 gender distribution by the year 2000;

-- Requested the Secretary-General to submit to it at its fifty-fourth session a comprehensive report on the problem of violence against women migrant workers; -- Called upon governments to criminalize trafficking in women and girls in all its forms and to condemn and penalize all those offenders involved;

-- Called upon States to include in their reports to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women and to the Committee on the Rights of the Child specific information on measures taken to eliminate traditional or customary practices harmful to the health of women and girls; and

-- Decided to convene, in the year 2000, a high-level plenary review to appraise and assess the progress achieved in the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women and the Beijing Platform for Action, five years after its adoption.

In a related decision, the Assembly took note of the reports considered under that agenda item. The representatives of the Sudan, Zambia, Bahrain and Yemen spoke in explanation of position on the resolutions concerning the situation of women in rural areas. On the issue of refugees, returnees and displaced persons and humanitarian questions, the Assembly, acting without a vote:

-- Called upon governments, United Nations agencies, non-governmental organizations and the international community as a whole to strengthen the emergency response capacity of the United Nations system on the basis of the experience of the emergency in the Great Lakes region;

-- Invited international financial and other institutions to contribute to the financing of projects and programmes within the framework of the Programme of Action adopted by the 1996 regional conference on refugees and displaced persons in countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS);

-- Condemned all acts that posed a threat to the personal security of refugees and asylum-seekers and called upon States of refuge, with international organizations where appropriate, to ensure that the civilian and humanitarian character of refugee camps and settlements was maintained; and

-- Condemned all acts of exploitation of unaccompanied refugee minors, including their use as soldiers or human shields in armed conflict and their forced recruitment into military forces.


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On the issue of promoting and protecting the rights of the children, the Assembly adopted two resolutions without a vote. By the first, it stressed the need for full and urgent implementation of the rights of the girl child as guaranteed under all human rights instruments, including the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and urged all States to enact and enforce legislation protecting girls from all forms of violence, including female infanticide, prenatal sex selection, female genital mutilation, incest, sexual abuse, sexual exploitation, child prostitution and child pornography.

By the second resolution, the Assembly urged all States that have not yet done so to become party to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, as a matter of priority, with a view to reaching the goal of universal adherence, and called upon States parties to take appropriate measures to amend the Convention and increase the membership of the Committee on the Rights of the Child from 10 to 18 experts. In addition, by the text, the Assembly proposed action on children with disabilities, the damaging effects of armed conflicts on children, refugee and internally displaced children, child labour, and street children.

In a related draft decision, the Assembly took note of reports of the Secretary-General considered under that agenda item.

On the rights of indigenous people, the Assembly, without a vote, decided to appoint the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights as Coordinator for the International Decade of the World's Indigenous People to promote its objectives and to consider organizing a workshop for research and higher education institutions.

The representative of Fiji spoke in explanation of position on the resolution regarding the International Decade of the World's Indigenous People.

On issues related to the elimination of racism and racial discrimination, the Assembly, acting without a vote:

-- Expressed profound concern at, and unequivocal condemnation of, all forms of racism and racial discrimination, in particular all racist violence and related acts of random and indiscriminate violence, and categorically deplored the misuse of print, audio-visual and electronic media and new communication technologies, including the Internet, to incite violence motivated by racial hatred;

-- Encouraged the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination to continue to contribute fully to the implementation of the Third Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination and its revised Programme of Action; and

-- Decided to convene a world conference on racism and racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance no later than the year 2001.


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On the right of peoples to self-determination, the Assembly adopted two additional resolutions, one by recorded vote. By those texts, the Assembly:

-- Reaffirmed that the universal realization of the right of all peoples to self-determination, including those under colonial, foreign and alien domination, is a fundamental condition for the effective guarantee and observance of human rights and declared its firm opposition to acts of foreign military intervention, aggression and occupation; and

-- Expressed the hope that the Palestinian people would soon be exercising their right to self-determination in the current peace process, and urged all States and the United Nations system to continue supporting and assisting the Palestinian people in their quest for self-determination. That resolution was adopted by a recorded vote of 160 in favour to 2 against (Israel, United States), with 6 abstentions (Dominican Republic, Federated States of Micronesia, Georgia, Marshall Islands, Norway, Uruguay) (Annex II).

Acting on a wide range of human rights questions, the Assembly, without a vote, adopted resolutions and decisions by which it:

-- Expressed deep concern at the growing manifestations of racism, xenophobia and other forms of discrimination and inhuman and degrading treatment directed against migrant workers in different parts of the world;

-- Appealed strongly to all States to become parties to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, as well as to accede to the Optional Protocols to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights;

-- Urged governments to endorse and implement national programmes for the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and to ensure wide participation in them; and

-- Decided to continue giving priority consideration to the conclusions and recommendations of the meetings of persons chairing human rights treaty bodies, in light of the deliberations of the Commission on Human Rights.

Before adoption of that draft resolution, on the effective implementation of international instruments on human rights, the Assembly retained operative paragraph 21 of the text, by a vote of 118 in favour to 5 against (Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Ghana, Libya, Sudan), with 37 abstentions. The paragraph refers to efforts at coordination and cooperation between the human rights treaty bodies and special procedures, rapporteurs, representatives, experts and working groups of the Human Rights Commission and the Subcommission on Prevention and Discrimination and Protection of Minorities (Annex III).

The Assembly adopted a draft decision on documents considered in connection with the implementation of human rights instruments.


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In further action on human rights questions, the Assembly:

-- Reaffirmed that all governments, particularly those of receiving countries, must recognize the vital importance of family reunification and promote its incorporation into national legislation, in order to ensure protection of the unity of families of documented migrants -- by a recorded vote of 94 in favour to 1 against (United States), with 73 abstentions (Annex VI);

-- Commended the electoral assistance provided to Member States at their request by the United Nations, and requested that such assistance continue on a case-by-case basis, while recognizing that the fundamental responsibility for organizing free and fair elections lies with the governments themselves -- by a vote of 157 in favour to none against, with 15 abstentions (Annex VII); and

-- Called upon States to base their activities for protecting and promoting human rights on the relevant international instruments and to refrain from activities that are inconsistent with that international framework -- by a vote of 116 in favour to 2 against (Israel, United States), with 50 abstentions (Annex VIII).

Acting without a vote on other human rights questions, the Assembly:

-- Urged all States to ensure that no one within their jurisdiction was, because of his or her religion or belief, deprived of the right to life or the right to liberty and security of person, or subjected to torture or arbitrary arrest or detention;

-- Appealed to States to protect the rights of persons belonging to national or ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities in their country;

-- Called on States to provide effective legislation and other mechanisms and procedures, as well as adequate resources, to ensure full implementation of all United Nations standards on human rights in the administration of justice;

-- Expressed deep concern at the scarcity of means at the disposal of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights;

-- Urged all States to ensure respect for the human rights of United Nations and other personnel carrying out activities in fulfilment of the mandate of a United Nations operation and to ensure the security of such personnel;

-- Urged all governments to contribute to implementing the Plan of Action for the Decade for Human Rights Education, 1995-2004, by establishing broadly representative national committees for human rights education;

-- Urged the Secretary-General to continue to give high priority to Member States' requests for assistance in establishing and strengthening


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national human rights institutions as part of the human rights advisory services and technical assistance in the field of human rights;

-- Called upon all governments to continue to facilitate the activities of the Secretary-General's representative on internally displaced persons;

-- Strongly deplored ethnic and other forms of intolerance as one of the major causes of forced migratory movements, and urged States to take all necessary steps to ensure respect for the rights of minorities; and

-- Called upon States, intergovernmental organizations and specialized agencies to carry out dialogue and consultations to enhance understanding, promotion and protection of all human rights and fundamental freedoms.

On Cambodia, the Assembly, acting without a vote, expressed grave concern about the serious violations of human rights in Cambodia during the armed violence of early July and its aftermath and urged the Cambodian Government, as a high priority, to investigate thoroughly and impartially and bring to justice those responsible for such serious crimes. It also strongly urged the Cambodian Government to promote and uphold the effective functioning of multi-party democracy, including the right to form political parties, stand for election, take part freely in a representative government, and allow freedom of expression, as well as the right to information.

The Assembly also adopted a decision on arrangements for awarding human rights prizes during 1998.

The representatives of Lebanon, Republic of Moldova, Costa Rica, Ukraine and Australia spoke in explanation of position on the selected resolutions on human rights questions.

When the Assembly took up human rights situations and reports of special rapporteurs and representatives, it adopted 11 resolutions, seven by recorded vote.

By the terms of the text on the human rights situation in Kosovo, the Assembly expressed deep concern about all violations of human rights there, in particular, the repression of the ethnic Albanian population, and called on the authorities of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to take all necessary measures to end immediately all human rights violations against ethnic Albanians in Kosovo. That text was adopted by a vote of 106 in favour to 2 against (India, Russian Federation), with 56 abstentions (Annex XI).

On the human rights situation in the Sudan, the Assembly expressed deep concern at the serious, widespread and continuing human rights violations in that country and outrage at the use by all parties to the conflict of military force to disrupt or attack relief efforts. It called for an immediate halt to


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the inhumane and unjustified practice of the aerial bombardment of civilian targets by the Government of the Sudan. The resolution was adopted by a vote of 93 in favour to 16 against, with 58 abstentions (Annex XII).

By the terms of the resolution on the human rights situation in Iraq, the Assembly strongly condemned the massive and extremely grave violations of human rights and international humanitarian law by the Government of Iraq, and suppression of freedoms in the country, including that of thought, expression, association and movement, summary and arbitrary executions, and widespread, systematic torture. The text was adopted by a vote of 99 in favour to 3 against (Libya, Nigeria, Sudan), with 60 abstentions (Annex XIII).

The Assembly noted with interest that presidential elections had been held in Iran this year and called upon the Government to resume its cooperation with the mechanisms of the Commission on Human Rights, in particular, with its Special Representative. The resolution was adopted by a vote of 74 in favour to 32 against, with 56 abstentions (Annex XIV).

Regarding the human rights situation in Cuba, the Assembly called once more upon the Cuban Government to cooperate fully with the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights by permitting him full and free access to establish contact with the Government and to the citizens of Cuba, and called upon it to release the numerous persons detained for activities of a political nature. The text was adopted by a vote of 64 in favour to 29 against, with 75 abstentions (Annex XV).

On the situation in Nigeria, the Assembly called upon the Government of Nigeria to ensure urgently the observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms, including by respecting the right to life, by releasing all political prisoners and taking concrete and credible steps to restore democratic government without delay. It also welcomed the declared commitment by the Nigerian Government to restore civilian rule, multi-party democracy and freedom of assembly, press and political activity by 1 October 1998. The draft text was adopted by a vote of 81 in favour to 18 against, with 64 abstentions (Annex XVI).

By another resolution, the Assembly called for the full and consistent implementation of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the annexes thereto (the "Peace Agreement") and the Basic Agreement on the Region of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (the "Basic Agreement") by all parties to them. The resolution was adopted by a vote of 133 in favour to 2 against (Belarus, Russian Federation), with 27 abstentions (Annex XVII).

Acting without a vote on other human rights situations, the Assembly:

-- Deplored the continued violations of human rights in Myanmar and strongly urged the Government to release immediately and unconditionally all political prisoners;


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-- Welcomed the report of the Haitian National Commission for Truth and Justice, as well as the report by the International Civilian Mission in Haiti on respect for human rights by the Haitian National Police, and urged the Government of Haiti to undertake appropriate follow-up action on the recommendations contained in them, with the support of the international community;

-- Noted with deep concern the intensification of armed hostilities and the deterioration of the human rights situation in Afghanistan and urged all Afghan parties to work closely with the United Nations Special Mission to Afghanistan in achieving a comprehensive political solution leading to an end to the armed confrontation and the establishment of a democratic government; and

-- Reiterated its strong condemnation of the crime of genocide and all other violations of human rights which were perpetrated in Rwanda in 1994, and expressed its concern at the alleged continuation of human rights violations in that country.

The Assembly also adopted a draft decision on documents considered in connection with human rights situations and the reports of special rapporteurs and representatives.

Statements on the resolutions concerning particular human rights situation were made by the representatives of Bhutan, Sudan, Cuba, Yemen, Iraq, Nigeria, India, Guyana, Myanmar, Bolivia, China, Singapore, Swaziland, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Senegal and Costa Rica.

In addition, the Assembly, acting without a vote: urged all States to continue to give widespread publicity to the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, in particular, in the context of the public information and human rights education activities for the fiftieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; and decided to proclaim 26 June as International Day in Support of Victims of Torture. The latter text was introduced by Denmark.

