The time had come to say "enough is enough" to the "scheming, selfishness, greed and self-aggrandizement" which had stymied the peace process in Angola, the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Zimbabwe, Stanislaus I.G. Mudenge, told the Security Council this morning, as it met to consider the situation in Angola.
The first of 35 speakers, the Foreign Minister was also speaking as Chairman of the Ministerial delegation of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Summit of 2 October, dispatched to participate in today's debate. The delegation also included the Foreign Ministers of Angola, Mozambique and Botswana.
He told the Council that it must salvage the peace process and restore the credibility of the United Nations in a clear and decisive manner. He proposed that if the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) did not comply with its commitments under the Lusaka Protocol, all its bank accounts should be frozen, its offices should be closed and no new ones should be allowed to be opened. Further, UNITA leaders and personnel should be denied visas, and trips to Bailundo and Andula should only be allowed for peace process-related missions. Those measures should come into force within 30 days of a Council resolution, unless the Secretary-General reported UNITA's full compliance with its obligations, he said.
The Minister for External Affairs of Angola, Venancio de Moura, called on the Council to apply the sanctions contained in Security Council resolution 864 (1993) to compel UNITA to carry out its commitments under the Lusaka Protocol. Only by taking a firm stand and exerting effective pressure could the international community force UNITA and its leader to abide by Council decisions, he said.
Other speakers expressed concern over the absence of UNITA's leader, Jonas Savimbi, from the SADC Summit and called on him to meet soon with the
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President of Angola to overcome the remaining obstacles to the peace process. They also called on UNITA to end its procrastination regarding: the quartering of its troops; the return of its members to the National Assembly; the return of general officers to the Angolan armed forces; the selection of UNITA troops for incorporation into the armed forces; and the re-establishment of government administration in areas occupied by UNITA.
Regarding the United Nation Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III), whose mandate expires 11 October, a number of speakers agreed with the Secretary-General's recommendation that the Council consider only a short extension of the Mission's mandate until 11 December. They also demanded that UNITA cease its attacks on UNAVEM III personnel.
The Foreign Ministers of Mozambique and Botswana also addressed the Council in today's debate.
Statements were made by the representatives of the United States, China, Indonesia, Italy, Guinea-Bissau, Germany, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, United Kingdom, Egypt, France, Chile, Poland, Honduras, Portugal, Nigeria, Zambia, Tunisia, Ireland (on behalf of the European Union and associated States), India, Malaysia, Algeria, Brazil, Cape Verde, Costa Rica, Malawi, Nicaragua, Burundi, Cuba, Mali and Lesotho.
The meeting, which began at 11:03 a.m., adjourned at 5:35 p.m.
Council Work Programme
The Security Council meets this morning to consider the situation in Angola.
In a report before the Council (document S/1996/827), the Secretary- General states that "unless serious progress is made in several key areas before the expiration of the current mandate of the United Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III) on 11 October", the Council should consider only a short extension of the mandate, perhaps until 11 December. It would then review the situation and respond to continuing delays, especially by the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), in the implementation of the peace process. If commitments are honoured in the next few days, in particular the arrival of all UNITA generals in Luanda and acceleration of the selection of UNITA soldiers for the national army, the Council could consider a longer extension of the mandate.
Should the Council decide to extend the mandate of UNAVEM III, which is the largest contingent of United Nations peace-keeping forces, the cost of maintaining the Mission during the extension period will be within the monthly rate of $28,186,410 gross ($27,664,010 net), the Secretary-General says. As at 23 September 1996, unpaid assessed contributions to the UNAVEM special account since the Mission's inception amounted to $151.3 million.
In view of the scheduled end of the mandate of UNAVEM III on 8 February 1997, the plans for its drawdown are being finalized, the report states. It should still be possible for the Mission to fulfil most of its mandated tasks by February 1997. Some infantry and support units are expected to be downsized by the end of December 1996. The Secretary-General says that in his next report he will present a detailed schedule for the drawdown, as well as recommendations regarding the future role of the United Nations in Angola.
Expressing concern over the lack of progress in the peace process, the Secretary-General says that continuing delays and unfulfilled promises, particularly on the part of UNITA, are no longer acceptable. It has become increasingly difficult to generate international support for operations which do not enjoy the full cooperation of the conflicting parties.