The Assembly also adopted a decision on the Working Group of the Third Committee and completed its action on the recommendations of the Third Committee by adopting the Committee's organization of work and the draft biennial programme of work for 1998-1999 and taking note of the report of the Economic and Social Council.

The reports of the Third Committee were presented by the Committee's Rapporteur, Monica Martinez (Ecuador).


Assembly Work Programme

The Assembly met this afternoon to take action on the reports of its Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural). It has before it 12 reports on the following agenda items: social development, including questions relating to the world social situation and to youth, ageing, disabled persons and the family; crime prevention and criminal justice; international drug control; advancement of women; implementation of the outcome of the Fourth World Conference on Women; report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), questions relating to refugees, returnees and displaced persons and humanitarian questions; promotion and protection of the rights of children; programme of activities of the International Decade of the World's Indigenous People; elimination of racism and racial discrimination; and the right of peoples to self-determination.

In addition, the Assembly has before it a six-part report on human rights questions, including the implementation of human rights instruments (part II); alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms (part III); human rights situations and reports of special rapporteurs and representatives (part IV); and the report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the comprehensive implementation of and follow-up to the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action (part V); and the report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (part VI). The report of the Economic and Social Council is also before the Assembly as well as a draft resolution proposing a United Nations international day in support of victims of torture.

Third Committee Reports

The report on social development, including questions relating to the world social situation and to youth, ageing, disabled persons and the family (document A/52/634) contains five draft resolutions, all approved without a vote.

Draft resolution I, approved on 27 October, concerns the International Year of Older Persons: Towards a society for all ages. By the terms of the text, the Assembly would request the Secretary-General to officially launch the International Year for Older Persons in 1998, the theme of which is "A Society for all Ages", on the occasion of the International Day of Older Persons. It would decide to devote four plenary meetings at its 1999 session to follow up to the Year. The Assembly would also encourage all States, the United Nations system, and all other actors to take advantage of the Year to increase awareness of the challenge posed by the demographic ageing of societies, the individual and social needs of older persons, the contribution of older persons to societies, and the need for a change in attitudes towards older persons.


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Draft resolution II, approved on 27 October, on follow-up to the International Year of the Family, which was observed in 1994, would have the Assembly reaffirm Economic and Social Council resolution 1996/7, in which it decided that the follow-up to the Year should be an integral part of the multi-year work programme of the Commission for Social Development. The Assembly would also emphasize the need for a more focused and coordinated approach towards family issues within the United Nations system.

Approved on 28 October, draft resolution III, on implementation of the World Programme of Action concerning Disabled Persons, would have the Assembly encourage governments and the non-governmental community to examine key social and economic policy issues related to the equalization of opportunities for persons with disabilities. In particular, they would be asked to address such issues as accessibility, social services and social safety nets, and employment and sustainable livelihoods. The Assembly would also decide that the next quinquennial review of the World Programme of Action, in 2002, should consider those key economic and policy issues relating to the disabled.

Approved on 27 October, draft resolution IV, on policies and programmes involving youth , would have the Assembly recommend that the results of the World Youth Forum at its second session, held in Vienna in November 1996, be duly taken into account at the World Conference of Ministers Responsible for Youth, to be held in Lisbon in August 1998. It would request the Secretary- General to make the report of the third session of the World Youth Forum and of the World Conference available to all Member States. All Member States would be called on to undertake efforts to implement the World Programme of Action, and the Assembly would recommend that results of the World Youth Forum at its second session be taken into account at the World Conference.

Draft resolution V, on education for all, approved on 6 November, would have the Assembly ask the Secretary-General, in cooperation with the Director- General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and in consultation with Member States, to consider effective ways to achieve the goal of education for all, including the desirability and feasibility of launching a United Nations decade to eradicate illiteracy. The Assembly would appeal anew to governments and to national and international financial organizations and institutions to lend greater financial and material support to the efforts to increase literacy and achieve education for all.

The report on crime prevention and criminal justice (document A/52/635) contains seven draft resolutions, all approved without a vote on 6 November, except draft resolution VII, which was approved on 26 November.

By the terms of draft resolution I, on follow-up to the Naples Political Declaration and Global Action Plan against Organized Transnational Crime, the Assembly would decide to establish an intersessional, open-ended, intergovernmental group of experts to elaborate a preliminary draft of a


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comprehensive international convention against organized transnational crime. It would welcome the Government of Poland's offer to organize and host the meeting and would ask the Secretary-General to provide resources. The group of experts would be requested, in elaborating the preliminary draft of the convention, to take into account existing multilateral instruments, including the draft United Nations framework convention against organized crime; to give priority consideration to issues such as measures for judicial and police cooperation in such areas as mutual assistance, extradition, confiscation of illicit assets and various forms of technical assistance. The draft convention is part of the appendix to the draft.

By terms of draft resolution II, on measures to eliminate violence against women, the Assembly would ask the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice to publish Strategies for Confronting Domestic Violence: A Resource Manual in the other United Nations official languages besides English, in which it already appears. It would adopt the Model Strategies and Practical Measures on the Elimination of Violence against Women in the Field of Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice as a model of guidelines for governments to address the various manifestations of violence against women. The Commission, through the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division, would assist Member States in utilizing the Model Strategies and Practical Measures, and the Secretary-General would transmit them to the relevant United Nations bodies, which would be invited to develop strategies for eliminating violence against women. The text of the Model Strategies and Practical Measures is annexed to the draft.

By the terms of draft resolution III, on international cooperation against corruption and bribery in international commercial transactions, the Assembly would ask the Secretary-General to intensify technical assistance to Member States and provide them with advisory services in combating corruption. Member States would be urged to provide the Secretariat with extrabudgetary funds for this assistance. They would also be urged to implement declarations and ratify international instruments against corruption, to criminalize bribery of public office holders of other States in international commercial transactions, and to report on provisions of the 1996 United Nations Declaration against Corruption and Bribery in International Commercial Transactions, including those on accounting practices, development of business codes and bank secrecy provisions. The Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice would be asked to review actions by States to implement the Declaration and to compile Member States' reports on national anti-corruption strategies and policies.

By the terms of draft resolution IV, on international cooperation in criminal matters, the Assembly would ask the Secretary-General to convene a meeting of an intergovernmental expert group to develop and promote mutual assistance in criminal matters. It would also ask him to elaborate model legislation to assist Member States in giving effect to the Model Treaty on Extradition in line with recommendations of the Intergovernmental Expert Group


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on Extradition. Among other actions, the Assembly would urge States to revise law enforcement cooperation arrangements to combat constantly changing methods in organized transnational crimes and to use the Model Treaty on Extradition as a basis for developing treaty relations at the bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. The Secretary-General would be asked to provide advisory and technical services for developing, negotiating and implementing such extradition treaties, including for drafting and application to national legislation. He would also be asked to provide training on extradition law and related practices to personnel in governmental agencies and central authorities of Member States.

Under the terms of draft resolution V, on the United Nations African Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, the Assembly would urge Institute members to meet their obligations. It would appeal to all Member States and non-governmental organizations to adopt practical measures for supporting the Institute in developing the requisite capacity for elaborating and implementing activities to strengthen crime prevention and criminal justice systems in Africa. The Secretary-General would be asked to intensify efforts in mobilizing entities of the United Nations system to provide the necessary financial and technical support enabling the Institute to fulfil its mandate. He would also be asked to enhance regional cooperation, coordination and collaboration against crime, especially in its transnational dimension. Finally, he would be asked for specific proposals on strengthening the Institute's programmes and activities.

Draft resolution VI, on strengthening the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme, particularly its technical cooperation capacity, would have the Assembly call upon States and United Nations funding agencies to make significant financial contributions to the Programme's operational activities by making voluntary contributions to the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Trust Fund. The Secretary-General would be encouraged to recommend that re-establishment and reform of criminal justice systems be included in the mandate of peacekeeping operations to strengthen the rule of law as part of the Programme's contribution to peacekeeping missions and their follow-up through advisory services. The Assembly would request the Secretary-General to strengthen the Programme by providing resources for full implementation of its mandates and it would welcome efforts to improve its strategic management.

By the terms of draft resolution VII, on preparations for the Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, the Assembly would decide to hold the Tenth Congress in the year 2000, whose provisional agenda would include the issues of promoting the rule of law, international cooperation in combating transnational crime and "offenders and victims: accountability and fairness in the justice process". The Assembly would also decide that four workshops would be held within the framework of the Tenth Congress on the topics of combating corruption, computer-related crimes, community involvement in crime prevention and women


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in the criminal justice system. The Secretary-General would be asked to provide the necessary resources from the 1998-1999 budget to undertake the preparatory activities, and adequate resources for the biennium 2000-2001 to ensure an appropriate programme of public information related to the Congress; and to make available the resources for participation of the least developed countries in both the regional preparatory meetings and in the Congress itself.

The report on international action to combat drug abuse and illicit production and trafficking (document A/52/636) contains a seven-part omnibus draft resolution on the matter, approved without a vote on 7 November.

By Part I of that text, the Assembly would call upon all States to intensify cooperation to combat drug abuse and illicit trafficking, on a basis of equal rights and mutual respect. Part II of the text would urge all States to become party to and implement all the provisions of the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, as amended by the 1972 Protocol, as well as the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances and the 1988 Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.

Also under the terms of Part II, the United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) would be asked to strengthen dialogue and cooperation with multilateral development banks on lending and programming activities relating to drug control in interested and affected countries. The Commission on Narcotic Drugs would be urged by the Assembly to complete its work on a draft declaration on guiding principles for demand reduction, for submission to the Assembly at its special session in 1998. The Commission, acting as the preparatory body for the special session, would be urged to complete its work on political commitment, money laundering, judicial cooperation, precursors, stimulants and alternative development.

By Part III of the text, the Assembly would urge all governments and competent regional organizations to develop a balanced and comprehensive approach to demand reduction, giving adequate priority to prevention, treatment, research, social reintegration and training. Under Part IV, the Assembly would decide that the special session will be held from 8 to 10 June 1998, as recommended by the Economic and Social Council, and would call upon Member States to participate at a high political level.

Part V of the text would have the Assembly urge the United Nations bodies associated with the United Nations System-wide Action Plan on Drug Abuse Control to collaborate further with the UNDCP to integrate the drug control dimension into their programming. By Part VI, the Assembly would note with concern the decline of available resources for the Fund of the International Drug Control Programme. Part VIII would have the Assembly request the Secretary-General to include in his annual report on the Global Programme of Action recommendations on ways and means to improve implementation.


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The report on the advancement of women (document A/52/637) contains seven draft resolutions and one draft decision, all approved without a vote.

Draft resolution I, approved on 14 November, concerns improving the situation of women in rural areas. It would have the Assembly invite Member States to attach greater importance to improving the situation of rural women, including older women, in their national development strategies, paying special attention both to their practical and strategic needs in efforts to implement the outcome of recent United Nations international conferences. In addition, Member States would be invited to design and revise laws to give women equal access to and control over land to end land rights discrimination. Member States would also be invited to invest in the human resources of rural women, particularly through health and literacy programmes and social support measures, and to promote and strengthen micro-financing policies and programmes, cooperatives and other employment opportunities.

Approved on 7 November, draft resolution II, on the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), would have the Assembly stress the Fund's role as a development fund in supporting activities related to women's economic and social development in developing countries. It would emphasize the Fund's important work in women's empowerment and gender equality within the framework of implementing the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women. The Assembly would encourage the Fund to continue to contribute to mainstreaming a gender perspective into all development efforts of governments, United Nations bodies and civil society.

Under the provisions of draft resolution III, approved on 3 November, on the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW), the Assembly would welcome the appointment of the Director of the Institute and take note with appreciation of the work done by the previous Acting Director. It would urge the Secretary-General to fill the existing vacancies in the Institute in order to permit it to carry out its mandate. The Assembly would also request the Institute's Director to develop a funding strategy and to establish a link between the activities of the Institute and its resource base.

Draft resolution IV, on improving the status of women in the Secretariat, which was approved on 7 November, would have the Assembly ask the Secretary-General to hold individual managers accountable for implementing the strategic plan for the goal of 50/50 gender distribution by the year 2000. It would ask him to continue creating a gender-sensitive environment supportive of both men and women staff, including through the development of policies for such matters as flexible working time and family leave, implementation of administrative procedures, and the development of a policy against sexual harassment. In addition, the Secretary-General would be asked to enable the Focal Point for Women in the Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues to monitor and facilitate implementation of the plan.


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Approved on 3 November, draft resolution V, on violence against women migrant workers, would have the Assembly request the Secretary-General to submit to it at its fifty-fourth session, a comprehensive report on the problem of violence against women migrant workers. The report would include views of Member States and it would be based on expertise and all available information from organizations of the United Nations system, including the International Labour Organization (ILO), the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) and the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW).