According to the report, which was submitted pursuant to Council resolution 1064 (1996), UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi's failure to attend the summit of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) on 2 October caused him to miss an opportunity to meet on Angolan soil with the Angolan President to resolve key outstanding issues. It is hoped that such a meeting can be held in the near future. If UNITA genuinely feels that Mr. Savimbi cannot assume a vice-presidential post, the Secretary-General says, it must make a meaningful counter-proposal. The UNITA must also ensure the earliest arrival in Luanda of all its generals for integration into the Angolan Armed
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Forces (FAA), the return of deserters to quartering areas, and expeditious selection of its soldiers for incorporation in the FAA. Those, and other pressing tasks, must be accomplished urgently according to a precise calendar.
Regarding the quartering of UNITA troops, the report states that while 63,189 personnel have been registered in the 15 quartering areas, the number of desertions have now reached 11,500.
The report goes on to say that, to support the demobilization of approximately 100,000 ex-combatants, the humanitarian community will have to increase its activities and donors will need to come forward with additional resources. Only 27.4 per cent of the costs of the demobilization and reintegration programmes are currently covered. The Secretary-General strongly urges the donor community to provide the required assistance.
The Secretary-General says that, despite the cease-fire, UNITA has engaged in hostile acts against the Mission, including the detention of a UNAVEM III helicopter and its crew, temporarily preventing a United Nations aircraft from leaving Bailundo and denying permission for another to conduct investigation activities. "These actions deserve strong condemnation", he stresses.
While much progress has been achieved in demining activities, the casualties caused by anti-personnel mines in Angola continue unabated, he goes on. Demining operations in some provinces were still hindered by UNITA restrictions. The UNITA must immediately desist from such practices and allow demining activities to proceed as mandated. The overall programme of strengthening the national capacity to take over demining operations has fallen behind schedule owing to poor cooperation of the parties and shortage of adequate equipment and demining supervisors. At the same time, the United Nations has stepped up road rehabilitation and bridge reconstruction. The Secretary-General suggests that the bridges should be left in place as a contribution to the economic rehabilitation of Angola.
Together with the UNAVEM III human rights unit, the civilian police component has monitored and investigated alleged abuses of human rights, reports of which have increased in recent months, says the Secretary-General. In August, a series of security incidents involving humanitarian organizations and, in particular, the arrest and harassment of humanitarian personnel, resulted in the loss of material and equipment designated for populations in need. That trend has led to a decrease of humanitarian activities in some areas.
According to the report, Angola continues to face a critical economic situation. The Government intends to control the prices of staple commodities and all importation has to be made under strict government licensing and subject to fixed foreign currency exchange ceilings. The Government has
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neither indicated the duration of its current policy nor articulated medium- term or long-term economic goals. Bilateral donors and international development agencies continue to be cautious about committing funds.
Also before the Council is a message dated 5 September from the Minister for External Relations of Angola addressed to the Secretary-General and to the President of the Council. He requests that the Council cut the UNITA support mechanisms; apply those sanctions imposed by and approved in its own resolutions; freeze all UNITA bank accounts; order the closing of all UNITA offices in all Member States, wherever they may exist; prohibit the issuance of passports and visas by States Members of the United Nations; and prevent UNITA leaders from staying and travelling in the territory of States Members of the United Nations (document S/1996/822).
The message, which is contained in a letter from the Permanent Representative of Angola to the Secretary-General and to the Council President, says further that the Council must be firm in its warnings, as well as in the application of sanctions against those States Members of the United Nations which are neighbours of Angola and which grant landing and other facilities to aircraft carrying and introducing weapons and various logistic military equipment in Angola for UNITA. It should cut UNITA's communications with the world. Finally, trips by officers from Member States to Bailundo or Andulo (except for those directly involved in the peace process) should be limited in order to avoid giving the impression of the existence of two capital cities in Angola, not to mention to avoid facilitating and encouraging one of Mr. Savimbi's claims: "the split of the country into north and south".
STANISLAUS I.G. MUDENGE, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Zimbabwe, said that on 2 October, the heads of State and government of the SADC Organ on Politics, Defence and Security invited the UNITA leader, Jonas Savimbi, to apprise them on why he was not honouring his commitments under the Lusaka Protocol. Regrettably, Mr. Savimbi had "decided at the last moment not to turn up". Angola was no nearer to peace today than it had been the last time that the Council considered the situation there. "Scheming, selfishness, greed and self-aggrandizement have stymied the peace process", he said.