By draft resolution VI, on traffic in women and girls, the Assembly would call upon governments to criminalize trafficking in women and girls in all its forms and to condemn and penalize all those offenders involved, whether their offence was committed in their own or in a foreign country. At the same time, governments should ensure that the victims are not penalized and should penalize persons in authority found guilty of sexually assaulting victims of trafficking in their custody. The Assembly would urge governments to support and allocate resources to strengthening preventive action, and national programmes to combat such trafficking through sustained bilateral, regional and international cooperation. The draft resolution was approved on 7 November.

Draft resolution VII, on traditional or customary practices affecting the health of women and girls, approved on 7 November, would have the Assembly call upon States to include in their reports to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women and to the Committee on the Rights of the Child specific information on measures taken to eliminate traditional or customary practices harmful to the health of women and girls. The Assembly would also call upon States to intensify efforts to raise awareness of and to mobilize international and national public opinion concerning the harmful effects of female genital mutilation and other traditional or customary practices affecting the health of women and girls, in particular through education, information dissemination and training, in order to achieve the total elimination of those practices.

By a draft decision in connection with the question of the advancement of women, the Assembly would take note of: the report of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women; the report of the Secretary- General on the status of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women; and the report of the Secretary-General on activities of the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women.

The report of the Committee on the implementation of the outcome of the Fourth World Conference on Women (document A/52/638), contains one draft resolution, approved without a vote on 19 November.


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Under the terms of the draft resolution on follow-up to the Conference and implementing the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, the Assembly would decide to convene, in the year 2000, a high-level plenary review to appraise and assess the progress achieved in the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women and the Beijing Platform for Action, five years after its adoption, and to consider further actions and initiatives.

The Assembly would request the Secretary-General to explore the possibility, among other options, of convening the review at the start of the Assembly's fifty-fifth session, or within the framework of the proposed millennium Assembly or, if agreed upon by the Assembly, following the annual session of the Commission on the Status of Women, or as a special session of the Assembly.

The report on the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, questions relating to refugees, returnees and displaced persons and humanitarian questions (document A/52/639) contains five draft resolutions approved without a vote.

Draft resolution I, on assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, approved on 14 November, would have the Assembly call upon governments, United Nations agencies, non-governmental organizations and the international community as a whole to strengthen the emergency response capacity of the United Nations system on the basis of the experience of the emergency in the Great Lakes region. It would call upon them to continue to provide needed resources and operational support to refugees and countries of asylum in Africa until a permanent solution can be found.

Draft resolution II, on the follow-up to the 1996 regional conference on refugees and displaced persons in the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and relevant neighbouring States, approved on 14 November, would have the Assembly invite international financial and other institutions to contribute to the financing of projects and programmes within the framework of the Programme of Action adopted by the CIS regional conference. It would urge the UNHCR to take into account relevant elements of the Programme, in coordination with the Office of the High Commissioner, the International Organization for Migration and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).

Draft resolution III, on the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, approved on 14 November, the Assembly would condemn all acts that pose a threat to the personal security of refugees and asylum-seekers. It would call upon States of refuge, with international organizations where appropriate, to take all necessary measures to ensure that the civilian and humanitarian character of refugee camps and settlements is maintained and to abstain from any activity likely to undermine that, including effective measures to prevent the infiltration of armed elements and


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the identification and separation of any such armed elements. It would call upon States to take all measures necessary to ensure respect for the principles of refugee protection, including the humane treatment of asylum-seekers, in accordance with internationally recognized human rights and humanitarian norms.

Draft resolution IV, on continuation of the Office of the High Commissioner, approved on 14 November, would have the Assembly decide to continue the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees for a further period of five years, from 1 January 1999. It would also decide to review, not later than its fifty-seventh session, the arrangements for that Office, to determine whether it should be continued beyond 31 December 2003.

Draft resolution V, on assistance to unaccompanied refugee minors, approved on 18 November, would have the Assembly condemn all acts of exploitation of unaccompanied refugee minors, including their use as soldiers or human shields in armed conflict and their forced recruitment into military forces, and any other acts that endanger their safety. The UNHCR and all concerned organizations would be urged to take appropriate steps to mobilize resources commensurate to the needs of the unaccompanied refugee minors and for their reunification with their families.

The report on the promotion and protection of the rights of the children (document A/52/640) contains two draft resolutions and one draft decision, all approved without a vote.

Draft resolution I, on the girl child, approved on 14 November, would have the Assembly stress the need for full and urgent implementation of the rights of the girl child as guaranteed under all human rights instruments, including the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. The Assembly would also urge all States to enact and enforce legislation protecting girls from all forms of violence, including female infanticide, prenatal sex selection, female genital mutilation, incest, sexual abuse, sexual exploitation, child prostitution and child pornography.

The Assembly would call on States to: generate social support for the enforcement of laws on the minimum legal age for marriage, and take action to protect adolescent girls through special action for their protection from sexual and economic exploitation and abuse, harmful traditional and cultural practices, teenage pregnancy and vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. The Secretary-General, as Chairman of the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC), would be asked to ensure that all United Nations bodies take the rights and the particular needs of the girl child into account -- especially in education, health and nutrition.

Draft resolution II on the rights of the child, approved on 17 November, contains eight parts. By Part I, the Assembly would again urge all States


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that have not yet done so to become party to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, as a matter of priority, with a view to reaching the goal of universal adherence. States parties would also be called upon to take appropriate measures to amend the Convention and increase the membership of the Committee on the Rights of the Child from 10 to 18 experts.

Part II of the draft resolution, on children with disabilities, would have the Assembly call upon all States to promote for children with disabilities a full and decent life, in conditions which ensure dignity, promote self-reliance, and facilitate the child's active participation in the community. Part III of the draft would have the Assembly call on States to criminalize all forms of sexual exploitation of children. In cases of sex tourism, it would urge States to strengthen and implement laws to criminalize the acts of nationals of the countries of origin when committed against children in the countries of destination. States would be asked to step up cooperation to dismantle national, regional and international networks trafficking in children.

By Part IV of the draft text, the Assembly would express grave concern at the damaging effects of armed conflicts on children. It would urge States and all other parties to armed conflict to adopt measures to end the use of children as soldiers and to ensure their demobilization and reintegration into society, including through adequate education and training. Under Part V of the text, the Assembly would urge governments to pay particular attention to the situation of refugee and internally displaced children. It would call upon all States and United Nations bodies to ensure the early identification and registration of unaccompanied refugees and internally displaced children, to give priority to programmes for family tracing and reunification, and to continue monitoring the care arrangements for them.

Part VI, on child labour, would have the Assembly urge States, as a matter of priority, to eliminate all extreme forms of child labour, such as forced labour, bonded labour and other forms of slavery. They would be called upon to set specific target dates for eliminating all forms of child labour that are contrary to accepted international standards. By Part VII of the draft, on street children, the Assembly would express grave concern at the large number of children living or working on the streets, and at the worldwide increase in reports of such children being affected by crime, drug trafficking, abuse, violence and prostitution. It would call upon governments to seek comprehensive solutions by helping to alleviate the poverty of such children and their families, ensuring their reintegration into society, and providing them with adequate nutrition, shelter, health care and education.

By Part VIII of the text, the Assembly would decide to request the Secretary-General to submit a report on the rights of the child to the Assembly's next session. His Special Representative on children in situations of armed conflict would be asked to submit to the Assembly and to the Commission on Human Rights relevant information on that issue.


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By the draft decision, on reports considered in connection with the question of the promotion and protection of the rights of the child, the Assembly would take note of reports of the Secretary-General on the status of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the exploitation of child labour.

The report on the programme of activities of the International Decade of the World's Indigenous People (1994-2004) (document A/52/641) contains one draft resolution, by which the Assembly would decide to appoint the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights as Coordinator for the International Decade to, among other things, promote its objectives, consider organizing a workshop for research and higher education institutions, and submit an annual report to the Assembly on the implementation of the Decade's activities. Governments would be encouraged to support the Decade by contributing to the voluntary United Nations Trust Fund for the Decade, the United Nations Voluntary Fund for Indigenous Populations and to the Fund for the Development of Indigenous Peoples in Latin America and the Caribbean. It was approved without a vote on 19 November.

The Committee's report on the elimination of racism and racial discrimination contains three draft resolutions, which were approved without a vote.

Draft resolution I, approved on 26 November, concerns measures to combat contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. It would have the Assembly express profound concern at, and unequivocal condemnation of, all forms of racism and racial discrimination, in particular all racist violence and related acts of random and indiscriminate violence. It would express the same concern and condemnation of all forms of expression of racism and racial discrimination, including propaganda, activities and organizations based on doctrines of superiority, of either one race or group of persons, that attempt to justify or promote racism and racial discrimination in any form. The same concern and condemnation would apply to manifestations of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance against migrant workers and members of their families, persons belonging to minorities, and members of vulnerable groups in many societies. The Assembly would categorically deplore the misuse of print, audiovisual and electronic media and new communication technologies including the Internet, to incite violence motivated by racial hatred.

Draft resolution II, approved on 14 November, concerns the report of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination and it has two parts. Under Part I, the Assembly would encourage the Committee to continue to contribute fully to the implementation of the Third Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination and its revised Programme of Action, including by continuing to collaborate with the Subcommission on the Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities and by cooperating with the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism. Part II of the draft, on


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the Committee's financial situation, would have the Assembly express profound concern that a number of States parties to the Convention have still not fulfilled their financial obligations, and would strongly appeal to them to do so.

Approved on 26 November, draft resolution III, on the Third Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination and the convening of a world conference on the issue, would have, in Part I, the Assembly declare once again that all forms of racism and racial discrimination, whether in their institutional form or resulting from official doctrines of racial superiority or exclusivity, such as ethnic cleansing, are among the most serious violations of human rights in the contemporary world and must be combated by all available means. It would recommend that the activities being organized to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights include programmes targeted at combating racism and racial discrimination. The Secretary-General, United Nations bodies, the specialized agencies, all governments and relevant organizations would be urged to implement the Programme of Action for the Third Decade, paying particular attention to the situation of indigenous people. By Part II of the draft, the Assembly would decide to convene a world conference on racism and racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance no later than the year 2001.

The report on the right of peoples to self-determination (document A/52/643) contains three draft resolutions, two of which were approved by recorded votes.

Under draft resolution I, on the use of mercenaries, the Assembly would call upon all States that have not yet done so to consider taking action to sign or ratify the International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries. It would request the Secretary-General to invite governments to make proposals towards a clearer legal definition of mercenaries and ask the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to publicize the adverse effects of mercenary activities on the right to self-determination.

That text was approved on 14 November by a recorded vote of 91 in favour to 16 against, with 41 abstentions.

By draft resolution II, on the universal realization of the right of peoples to self-determination, approved without a vote on 14 November, the Assembly would reaffirm that the universal realization of the right of all peoples to self-determination, including those under colonial, foreign and alien domination, is a fundamental condition for the effective guarantee and observance of human rights. It would declare its firm opposition to acts of foreign military intervention, aggression and occupation and deplore the plight of millions of refugees and displaced persons uprooted due to such acts. It would call upon those States responsible to cease immediately their


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military intervention in and occupation of foreign countries and territories and all acts of repression, discrimination, exploitation and maltreatment.

Draft resolution III, on the right of the Palestinian people to self-determination, would have the Assembly express deep concern over the deterioration of the Middle East peace process, including the lack of implementation of the agreements signed between the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the Government of Israel. It would express the hope that the Palestinian people would soon be exercising their right to self- determination in the current peace process, and would urge all States and the United Nations system to continue supporting and assisting the Palestinian people in their quest for self-determination.

The text was approved on 19 November by a vote of 141 in favour to 2 against (Israel, United States), with 7 abstentions (El Salvador, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Marshall Islands, Georgia, Norway, Uruguay).

The report of the Committee on human rights questions is being issued in six parts.

Part II of the report (document A/52/644/Add.1), on implementation of human rights instruments, contains four draft resolutions and one draft decision, all approved without a vote.

Draft resolution I, approved on 14 November, concerns the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families. It would have the Assembly express deep concern at the growing manifestations of racism, xenophobia and other forms of discrimination and inhuman and degrading treatment directed against migrant workers in different parts of the world. It would call upon all Member States to sign, ratify or accede to the Convention.

By the terms of draft resolution II, on the international covenants on human rights, which was approved on 14 November, the Assembly would appeal strongly to all States to become parties to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, as well as to accede to the Optional Protocols to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and to make the declaration provided for in its article 41. The Assembly would urge States parties to fulfil in good time their reporting obligations under the international covenants on human rights, to use gender-desegregated data in their reports, and to take into account observations made at the conclusion of the consideration of those reports.

By the terms of draft resolution III, approved on 21 November, the Assembly would urge governments to endorse and implement national programmes for the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and to ensure wide participation in them. It would urge


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governments which have not yet ratified the international human rights treaties and protocols adopted within the framework of the United Nations system to consider doing so. Governments would be called upon to implement fully their international obligations in the field of human rights. Relevant United Nations bodies would be called upon to assess and report on the implementation and impact of existing human rights instruments and invited to intensify, in coordination with the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, to intensify their contributions to the promotion and protection of human rights. The Assembly would encourage national human rights institutions to play a significant role in activities to mark the anniversary and invite non-governmental organizations to participate fully in preparations for it.

By the terms of draft resolution IV, on effective implementation of human rights instruments, which was approved on 26 November, the Assembly would decide to continue giving priority consideration to the conclusions and recommendations of the meetings of persons chairing human rights treaty bodies, in light of the deliberations of the Commission on Human Rights. The Assembly would also emphasize the need to ensure financing and adequate staff and information resources for the operations of the human rights treaty bodies. The Secretary-General would be requested to provide those resources, and would be called upon to ensure the most efficient use of existing resources and to seek the resources necessary to give the human rights treaty bodies adequate administrative support and better access to technical expertise and relevant information. The Assembly would also request him to include in his report prepared pursuant to the resolution a detailed explanation of the basis for payment of honorariums the members of the human rights treaty bodies and suggestions to improve coherence in that regard.

By a draft decision, the Assembly would take note of the report of the Committee against Torture and of report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Voluntary Fund for Victims of Torture.

Part III of the report on human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms (document A/52/644/Add.2) contains 18 draft resolutions and one draft decision.

Draft resolution I, on respect for the principles of national sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of States in their electoral processes, would have the Assembly condemn any act of armed aggression or threat or use of force against peoples, their elected governments or their legitimate leaders. It would strongly appeal to all States to refrain from financing or providing, directly or indirectly, any other form of overt or covert support for political parties or groups and from taking actions to undermine the electoral processes in any country. The Assembly would reaffirm that all countries have the obligation, under the United Nations Charter, to respect the right of others to self-determination


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and to determine freely their political status and pursue their economic, social and cultural development.

The draft resolution was approved by a recorded vote of 78 in favour to 56 against, with 11 abstentions, on 21 November.

Draft resolution II, on human rights and unilateral coercive measures, would have the Assembly reject unilateral coercive measures, with all their extraterritorial effects, as tools for political or economic pressure against any country, in particular against developing countries, because of their negative effects on the realization of all the human rights of vast sectors of their populations, particularly children, women and the elderly. All States would be urged to refrain from adopting or implementing any unilateral measure not in accordance with international law and the Charter of the United Nations, in particular those of a coercive nature which create obstacles to trade relations among States and impede the full realization of the rights set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights instruments, including the right to development. Member States that have initiated such measures would be called upon to revoke them at the earliest time possible. The Commission on Human Rights would be urged to take fully into account the negative impact of unilateral coercive measures, including enactment of national laws and their extraterritorial application, in its task concerning the implementation of the right to development.

The draft resolution was approved by a recorded vote of 74 in favour to 46 against, with 26 abstentions, on 21 November.

Draft resolution III, on the respect for the right to universal freedom of travel and the vital importance of family reunification, would have the Assembly reaffirm that all governments, particularly those of receiving countries, must recognize the vital importance of family reunification and promote its incorporation into national legislation, in order to ensure protection of the unity of families of documented migrants. The Assembly would call upon all States to allow the free flow of financial remittances by foreign nationals residing in their territory to their relatives in the country of origin. It would also call on them to refrain from enacting, and/or to repeal legislation intended as a coercive measure that discriminates against legal migrants by adversely affecting family reunification and the right to send financial remittances to relatives in the country of origin.

The draft resolution was approved by a recorded vote of 75 in favour to 1 against (United States), with 76 abstentions, on 21 November.

Draft resolution IV, on the elimination of all forms of religious intolerance, would have the Assembly express its grave concern at any attack upon religious places, sites and shrines, and call upon all States, in accordance with their national legislation and in conformity with international human rights standards, to exert utmost efforts to ensure that


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such places, sites and shrines are fully respected and protected. States would be urged to ensure that no one within their jurisdiction was, because of his or her religion or belief, deprived of the right to life or the right to liberty and security of person, or subjected to torture or arbitrary arrest or detention. States would also be urged to take all appropriate measures to combat hatred, intolerance and acts of violence, intimidation and coercion motivated by religious intolerance and to encourage, through the educational system and by other means, understanding, tolerance and respect in matters relating to freedom of religion or belief. The Assembly would urge States to ensure that, in the course of their official duties, members of law enforcement bodies, civil servants, educators and other public officials respect different religions and beliefs and do not discriminate against persons professing other religions or beliefs.

That draft was approved without a vote on 21 November.

Under the provisions of draft resolution V, on promoting the Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities, the Assembly would appeal to States to make bilateral and multilateral efforts to protect the rights of persons belonging to national or ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities in their country, in accordance with the Declaration. States and the international community would be urged to promote and protect the rights of minorities and to take constitutional, legislative, administrative and other measures to give effect to the Declaration at the national level. All United Nations entities and treaty bodies would be urged to give due regard to promoting and protecting minorities. The Secretary-General would be called upon to make available, at the request of governments, qualified expertise on minority issues, including the prevention and resolution of disputes, to assist in existing or potential situations involving minorities.

The draft resolution was approved without a vote on 21 November.

By draft resolution VI, on human rights in the administration of justice, the Assembly would again call on States to provide effective legislation and other mechanisms and procedures, as well as adequate resources, to ensure full implementation of all United Nations standards on human rights in the administration of justice. The Secretary-General would be called upon to strengthen system-wide coordination regarding the administration of justice, particularly between United Nations programmes in the human rights field and those relating to crime prevention and criminal justice. The Assembly would also call upon the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, as well as mechanisms of the Commission on Human Rights, to continue giving special attention to questions relating to the effective promotion of human rights in the administration of justice.

That draft text was approved without a vote on 21 November.


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Draft resolution VII, on strengthening the rule of law, would have the Assembly express its deep concern at the scarcity of means at the disposal of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights for the fulfilment of its tasks. It would affirm that the Office remains the focal point for coordinating system-wide attention to human rights, democracy and the rule of law. The High Commissioner would be encouraged to continue the dialogue initiated with other bodies of the United Nations system for enhancing system-wide coordination and to explore further contacts for support with financial institutions, with a view to obtaining technical and financial means to strengthen the capacity of her Office to provide assistance to national projects aiming at the realization of human rights and maintenance of the rule of law.

The draft resolution was approved without a vote on 21 November.

Under the terms of draft resolution VIII, on the protection of United Nations personnel, the Assembly would urge all States to ensure respect for the human rights of United Nations and other personnel carrying out activities in fulfilment of the mandate of a United Nations operation and to ensure the security of such personnel, as well as the inviolability of United Nations premises. It would also call on them to consider becoming parties to the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel; to provide prompt and adequate information on the arrest or detention of such personnel; to grant immediate and unconditional access to such persons by a representative of the competent international organization; to allow independent medical teams to investigate their health; and to allow the competent international representatives to attend hearings involving such personnel.

The draft resolution was approved on 24 November without a vote.

Draft resolution IX, on the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004), and human rights public information activities, would have the Assembly urge all governments to contribute to implementation of the Plan of Action for the Decade by establishing broadly representative national committees for human rights education. It would call on them to give priority to disseminating the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights instruments in their relevant national and local languages, and to provide information and education in those languages on the practical ways in which national and international institutions and procedures might be used to ensure their effective implementation. The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights would be requested to coordinate and harmonize human rights education and information strategies within the United Nations system. The Assembly would urge the Office of Communications and Public Information of the Secretariat to continue timely disseminating information through the United Nations information centres.

That draft text was approved without a vote on 24 November.


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By the terms of draft resolution X, on national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights, the Assembly would urge the Secretary-General to continue to give high priority to Member States' requests for assistance in establishing and strengthening national human rights institutions as part of the human rights advisory services and technical assistance in the field of human rights. It would welcome the high priority given to national institutions by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and would encourage her to ensure that appropriate arrangements are made and budgetary resources provided to continue and extend activities in support of national human rights institutions. Governments would be invited to contribute additional, earmarked funds of the United Nations Voluntary Fund for Advisory Services and Technical Assistance in the Field of Human Rights for that purpose.

The draft resolution was approved without a vote on 24 November.

Draft resolution XI, on strengthening the role of the United Nations in enhancing the effectiveness of the principle of periodic and genuine elections and the promotion of democratization, would have the Assembly commend the electoral assistance provided to Member States at their request by the United Nations, and request that such assistance continue on a case-by-case basis, while recognizing that the fundamental responsibility for organizing free and fair elections lies with the governments themselves. The Assembly would stress the importance of reinforced coordination within the United Nations system, including cooperation with all relevant departments within the Secretariat, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Volunteers, which provide advisory services and technical assistance to requesting Member States. The Assembly would recommend that the Electoral Assistance Division continue to provide post-election assistance to requesting States and electoral institutions, in order to contribute to the sustainability of their electoral processes.

The draft resolution was approved by a recorded vote of 127 in favour to none against, with 16 abstentions, on 25 November.

Draft resolution XII, on protection of and assistance to internally displaced persons, would have the Assembly call upon all governments to continue to facilitate the activities of the representative of the Secretary-General on internally displaced persons, in particular, governments with situations of internal displacement. It would encourage them to give serious consideration to inviting the representative to visit their countries to enable him to study and analyse more fully the issues involved. The Assembly would urge all relevant United Nations humanitarian assistance and development organizations concerned to enhance their collaboration with the representative by developing frameworks of cooperation to promote protection assistance and development for internally displaced persons and provide all possible assistance and support to him. The Assembly would commend the


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Secretary-General's representative for the activities undertaken so far, despite the limited resources available to him, and for the catalytic role he continues to play to raise the level of consciousness about the plight of internally displaced persons.

The draft resolution was approved without a vote on 25 November.

By terms of draft resolution XIII, on strengthening of United Nations action in the field of human rights through the promotion of international cooperation and the importance of non-selectivity, impartiality and objectivity, the Assembly would call upon States to base their activities for protecting and promoting human rights on the relevant international instruments and to refrain from activities that are inconsistent with the international framework. While expressing its conviction that an unbiased and fair approach to human rights issues contributes to the promotion of international cooperation as well as to the effective promotion, protection and realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms, the Assembly would stress the need for impartial and objective information on the political, economic and social situations and events of all countries. The importance of the promotion of dialogue on human rights issues would be underlined.

That draft resolution was approved by a recorded vote of 89 in favour to 3 against (Iran, Israel, United States), with 52 abstentions, on 25 November.

By draft resolution XIV, on human rights and mass exoduses, the Assembly would strongly deplore ethnic and other forms of intolerance as one of the major causes of forced migratory movements, and urge States to take all necessary steps to ensure respect for human rights, especially the rights of minorities. It would emphasize the responsibility of all States and international organizations to cooperate with those countries, particularly developing ones, affected by mass exoduses of refugees and displaced persons. Governments and the High Commissioner for Human Rights would be called upon to continue to respond to assistance needs of countries hosting large numbers of refugees until durable solutions are found. The Assembly would urge the Secretary-General to give high priority and allocate the necessary resources within the regular budget of the United Nations for consolidating and strengthening emergency preparedness and response mechanisms to those problems.

The draft resolution was approved without a vote on 25 November.

By terms of draft resolution XV, on human rights and terrorism, the Assembly would condemn violations of the right to live free from fear and of the right to life, liberty and security. It would reiterate its unequivocal condemnation of the acts, methods and practices of terrorism, in all its forms and manifestations, aimed at destroying human rights, fundamental freedoms and democracy, threatening the territorial integrity and security of States, destabilizing legitimately constituted governments, undermining pluralistic


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civil society and having adverse consequences for the economic and social development of States. The Assembly would call on States to take all necessary and effective measures to prevent, combat and eliminate it. The Assembly would condemn incitement of ethnic hatred, violence and terrorism, and would urge the international community to enhance regional and international cooperation in the fight against terrorism.

The draft text was approved by a recorded vote of 97 in favour to none against, with 57 abstentions, on 26 November.

Draft resolution XVI, on enhancement of international cooperation in the field of human rights, would have the Assembly call upon States, intergovernmental organizations and specialized agencies to carry out dialogue and consultations to enhance understanding, promotion and protection of all human rights and fundamental freedoms. Non-governmental organizations would be encouraged to contribute to the endeavour.

The draft text was approved without a vote on 26 November.

Under the terms of draft resolution XVII, on the situation of human rights in Cambodia, the Assembly would express grave concern about the serious violations of human rights during the armed violence of early July and its aftermath. It would urge the Cambodian Government, as a high priority, to investigate thoroughly and impartially and bring to justice those responsible for such serious crimes. The Assembly would express grave concern about numerous instances of violations of human rights as detailed in the reports of the Special Representative and his predecessor. It would call upon the Cambodian Government to prosecute, in accordance with due process of the law and international human rights standards, all those who have perpetrated human rights violations. Noting that national elections are scheduled to be held in May 1998, the Assembly would strongly urge the Cambodian Government to promote and uphold the effective functioning of multi-party democracy, including the right to form political parties, stand for election, take part freely in a representative Government and allow freedom of expression, as well as the right to information. The Cambodian Government would be encouraged to establish an independent body to supervise the elections to ensure that they are free, fair and credible.

That draft resolution was approved without a vote on 26 November.

Draft resolution XVIII, on the right to development, would have the Assembly reaffirm the importance of the right to development for every human person and all peoples in all countries, in particular the developing countries, as an integral part of fundamental human rights as well as the potential contribution its realization could make to the full enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms. It would recognize that the Declaration on the Right to Development constitutes an integral link between the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Vienna Declaration and


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Programme of Action through its elaboration of a holistic vision integrating economic, social and cultural rights with civil and political rights. It would also reiterate that lasting progress towards the implementation of the right to development requires effective development policies at the national level, as well as an equitable economic environment at the international level. It would be stressed that human rights should not be used as an instrument of trade protectionism. The Assembly would take note of the importance given to human rights by the Secretary-General in his measures and proposals for the reform of the United Nations, and urge him to give high priority to the promotion and realization of the right to development. The High Commissioner for Human Rights would be requested, within her mandate, to continue to take steps for the promotion, protection and realization of the right to development. The Assembly would affirm that the inclusion of the Declaration on the Right to Development in the International Bill of Rights would be an appropriate means of celebrating the fiftieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

The draft text was approved by a recorded vote of 104 in favour to 12 against, with 33 abstentions, on 26 November.

By a draft decision, the Assembly would, as part of its marking of the fiftieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, request that the Secretary-General make the necessary arrangements for awarding human rights prizes during 1998.

Part IV of the report, on human rights situations and reports of special rapporteurs and representatives (document A/52/644/Add.3), contains 11 draft resolutions and one draft decision. Seven of the drafts were approved by recorded vote.

By the terms of draft resolution I, on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, the Assembly would deplore the continued violations of human rights in Myanmar and would strongly urge the Government to release immediately and unconditionally all political prisoners, to ensure their physical integrity and to permit them to participate in the process of national reconciliation. It would also strongly urge the Government to ensure full respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms and to take all appropriate measures to allow all citizens to participate freely in the political process in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and to accelerate the process of transition to democracy, in particular through the transfer of power to democratically elected representatives. It would also encourage the Government of Myanmar to create the necessary conditions to both end the movement of refugees to neighbouring countries and enable their voluntary return and reintegration.

The draft resolution was approved on 24 November without a vote.


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By terms of draft resolution II, on human rights in Haiti, the Assembly would welcome the report of the Haitian National Commission for Truth and Justice, as well as reports by the International Civilian Mission in Haiti on Respect for Human Rights by the Haitian National Police and would urge the Government of Haiti to undertake appropriate follow-up action on the recommendations contained in them, with the support of the international community. The Assembly would express concern at the security problems faced by the Haitian society, which contribute to the shortcomings of the judicial system and the police apparatus, as noted in the Independent Expert's report, and would support the reform of the judicial system currently being carried out by the Haitian Government. The international community, including the Bretton Woods institutions, would be encouraged to continue their involvement in the reconstruction and development of Haiti, in particular with regard to the fragility of the political, social and economic situation of the country. The Government of Haiti would be encouraged to ratify the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment, and the Optional Protocols to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

The draft resolution was approved on 25 November without a vote.

By terms of draft resolution III, on the situation of human rights in Kosovo, the Assembly would express its deep concern about all violations of human rights in Kosovo, in particular the repression of the ethnic Albanian population, as well as acts of violence there, and it would call on the authorities of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to take all necessary measures to end immediately all human rights violations against ethnic Albanians in Kosovo. Among other actions, the Assembly would call on the authorities to release all political prisoners and allow Albanian refugees from Kosovo to return to their homes; to allow the establishment of genuine democratic institutions in Kosovo; and allow the reopening of ethnic Albanian institutions. The Assembly would also urge the authorities of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to pursue constructive dialogue with ethnic Albanian representatives in Kosovo; and to allow the immediate unconditional return of the mission of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) to Kosovo.

The draft resolution was approved on 25 November by a vote of 97 in favour to 3 against (India, Israel, Russian Federation), with 47 abstentions.

By terms of draft resolution IV, on the human rights situation in the Sudan, the Assembly would express deep concern at the serious widespread and continuing human rights violations in the Sudan. It would express outrage at the use by all parties to the conflict of military force to disrupt or attack relief efforts and call for an immediate halt to the inhumane and unjustified practice of the aerial bombardment of civilian targets by the Government of the Sudan. The Assembly would call on the Government to comply with


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international human rights instruments, including the International Covenants on Human Rights, the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racism, the amended Slavery Convention and the supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery. It would further urge the Government to release all political detainees, cease all acts of torture and cruel and degrading treatment, close down clandestine or unacknowledged detention centres and ensure that all accused persons are allowed family visits and are tried promptly under internationally recognized standards.

The draft was approved on 25 November by a vote of 91 in favour to 15 against, with 43 abstentions.

By the terms of draft resolution V, on the human rights situation in Iraq, the Assembly would strongly condemn the massive and extremely grave violations of human rights and international humanitarian law by the Government of Iraq. It would also condemn suppression of freedoms in the country, including that of thought, expression, association and movement, summary and arbitrary executions, and widespread, systematic torture. The Assembly would call upon the Government of Iraq to, among other things, abide by its freely assumed obligations under international instruments to respect and ensure the rights of all individuals; bring military and security forces into conformity with the standards of international law; cooperate with United Nations human rights mechanisms; restore independence of the judiciary; and abrogate all decrees prescribing cruel and inhuman punishment, as well as all laws and procedures that penalize free expression. The Assembly would also call on the Government of Iraq to cooperate with the Tripartite Commission to resolve the fate of the remaining several hundred missing persons, including prisoners of war and third country nationals -- victims of the illegal Iraqi occupation of Kuwait; to cease immediately its repressive practices aimed at the Iraqi Kurds and others, including the population of the southern marsh areas; and to end the enforced displacement of persons.

The draft was approved on 25 November by a vote of 94 in favour to 2 against (Libya, Sudan), with 51 abstentions.

By the terms of draft resolution VI, on the situation of human rights in Iran, the Assembly would note with interest that presidential elections were held in Iran this year, and would call upon the Government to meet expectations for tangible progress concerning human rights and fundamental freedoms of all individuals. While expressing concern at a number of violations and breaches of human rights in Iran, the Assembly would call upon the Iranian Government to resume its cooperation with the mechanisms of the Commission on Human Rights, in particular, with its Special Representative; to abide by its freely undertaken obligations under the International Covenants on Human Rights; and implement fully the conclusions and recommendations of the Special Rapporteur on religious intolerance relating to the Baha'is and other minority religious groups, including Christians. The Government would be called upon to take effective measures to eliminate human rights violations


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against women, including all discrimination in law and in practice against them; refrain from violence against members of the Iranian opposition living abroad; and provide satisfactory written assurances that it does not support or incite threats to the life of Salman Rushdie.

The draft was approved on 25 November by a vote of 68 in favour to 27 against, with 49 abstentions.

By terms of draft resolution VII, on the human rights situation in Cuba, the Assembly would regret profoundly the numerous violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms in Cuba and would call once more upon the Government of Cuba to cooperate fully with the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights by permitting him full and free access to establish contact with the Government and to the citizens of Cuba. It would urge the Government to ensure freedom of expression and assembly and the freedom to demonstrate peacefully, and would especially call upon it to release the numerous persons detained for activities of a political nature. Finally, it would call upon the Government of Cuba to carry out the recommendations of the Special Rapporteur to bring its observance of human rights in conformity with international standards and to end all violations of human rights.

The draft was adopted on 25 November by a vote of 60 in favour to 23 against, with 64 abstentions.

By the terms of draft resolution VIII, on the situation of human rights in Nigeria, the Assembly would call upon the Government of Nigeria to ensure urgently the observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms, including by respecting the right to life, by releasing all political prisoners, including those detained in connection with the 1993 presidential elections, among them Chief M.K.O. Abiola, trade union leaders, human rights advocates and journalists currently detained. The observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms would also be ensured by improving conditions of detention and by guaranteeing freedom of the press, freedom of opinion and association and respect for the rights of individuals, including persons belonging to minorities. The Assembly would also call upon the Government of Nigeria to ensure that all trials are held fairly and promptly and in strict conformity with international human rights standards; take concrete and credible steps to restore democratic government without delay, end rule by decree and to permit an observer presence during the transition; and ensure the independence of the National Human Rights Commission, including in its investigations of human rights abuses. The Assembly would welcome the declared commitment by the Government of Nigeria to civilian rule, multi-party democracy and freedom of assembly, press and political activity by 1 October 1998, recalling in that regard the declaration by the Government of 1 October 1995 which it recently confirmed.

The draft was approved on 26 November by a vote of 79 in favour to 15 against, with 56 abstentions.


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By the terms of draft resolution IX, on the situation of human rights in Afghanistan, the Assembly would note with deep concern the intensification of armed hostilities and the deterioration of the human rights situation in Afghanistan. It would express deep concern, in particular, at the frequency of arbitrary arrest and detention and summary trials throughout the country, which have resulted in summary executions. It would demand that all Afghan parties fulfil their obligations regarding safety of diplomatic and international personnel and that they cooperate with United Nations and associated bodies and humanitarian organizations. All Afghan parties would be urged to end discrimination based on gender and deprivation of the human rights of women and to work closely with the United Nations Special Mission to Afghanistan in achieving a comprehensive political solution leading to an end to the armed confrontation and the establishment of a democratic government. The Assembly would express its deep concern at new landmines laid and appeal to all parties to stop deploying such devices. All States would be urged to respect the full national unity, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Afghanistan. It would appeal to the international community to give adequate humanitarian assistance to both the people of Afghanistan and to Afghan refugees in neighbouring countries pending voluntary repatriation, and would request Afghan parties to lift restrictions imposed on the international aid community, allowing free transit of food and medical supplies.

The draft was approved on 26 November without a vote.

By the terms of draft resolution X, on the situation of human rights in Rwanda, the Assembly would reiterate its strong condemnation of the crime of genocide and all other violations of human rights which were perpetrated in Rwanda in 1994 and express its concern at the alleged continuation of human rights violations in that country. It would note with interest the recommendations made in the report of the Special Representative for Rwanda, in particular the need for greater coordination in providing human rights technical assistance. It would also note the commitment of the Government of Rwanda to investigate reports of extrajudicial executions committed by some members of the security forces. It would welcome the start of trials of those suspected of crimes against humanity, as well as improvements in the trial process, and it would stress the need for continued efforts toward fair trial guarantees and access to legal representation. The Assembly would condemn in the strongest terms any acts of violence or intimidation against United Nations staff or any other international staff serving in Rwanda and pay tribute to the memory of those killed. It would urge all States to cooperate fully, without delay, with the International Tribunal for Rwanda. It would appeal to the international community to contribute further financial and technical support to the Government of Rwanda for the strengthening of the Rwandan judicial system and for the reconstruction of the human rights infrastructure.

The draft was approved on 26 November without a vote.


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By the terms of draft resolution XI, on the situation of human rights in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the Assembly would call for the full and consistent implementation of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the annexes thereto, (the "Peace Agreement") and the Basic Agreement on the Region of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (the "Basic Agreement") by all parties to them. It would condemn in the strongest terms the continued forcible expulsion of individuals from their homes in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the practice of destroying the homes of those forcibly expelled, and call for the immediate arrest and punishment of individuals engaged in those actions. It would also condemn the continuing restrictions on freedom of movement, as noted by the Special Rapporteur in her report, between the Republika Srpska and the Federation and urge all parties to guarantee the freedom of movement of returnees and residents of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Assembly would call upon the Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to institute democratic norms, investigate and punish acts of violence against refugees, allow return of nationals to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and immediately end violence against non-Serb populations in Kosovo. The Government of Croatia would be called upon to strengthen democratic norms and to cooperate fully with the United Nations Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (UNTAES).

In addition, the Assembly would strongly condemn instances of harassment of displaced Serbs and reports of collusion or active participation in such acts by Croatian members of the Transitional Police Force of the Region of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium, and call upon the Government of Croatia to strengthen and to take continuing measures to end all forms of discrimination by Croatian authorities in the areas of employment, promotion, education, pensions and health care, among others. The Assembly would call upon the Commission on Human Rights for Bosnia and Herzegovina to intensify its activities concerning alleged or apparent violations of human rights, or alleged or apparent discrimination of any kind. It would urge the parties to implement results of recent municipal elections, through the Constitution, without delay of councils in all municipalities of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It would urgently call upon all States and all parties to the Peace Agreement to meet their obligations to cooperate fully with the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. It would strongly condemn the continuing refusal of the authorities of the Republika Srpska and the Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to arrest and surrender indicted war criminals known to be present in their territories, as they have agreed to do.

The draft was approved on 26 November by a vote of 123 in favour to 2 against (Belarus, Russian Federation), with 24 abstentions.

By the terms of a draft decision, the Assembly would take note of the Secretary-General's report on rape and abuse of women in the areas of armed conflict on the former Yugoslavia.


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Part V of the report (document A/52/644/Add.4) addresses comprehensive implementation of and follow-up to the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action. It contains one draft resolution and one draft decision, both approved without a vote on 26 November.

By the terms of the draft resolution on comprehensive implementation of and follow-up to the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, the Assembly would urge all States to continue to give widespread publicity to the Declaration and Programme of Action, in particular in the context of the public information and human rights education activities for the fiftieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It would emphasize the important role of the High Commissioner for Human Rights in the system of the United Nations human rights organs, including her role in the process of analysis of the functioning of the United Nations human rights machinery and its adaptation to current and future needs. States would be called upon to contribute to the 1998 five-year review of the World Conference on Human Rights. The Assembly would welcome the inter-agency consultations of the High Commissioner with all United Nations programmes and agencies whose activities deal with human rights for the preparations of the 1998 five-year review and would call upon them to contribute actively to the process. Regional and national human rights institutions, as well as non-governmental organizations, would be encouraged to present, on that occasion, their views on the progress made in the implementation of the Declaration and Programme of Action.

The draft decision on the Working Group of the Third Committee would have the Assembly decide that the agenda item 112 (d), entitled "comprehensive implementation of and follow-up to the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action" be kept open in order to allow the Group to continue its work.

Part VI of the human rights report, on the report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (document A/52/644/Add.5), states that no proposals were submitted under that sub-item.

The report of the Third Committee on the report of the Economic and Social Council (document A/52/633) contains two draft decisions, both approved without a vote on 26 November.

Draft decision I, on the Third Committee's organization of work and the draft biennial programme of work for 1998-1999, would have the Assembly approve the Committee's work programme for the next biennium. Annex I to the draft decision contains the organization of the Committee's work; and annex II contains the Committee's 1998-1999 draft biennial programme of work.

By draft decision II, the Assembly would take note of the report of the Economic and Social Council, in particular chapters I (matters calling for action by the General Assembly or brought to its attention), IV (the coordination segment), V (the general segment -- sections a to c and h) and VII (organizational matters).


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An additional draft resolution which is before the Assembly under the item on the Council's report concerns the proclamation of an international day in support of victims of torture (document A/52/L.66). Sponsored by Denmark, the draft would have the Assembly decide to proclaim 26 June as international day in support of victims of torture, with a view to the total eradication of torture and the effective functioning of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, which entered into force on 26 June 1987.

Action on Third Committee Reports

MONICA MARTINEZ (Ecuador), the Rapporteur of the Third Committee, introduced the reports.

The Assembly first took up the Committee's report on social development (document A/52/634) containing five draft resolutions.

Draft resolution I, on the International Year of Older Persons: Towards a society for all ages, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution II, on follow-up to the International Year of the Family, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution III, on implementation of the World Programme of Action concerning Disabled Persons, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution IV, on policies and programmes involving youth, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution V, on education for all, was adopted without a vote.

KARIM WISSA (Egypt) said he would join in co-sponsoring the draft resolution.

Next, the Assembly took up the Committee's report on crime prevention and criminal justice (document A/52/635 and Corr.1) containing seven draft resolutions.

Draft resolution I, on follow-up to the Naples Political Declaration and Global Action Plan against Organized Transnational Crime, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution II, on measures to eliminate violence against women, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution III, on international cooperation against corruption and bribery in international commercial transactions, was adopted without a vote.


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Draft resolution IV, on international cooperation in criminal matters, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution V, on the United Nations African Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution VI, on strengthening the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme, particularly its technical cooperation capacity, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution VII, on preparations for the Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, was adopted without a vote.

Next, the Assembly took up the Committee's report on international drug control (document A/52/636), containing one draft resolution.

The seven-part draft resolution on international action to combat drug abuse and illicit production and trafficking, was adopted without a vote.

Next the Assembly took up the Committee's report on advancement of women (document A/52/637) containing seven draft resolutions and one draft decision.

The Assembly took up the draft resolution on improvement of the situation of women in rural areas.

SHAHIRA WAHBI (Sudan), in explanation of the vote before the vote, said that after frequently sponsoring the resolution in the past, Sudan had found it hard to even join consensus this year because of the controversial language introduced in the text, which had changed the agreed language that had been acceptable to all delegations. Her Government had joined consensus because most paragraphs of the resolution aimed to improve the situation of women in rural areas, but it had reservations on operative paragraph 2(e) because it distorted the agreed language of international conferences and introduced unacceptable ambiguity.

Furthermore, she said, the deviation in the paragraph, particularly the reference to inheritance, could be interpreted as contradicting Islamic Law. Sudan could not be party to such language, nor could such language be binding. Therefore, such language could not be used in the future. The issue of women's inheritance had been controversial in previous international conferences and in negotiations on instruments and any attempt to force consensus was completely unacceptable. She called for respect for the beliefs of others and recognition of the diversities existing in the world.

PETER KASANDA (Zambia) said Zambia had become a co-sponsor because 60 per cent of its population lived in rural areas and the majority of those


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people were women. His country had elaborated the importance of the right of land ownership for rural women in front of the Third Committee on behalf of the Southern African Development Community Members (SADC). There was a definite link between poverty and the absence of land ownership.

The majority of land in Africa was cultural land subject to traditional inheritance practices and, therefore, the right to equal inheritance of land by women was vitally important, he continued. It lay at the heart of women's economic empowerment, especially that of rural women who perhaps could not purchase title to land. The issue was also a question of development, which could not occur meaningfully when more than half of the population was denied the right to own land. It was also a question of human rights. It was regretable that a few delegations had chosen not to respect and maintain the delicate consensus reached on inheritance language at the Commission on the Status of Women.

MOHAMED SALEH (Bahrain) said he took issue with operative paragraph 2(e). The Islamic religion had provided women with their full rights. It was stated in the Holy Book that a man would have twice as much as a woman. Islam had a law that could not be broken.

SUAD MOHAMED (Yemen) said she supported the resolution by consensus, but inheritance in Islamic Law was a complex issue governed by relationship issues. She wanted to register her reservation on the draft text.

Draft resolution I, on improvement of the situation of women in rural areas, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution II, on UNIFEM, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution III, on the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW), was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution IV, on improvement of the status of women in the Secretariat, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution V, on violence against women migrant workers, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution VI, on traffic in women and girls, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution VII, on traditional or customary practices affecting the health of women and girls, was adopted without a vote.

The Assembly then adopted a draft decision without a vote, that took note of the report of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women; and two reports of the Secretary-General on the status of the


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Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women, and on activities of the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women.

Ms. MOHAMED (Yemen), expressed support for the resolution on the advancement of women in the Secretariat and requested to become a co-sponsor of the draft resolution.

Next, the Assembly took up the Committee's report on the programme of activities of the International Decade of the World's Indigenous People (document A/52/641), containing one draft resolution.

Next the Assembly took up the Committee's report on the UNHCR's report (document A/52/639), containing five draft resolutions.

Draft resolution I, assistance to refugees, returnees and displaced persons in Africa, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution II, on the follow-up to the Regional Conference on refugees and displaced persons, in the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and relevant neighbouring States, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution III, on UNHCR, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution IV, on the continuation of UNHCR, was adopted by without a vote.

Draft resolution V, on assistance to unaccompanied refugee minors, was adopted without a vote.

Next, the Assembly took up the Committee's report on the promotion and protection of the rights of the child (document A/52/640), containing two draft resolutions and one draft decision.

Draft resolution I, on the girl child, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution II, on the rights of the child, was adopted without a vote.

The Assembly then adopted the draft decision without a vote, taking note of two reports of the Secretary-General on the status of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and on the exploitation of child labour.

POSECI BUNE (Fiji), speaking in explanation of position before the vote, said the observation of the decade should not be just a recognition that indigenous people existed. The observation should be meaningful and fruitful to the future of the indigenous people. It should address the bleak future


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they now faced through the establishment of an international fund for their survival, development, progress and enhanced future. The adoption of the Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples had to move more quickly. The ultimate goal was adoption of an international convention on the world's indigenous people.

He said the report on the world's indigenous people in the United Nations Human Development Report 1997 was of concern. Among other issues, the report stated that indigenous people had seen their values and customs destroyed by incoming populations and many had turned to alcoholism or suicide. Overall, the report was a very sad commentary on the fate of the world's indigenous people. A positive aspect of the international observance should be the setting up of a unit for indigenous peoples' affairs in the United Nations. Those matters should be reflected in the draft resolution on the Decade at the next session of the General Assembly. In the meantime, he would join consensus on the draft, since it was a step in the right direction.

The draft resolution on the International Decade of the World's Indigenous People was adopted without a vote.

Next, the Assembly took up the Committee's report on the elimination of racism and racial discrimination (document A/52/642), containing three draft resolutions.

Draft resolution I, on measures to combat contemporary forms of discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution II, on the report of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution III, on the Third Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination and the convening of a world conference on racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, was adopted without a vote.

Next, the Assembly took up the Committee's report on the right of people to self-determination (document A/52/643), containing three draft resolutions.

Draft resolution I, on the use of mercenaries as a means of violating human rights and impeding the exercise of the rights of peoples to self- determination, was adopted by a recorded vote of 113 in favour to 18 against, with 41 abstentions. (See Annex I.)

Draft resolution II, on the universal realization of the rights of peoples to self-determination, was adopted without a vote.


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GAUTAM MUKHOPADHAYA (India) joined in co-sponsoring draft resolution III.

Draft resolution III, the right of the Palestinian people to self- determination, was adopted by a vote of 160 in favour to 2 against (Israel, and the United States), with 6 abstentions (Dominican Republic, Georgia, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Norway, Uruguay) (Annex II).

The Assembly then took note of the report of the Third Committee on human rights questions (Part I) (document A/52/644).

Next, the Assembly took up the Committee's report on human rights questions: implementation of the human rights instruments (Part II) (document A/52/644/Add.1), containing four draft resolutions and one draft decision.

Draft resolution I, on the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution II, on the international covenants on human rights, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution III, on the fiftieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, was adopted without a vote.

When the Assembly took up draft resolution IV on the effective implementation of international instruments on human rights, including reporting obligations under international instruments on human rights, the President of the Assembly said a recorded vote was requested on operative paragraph 21.

Operative paragraph 21 reads as follows:

"Notes that efforts continue to be made at coordination and cooperation between the human rights treaty bodies and the special procedures, rapporteurs, representatives, experts and working groups of the Commission on Human Rights and the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, all acting within their respective mandates."

Operative paragraph 21 was adopted by a vote of 118 in favour to 5 against (Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Ghana, Libya, Sudan), with 37 abstentions (Annex III).

The Assembly then adopted draft resolution IV as a whole, without a vote.


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The Assembly also adopted the draft decision entitled "Documents considered by the General Assembly in connection with the implementation of human rights".

The Assembly then took up the Committee's report on human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms (document A/52/644/Add.2), containing 18 draft resolutions and one draft decision.

Draft resolution I, respect for the principles of national sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of States in their electoral processes, was adopted by a recorded vote of 96 in favour to 58 against, with 12 abstentions (Annex IV).

Draft resolution II, on human rights and unilateral and coercive measures, was adopted by recorded vote of 91 in favour to 46 against, with 26 abstentions (Annex V).

Draft resolution III, on respect for the right to universal freedom of travel and the vital importance of family reunification, was adopted by a recorded vote of 94 in favour to 1 against (United States), with 73 abstentions (Annex VI).

Draft resolution IV, on elimination of all forms of religious intolerance, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution V, effective promotion of the Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution VI, on human rights in the administration of justice, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution VII, on strengthening of the rule of law, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution VIII, on protection of United Nations personnel, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution IX, on the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education, 1995-2004, and public information activities in the field of human rights, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution X, on national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights, was adopted without a vote.


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Draft resolution XI, on strengthening the role of the United Nations in enhancing the effectiveness of the principle of periodic and genuine elections and the promotion of democratization, was adopted by a recorded vote of 157 in favour to none against, with 15 abstentions (Annex VII).

Draft resolution XII, protection and assistance to internally displaced persons, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution XIII, on strengthening of United Nations action in the field of human rights through the promotion of international cooperation and the importance of non-selectivity, impartiality and objectivity, was adopted by a recorded vote of 116 in favour to 2 against (Israel, United States), with 50 abstentions (Annex VIII).

Draft resolution XIV, on human rights and mass exoduses, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution XV, on human rights and terrorism, was adopted by a recorded vote of 115 in favour to none against, with 57 abstentions (Annex IX).

Draft resolution XVI, on enhancement of international cooperation in the field of human rights, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution XVII, on the situation of human rights in Cambodia, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution XVIII, on the right to development, was adopted by a recorded vote of 129 in favour to 12 against, with 32 abstentions (Annex X).

The draft decision, on the award of human rights prizes in 1998, was adopted without a vote, requesting the Secretary-General to make the necessary arrangements for awarding human rights prizes during 1998.

HASSAN KASSEM NAJEM (Lebanon), speaking in explanation of vote after the vote on the resolution on human rights and terrorism, said his country condemned all acts of terrorism, but he had abstained from the vote on that resolution for a number of reasons. The resolution did not condemn the foreign occupation of countries, as in the case of the Israeli occupation of southern Lebanon. Foreign occupation was one of the most terrible forms of terrorism. Also, the draft resolution did not refer to a 1991 Assembly resolution that emphasized the need to establish a clear definition of terrorism, nor did it address the right to one's own territory.

VICTORIA SANDRU (Romania) said she had abstained on the resolution on the right to development.


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VLADIMIR CHIRINCIUC (Republic of Moldova) said he had abstained on the vote on the resolution on the right to development.

EMILIA CASTRO de BARISH (Costa Rica) said she wanted to explain her non- participation in the vote on the resolution concerning non-interference in electoral processes. She did not support preambular paragraph 7, which states that "there is no single political system or single universal model for electoral processes equally suited to all nations and their peoples, and that political systems and electoral processes are subject to historical, political, cultural and religious factors". That sentence could be used to perpetuate practices of the past, such as the use of intimidation and violence by governments who wished to remain in power.

VOLODYMYR YEL' CHENKO (Ukraine) said he abstained on the resolution on the right to development.

GENEVIEVE HAMILTON (Australia) said she had intended to abstain on the vote on the resolution on the right to development.

Next, the Assembly took up the Committee's report on human rights questions: human rights situations and reports of special rapporteurs and representatives (document A/52/644/Add.3) containing 11 draft resolutions and one draft decision.

Speaking in explanation of position before action on the text, DOMA TSHERING DORJEE (Bhutan) said she would abstain on the resolutions regarding Iran and the territories of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). There was no international consensus on the abolition of capital punishment and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights permitted capital punishment under certain conditions.

ELFAITH ERWA (Sudan) said he wanted to put some general factors relating to the situation in his country on the record. A peace agreement had been signed between his Government and all but one rebel faction in April of this year. Sudan was a multiracial, multicultural State, with Islam the majority religion and with Christian and African creeds having significant adherence. Freedom of religion was guaranteed. The constitution contained basic rights and freedoms. The Government at the highest level was holding negotiations with the remaining rebels. Further, the Special Rapporteur had been received twice and a consultative council on human rights had set up fact-finding commissions.

Those were just some examples of efforts by his country to foster human rights, he said. Yet the United States delegation and other sponsors insisted on putting forward a resolution that was irrelevant. Visits by United States officials to the region had attempted to set Sudan against its neighbours and such policies were designed to protract the war in the southern part of Sudan.


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Those policies intended to put pressure on Sudan and were targeted at the tolerant Islamic faith. His Government would continue the peace process and would foster human rights. He hoped that most Member States would reject the proposal.

BRUNO RODRIGUEZ PARRILLA (Cuba) said the resolution on his country was a gross political manipulation by the United States. It had been said that the resolution had a broad and universal co-sponsorship, but that was false. In actuality, there had been one author and a small group of minor partners. It was the same group of countries that, reflecting a colonial mentality, accused dozens of southern countries, without seeing their own inequality, injustice and racism.

The voting pattern followed by the co-sponsors on the resolutions of the Third Committee was curious, he said. When not devoted to "reproving" southern countries, co-authors of the draft on Cuba voted against resolutions dealing with respect for sovereignty and non-interference in electoral processes and against condemnation of unilateral coercive measures that violated human rights. The countries of the European Union were being forced to perform acrobatic feats. Another sponsor was a far-off republic that had sold its uranium and soul to the United States.

Cuba lived under circumstances of an undeclared war and seige, he said. The so-called dissidents purported to be a legitimate opposition, but it was a fifth column made up of a handful of annexationists organized and financed by the United States. They were not political dissidents, but vulgar mercenaries. Cuba was willing to cooperate in the human rights field. It was also prepared for confrontation in defense of its sovereignty, democracy and its people's human rights.

Ms. MOHAMED (Yemen) said her country was abstaining on all the resolutions regarding the human rights situations. Her Government attached great priority to the issue of human rights at the local, regional and international levels. It sought to establish realistic social conditions in which the concepts of social rights could be translated into reality. Her Government's policies were consistent with international instruments in such areas as elections and promoting the rights of women.

The politicization of human rights issues and their use as coercion was unacceptable, she said. To consider human rights as a pretext for spreading political dependence was unacceptable. Double standards were unacceptable, as was interference. It was better to conduct dialogue and not resort to accusation and confrontation. It was better to consider basic issues and to fully consider the variety of causes for certain situations, such as poverty, ignorance and war. Her country would participate on resolutions that enabled all to participate and would abstain on all resolutions except those that had consensus.


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KHALED AL-HITTI (Iraq) said he had expressed his country's views in the Third Committee and still held the same position. At the same time, the failure to pay dues because of the economic embargo had denied his country the right to vote. Had the right been open, he would vote against the resolutions on the Sudan, Cuba and Nigeria. Those were political resolutions that had nothing to do with human rights in those countries.

IBRAHIM GAMBARI (Nigeria) said the resolution on his country was not based on any report of any principal organ or office of the United Nations system, because there was no such reference for consideration at this session. At every opportunity, he had outlined the concrete actions taken by his Government towards ensuring the promotion and protection of human rights. Among other developments, his country had established an independent and fully functional National Human Rights Commission. The Nigerian judiciary was highly credible and had always upheld the rule of law and the defence of justice. The Nigerian press was among the most free and vibrant anywhere. On the question of democratization, the Government had established a phased transition to civil rule, with an end date of October 1998. Legislative elections had been held.

The progress and achievements were there for anyone with an open mind to see, he said. Viewed against the backdrop of those concrete steps and efforts, the draft resolution was a gross misrepresentation of the situation in Nigeria. It was inappropriate, unfair, unbalanced and prejudicial to the democratization process. That was why only three African countries had voted for the draft at the Committee level, and why most Asian and Caribbean Member States did not support it.

The Assembly then adopted draft resolution I, on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, without a vote.

Draft resolution II, on human rights in Haiti, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution III, on the human rights situation in Kosovo, was adopted by a recorded vote of 106 in favour to 2 against (India, Russian Federation), with 56 abstentions (Annex XI).

Draft resolution IV, on the human rights situation in the Sudan was adopted by a recorded vote of 93 in favour to 16 against, with 58 abstentions (Annex XII).

Draft resolution V, on the situation of human rights in Iraq, was adopted by a recorded vote of 99 in favour to 3 against (Libya Nigeria, Sudan), with 60 abstentions (Annex XIII).

Draft resolution VI, on the human rights situation in Iran, was adopted by a recorded vote of 74 in favour to 32 against, with 56 abstentions (Annex XIV).


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Draft resolution VII, on human rights in Cuba was adopted by a recorded vote of 64 in favour to 29 against, with 75 abstentions (Annex XV).

Draft resolution VIII, the situation of human rights in Nigeria, was adopted by a recorded vote of 81 in favour to 18 against, with 64 abstentions. (See Annex XVI). Draft resolution IX, on the situation of human rights in Afghanistan, was adopted without a vote.

Draft resolution X, on the human rights situation on Rwanda, was adopted without a vote. Draft resolution XI, on the situation of human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, was adopted by a recorded vote of 133 in favour to 2 against (Belarus, Russian Federation), with 27 abstentions (Annex XVII).

The Assembly then adopted the draft decision concerning documents considered by the General Assembly in connection with human rights situations and reports of special rapporteurs and representatives without a vote.

Speaking after the vote, Mr. MUKHOPADHAYA (India) said his country was dedicated to human rights and firmly adhered to non-intervention. It was committed to pluralism and protection of minorities. He voted against the resolution whose title referred to one part of a country, as if the part did not belong to the country itself. The resolution looked at the situation in Kosovo as a fragment. Also, there already was a resolution on the former Yugoslavia. For the same reason, he abstained on that resolution. In addition, there was a divergence of views with regard to capital punishment. It was not necessarily incompatible with international law.

PAULETTE HOADES-CORNETTE (Guyana) said she voted in favour of the resolution on Iran, but wanted her reservations with regard to the language on capital punishment put on the record. Capital punishment was an intrinsic part of the Guyanese system. There was no international consensus on capital punishment, and paragraph 4(g) could be construed as an attempt to undermine the internal juridical laws of a country. Similarly, she supported the resolution on the countries of the former Yugoslavia, but, for the same reasons, had reservations on preambular paragraph 7, referring to the reports of the Special Rapporteur.

LINN MYAING (Myanmar) said he voted against the resolution on Iran for the same reason as in the Committee. The language in paragraph 4(g) was of concern because of its reference to capital punishment.

GUALBERTO RODRIGUEZ SAN MARTIN (Bolivia) said the resolution on Cuba showed the concern of international community with the situation in Cuba. He had voted for it. Democracy was the way to protect human rights.


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XIE BOHUA (China) said the resolution on Kosovo brought forward the important principle of sovereignty. Kosovo was part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The territorial integrity of the State should be respected. Thus, he had abstained in the voting.

FOO CHI HSIA (Singapore) said that, in regard to the resolution on Iran, 10 delegations had recorded reservations on paragraph 4(g) in the Committee and another four had done so during the Assembly vote. The attempt to tell nations what crimes should be punishable by capital punishment was intrusive and inconsistent with international law. He had voted in favour of the resolution on the countries of the former Yugoslavia in the Committee, but wanted to reiterate reservations on preambular paragraph 7, with regard to the death penalty, since that exceeded the mandate. Twenty-two countries had expressed reservations on that paragraph in the Committee, and now three more had done so in the Assembly. There was no international consensus on capital punishment.

MOSES DLAMINI (Swaziland) said he abstained on the resolution regarding Nigeria because much good was being done in that country. Those who drafted or passed resolutions should look deeply into situations. He had also abstained on the resolutions regarding the Sudan and Iran because the resolution did not reflect the good being done. On related issues, his country had capital punishment. Further, the resolution on Kosovo involved the national integrity of a State.

CHOE MYONG NAM (Democratic People's Republic of Korea) said he voted against the resolution on Iran because he did not agree with the manner in which those situations were approached. With regard to Iran and the death penalty issue, it was a country's right to decide.

MANKEUR NDIAYE (Senegal) said he had voted against the resolution on the countries in the former Yugoslavia when it was submitted in the Third Committee. He had a reservation against the seventh preambular paragraph relating to capital punishment.

EMILIA CASTRO DE BARISH (Costa Rica) said her country had co-sponsored the resolution on the countries in the former Yugoslavia. She reiterated support for preambular paragraph 7, as well as for recent reports of the Special Rapporteur and her comments on capital punishment. Her country had abolished capital punishment more than 100 years before.

Next, the Assembly took up the Committee's report the on comprehensive implementation of and follow-up to the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action (document A/52/644/Add.4), containing one draft resolution and one draft decision.

Draft resolution I, on follow-up to the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, was adopted without a vote.


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The draft decision on the continuation of the working group of the Third Committee was adopted without a vote.

The Assembly then took note of Part VI of the report on United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (document A/52/644/Add.5).

Next, the Assembly took up the report on the Economic and Social Council (document A/52/633), which contains two draft decisions.

JORGEN BOER (Denmark) introduced the draft resolution on the international day in support of victims of torture (document A/52/L.66). He said the draft was procedural and limited in scope and substance to decision 1997/251, by which the Economic and Social Council had approved the request of the Human Rights Commission to the Assembly to proclaim 26 June a United Nations international day in the context of the preparations for the fiftieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Since the agenda for the Third Committee this year did not include a specific item on torture, and due to the fact that the Council's decision had merely been taken note of in the Third Committee's report, he had decided to present the resolution to the plenary. Denmark had initiated the resolution in the Human Rights Commission.

The Assembly then adopted draft decision I, on the Third Committee's organization of work and the draft biennial programme of work for 1998-1999, without a vote.

Draft decision II, on the report of the Economic and Social Council, was adopted without a vote.

The Assembly then adopted the draft resolution on the International Day in Support of Victims of Torture, without a vote.

(annexes follow)


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ANNEX I

Vote on Mercenaries

The draft resolution on the use of mercenaries (document A/52/643-I) was approved by a recorded vote of 113 in favour to 18 against, with 41 abstentions:

In favour: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Russian Federation, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zimbabwe.

Against: Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Federated States of Micronesia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States.

Abstain: Albania, Andorra, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, France, Georgia, Greece, Grenada, Ireland, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Rwanda, Samoa, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Spain, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan.

Absent: Cambodia, Palau, Republic of the Congo, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, Zambia.

(END OF ANNEX I)

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ANNEX II

Vote on Palestinian Self-Determination

The draft resolution on the right of the Palestinian people to self- determination (document A/52/643-III) was approved by a recorded vote of 160 in favour to 2 against, with 6 abstentions:

In favour: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea- Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Samoa, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United Republic of Tanzania, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zimbabwe.

Against: Israel, United States.

Abstain: Dominican Republic, Federated States of Micronesia, Georgia, Marshall Islands, Norway, Uruguay.

Absent: Cambodia, Madagascar, Palau, Panama, Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, Uzbekistan, Zambia.

(ANNEX II)

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ANNEX III

Vote on Operative Paragraph 21 of Human Rights Instruments

Operative paragraph 21 of the draft resolution on implementation of human rights instruments, which concerns coordination between human rights bodies (document A/52/644/Add.1-IV) was approved by a recorded vote of 118 in favour to 5 against, with 37 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Afghanistan, Albania, Andorra, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Maldives, Malta, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Saint Lucia, Samoa, San Marino, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Tajikistan, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela.

Against: Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Ghana, Libya, Sudan.

Abstain: Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei Darussalam, China, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea-Bissau, India, Indonesia, Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Absent: Cambodia, Comoros, Djibouti, Gabon, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Myanmar, Oman, Palau, Qatar, Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, United Arab Emirates.

(END OF ANNEX III)

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ANNEX IV

Vote on Non-Interference in Electoral Processes

The draft resolution on non-interference in the internal affairs of States in their electoral processes (document A/52/644/Add.2-I) was approved by a recorded vote of 96 in favour to 58 against, with 12 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, China, Colombia, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Dominica, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Gabon, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Against: Albania, Andorra, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Federated States of Micronesia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Samoa, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Spain, Sweden, Tajikistan, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States.

Abstain: Afghanistan, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Kyrgyzstan, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Turkmenistan, Vanuatu.

Absent: Burundi, Cambodia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Madagascar, Palau, Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, Uzbekistan.

(END OF ANNEX IV)

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ANNEX V

Vote on Unilateral Coercive Measures

The draft resolution on human rights and unilateral coercive measures (document A/52/644/Add.2-II) was approved by a recorded vote of 91 in favour to 46 against, with 26 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Benin, Bhutan, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Djibouti, Dominica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Kenya, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Malaysia, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Russian Federation, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Samoa, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Against: Albania, Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Federated States of Micronesia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Swaziland, Sweden, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States.

Abstain: Argentina, Armenia, Belarus, Belize, Bolivia, Cape Verde, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Georgia, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mongolia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Vanuatu.

Absent: Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Burundi, Cambodia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Gabon, Kuwait, Maldives, Palau, Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, Uzbekistan.

(END OF ANNEX V)

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ANNEX VI

Vote on Freedom of Travel and Family Reunification

The draft resolution on respect for the right to the universal freedom of travel and the vital importance of family reunification (document A/52/644/Add.2-III) was approved by a recorded vote of 94 in favour to 1 against, with 73 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Algeria, Angola, Armenia, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Fiji, Gabon, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Morocco, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Against: United States.

Abstain: Albania, Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Ethiopia, Federated States of Micronesia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Mongolia, Mozambique, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Samoa, San Marino, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Spain, Sweden, Tajikistan, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Kingdom.

Absent: Afghanistan, Burundi, Cambodia, Mauritius, Nicaragua, Palau, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, Uzbekistan.

(END OF ANNEX VI)

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ANNEX VII

Vote on United Nations and Periodic Elections

The draft resolution on strengthening the role of the United Nations in enhancing the effectiveness of the principle of periodic and genuine elections and the promotion of democratization (document A/52/644/Add.2-XI) was approved by a recorded vote of 157 in favour to none against, with 15 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Republic of the Congo, Romania, Russian Federation, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Samoa, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Tajikistan, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Yemen, Zambia.

Against: None.

Abstain: Brunei Darussalam, China, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Iran, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Libya, Myanmar, Sudan, Syria, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, Zimbabwe.

Absent: Burundi, Cambodia, Palau, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles.

(END OF ANNEX VII)

General Assembly Plenary 50 Press Release GA/9380 70th Meeting (PM) 12 December 1997

ANNEX VIII

Vote on United Nations and Human Rights

The draft resolution on strengthening of United Nations action in the field of human rights through the promotion of international cooperation and the importance of non-selectivity, impartiality and objectivity (document A/52/644/Add.2-XIII) was approved by a recorded vote of 116 in favour to 2 against, with 50 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darssalam, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Cote D'Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Russian Federation, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Against: Israel, United States.

Abstaining: Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Federated States of Micronesia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein,l Lithuania, Luxembourg, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Repepublic of Moldova, Romania, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Spain, Sweden, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Ukraine, United Kingdom.

Absent: Azerbaijan, Burundi, Cambodia, Democatic People's Republic of Korea, Palau, Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, Uzbekistan.

(END OF ANNEX VIII)

General Assembly Plenary 51 Press Release GA/9380 70th Meeting (PM) 12 December 1997

ANNEX IX

Vote on Human Rights and Terrorism

The draft resolution on human rights and terrorism (document A/52/644/Add.2-XV) was approved by a recorded vote of 115 in favour to none against, with 57 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, China, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Cote D'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democatic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Georgia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Republic of the Congo, Russian Federation, St Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tajikstan, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Against: None

Abstaining: Andorra, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malawi, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mexico, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Samoa, San Marino, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Spain, Sweden, Syria, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu.

Absent: Burundi, Cambodia, Palau, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles.

(END OF ANNEX IX)

General Assembly Plenary 52 Press Release GA/9380 70th Meeting (PM) 12 December 1997

ANNEX X

Vote on Right to Development

The draft resolution on the right to development (document A/52/644/Add.2-XVIII) was approved by a recorded vote of 129 in favour to 12 against, with 32 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Republic of Moldova, Republic of the Congo, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Against: Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States.

Abstain: Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Federated States of Micronesia, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Monaco, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan.

Absent: Cambodia, Ghana, Palau, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles.

(END OF ANNEX X)

General Assembly Plenary 53 Press Release GA/9380 70th Meeting (PM) 12 December 1997

ANNEX XI

Vote on Human Rights in Kosovo

The draft resolution on human rights in Kosovo (document A/52/644/Add.3- III) was approved by a recorded vote of 106 in favour to 2 against, with 56 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, Comoros, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Samoa, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu.

Against: India, Russian Federation.

Abstain: Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Belarus, Bhutan, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, China, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Israel, Jamaica, Kenya, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Singapore, Slovakia, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Venezuela, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Absent: Armenia, Cambodia, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Dominica, Georgia, Madagascar, Palau, Republic of the Congo, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, Syria, Turkmenistan, Viet Nam, Yemen.

(END OF ANNEX XI)

General Assembly Plenary 54 Press Release GA/9380 70th Meeting (PM) 12 December 1997

ANNEX XII

Vote on Human Rights in Sudan

The draft resolution on human rights in the Sudan (document A/52/644/Add.3-IV) was approved by a recorded vote of 93 in favour to 16 against, with 58 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Albania, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Federated States of Micronesia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Namibia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Samoa, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Tajikistan, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Zimbabwe.

Against: Afghanistan, China, Comoros, Cuba, India, Indonesia, Iran, Libya, Myanmar, Nigeria, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Viet Nam.

Abstain: Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Gabon, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Oman, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Republic of the Congo, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia.

Absent: Azerbaijan, Cambodia, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Djibouti, Madagascar, Malawi, Palau, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, Turkey, Yemen.

(END OF ANNEX XII)

General Assembly Plenary 55 Press Release GA/9380 70th Meeting (PM) 12 December 1997

ANNEX XIII

Vote on Human Rights in Iraq

The draft resolution on human rights in Iraq (document A/52/644/Add.3-V) was approved by a recorded vote of 99 in favour to 3 against, with 60 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Albania, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Ethiopia, Federated States of Micronesia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malawi, Maldives, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Samoa, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Swaziland, Sweden, Tajikistan, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Zambia.

Against: Libya, Nigeria, Sudan.

Abstain: Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, China, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Fiji, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Saint Lucia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Syria, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, Zimbabwe.

Absent: Afghanistan, Cambodia, Comoros, Djibouti, Gabon, Iran, Madagascar, Oman, Palau, Qatar, Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, Yemen.

(END OF ANNEX XIII)

General Assembly Plenary 56 Press Release GA/9380 70th Meeting (PM) 12 December 1997

ANNEX XIV

Vote on Human Rights in Iran

The draft resolution on human rights in Iran (document A/52/644/Add.3-VI) was approved by a recorded vote of 74 in favour to 32 against, with 56 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Algeria, Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Ethiopia, Federated States of Micronesia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Samoa, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Spain, Sweden, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Zambia.

Against: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam, China, Comoros, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Viet Nam, Zimbabwe.

Abstain: Albania, Angola, Bahrain, Belarus, Benin, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Fiji, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Senegal, Singapore, South Africa, Suriname, Swaziland, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania.

Absent: Cambodia, Djibouti, Dominica, Gabon, Georgia, Madagascar, Malawi, Morocco, Palau, Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Yemen.

(END OF ANNEX XIV)

General Assembly Plenary 57 Press Release GA/9380 70th Meeting (PM) 12 December 1997

ANNEX XV

Vote on Human Rights in Cuba

The draft resolution on human rights in Cuba (document A/52/644/Add.3-VII) was approved by a recorded vote of 64 in favour to 29 against, with 75 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Albania, Andorra, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, El Salvador, Estonia, Federated States of Micronesia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Samoa, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Spain, Sweden, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu.

Against: Angola, Belarus, Benin, Burundi, China, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Iran, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lesotho, Libya, Myanmar, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, South Africa, Sudan, Syria, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Abstain: Algeria, Antigua and Barbuda, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Bhutan, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Colombia, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Lebanon, Liberia, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Oman, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Republic of the Congo, Russian Federation, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, Venezuela.

Absent: Afghanistan, Cambodia, Djibouti, Madagascar, Palau, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, Turkmenistan, Yemen.

(END OF ANNEX XV)

General Assembly Plenary 58 Press Release GA/9380 70th Meeting (PM) 12 December 1997

ANNEX XVI

Vote on Human Rights in Nigeria

The draft resolution on human rights in Nigeria (document A/52/644/Add.3-VIII) was approved by a recorded vote of 81 in favour to 18 against, with 64 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Albania, Andorra, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Federated States of Micronesia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malawi, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Monaco, Mongolia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Samoa, San Marino, Saudi Arabia Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Tajikistan, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Trinidad and Tobago, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Zimbabwe.

Against: Benin, Chad, China, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Iran, Liberia, Libya, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Swaziland, Syria, Togo.

Abstain: Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Botswana, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Colombia, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominica, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Qatar, Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Thailand, Tunisia, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, Zambia.

Absent: Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Belize, Cambodia, Djibouti, Lesotho, Madagascar, Maldives, Oman, Palau, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Yemen.

(END OF ANNEX XVI)

General Assembly Plenary 59 Press Release GA/9380 70th Meeting (PM) 12 December 1997

ANNEX XVII

Vote on Human Rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Yugoslavia

The draft resolution on human rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (document A/52/644/Add.3-XI) was approved by a recorded vote of 133 in favour to 2 against, with 27 abstentions, as follows:

In favour: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, Federated States of Micronesia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Samoa, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Syria, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela.

Against: Belarus, Russian Federation.

Abstain: Angola, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, China, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Ghana, India, Kenya, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Liberia, Namibia, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zimbabwe.

Absent: Armenia, Cambodia, Chad, Madagascar, Palau, Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia.

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