UNITA's non-compliance with its obligations had plunged Angola into a crisis of "no peace, no war", he said. Over the past three months, the Government of Angola had continued withdrawing its armed forces from forward positions, adopted the National Programme for Demobilization and Reintegration of Ex-Combatants and, ahead of schedule, launched the programme for the disarmament of the civilian population. During that same time, UNITA had obstructed the deployment of UNAVEM III and impeded the extension of State administration throughout the country, as provided for in the Lusaka Protocol. UNITA's procrastination had also stymied the formation of the unified Angolan
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Armed Forces. "The time has come to say enough is enough", he said. "Recalcitrance and obstinacy should not be tolerated or, worse still, rewarded."
It was now time for the Security Council to exercise its authority in a clear and decisive manner to salvage the Angola peace process and restore the credibility of the United Nations, he said. The Council must send the message to Angola that "the game is over". Should UNITA not comply with its commitments, all UNITA bank accounts should be frozen, its offices should be closed and no new ones should be allowed to be opened. Further, UNITA leaders and personnel should be denied visas, and trips to Bailundo and Andulo should only be allowed for peace process-related missions. Those measures should come into force within 30 days of a Council resolution, unless the Secretary- General reports UNITA's full compliance with its obligations.
VENANCIO DE MOURA, Minister for External Relations of Angola, said that progress in the peace process in Angola made since June regrettably had been limited and insignificant. The delays had raised questions and doubts and also undermined the confidence that had been gained. Despite the many initiatives taken by the Angolan Government to keep the process on track, the current juncture in Angola was fraught with a serious crisis of confidence caused by the systematic delays of UNITA.
The fundamental measures postponed, he said, included: the return of UNITA members to the National Assembly, which they had left in 1992; the return of the total number of general officers to the FAA; the completion of the selection process of a total of 26,300 UNITA military troops for induction into the FAA; the re-establishment of governmental administration given the continued illegal occupation of certain areas of the national territory; and the unimpeded circulation of goods and persons in the areas under UNITA control.
He said the Government had already fulfilled all its duties envisaged in the Lusaka Protocol, except those related to the disarming of the civilian population. Those tasks could not be accomplished unless State administration was restored in the areas now under UNITA control.
Continuing, he said Mr. Savimbi, the leader of UNITA, had been invited to occupy one of the two vice-presidencies of the Republic. That position carried executive responsibilities defined under the Constitution, which would represent far more than the simple "special status" contained in the Lusaka Protocol, one of the frequent complaints lodged by the leader of UNITA. Moreover, the refusal of the UNITA leader to take part in the SADC political, defence and security organ summit meeting of heads of State was clear evidence that his designs differed from those of the Government and the international community. The UNITA's position was designed to delay the completion of the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol to make it impossible for the State to carry out its functions and to aggravate the social and economic situation of the population and the country.
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It was time, he said, to exert greater pressure, to compel UNITA to carry out in good faith those tasks still pending completion in the Lusaka Protocol. Security Council resolution 864 (1993), providing for the application of sanctions against UNITA, had never been fully applied. He called on the Council to apply the second package of sanctions under paragraph 26 of Council resolution 864 (1993). Only by taking a firm stand and by exerting effective pressure could UNITA and its leader be forced to abide by Council decisions.
He said the Angolan Government remained seriously committed to the search for a negotiated settlement that would lead to the restoration of peace and national reconciliation. However, it would never renounce its responsibilities to preserve domestic order and to protect the vital interests of Angola. LEONARDO SANTOS SIMAO, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of Mozambique, commended the fact that a cease-fire was still holding throughout Angola, despite several violations. His Government, however, was concerned at the slow pace of implementation of major provisions of the Lusaka Protocol, particularly as regards the quartering of UNITA troops, the formation of the Angolan Armed Forces, demobilization and socio-economic reintegration of the former soldiers. The low quality of weapons and ammunition surrendered by UNITA to UNAVEM III must be addressed. That fact, coupled with the discrepancy between the number of troops initially declared by UNITA and those that had actually registered in assembly areas, caused serious doubts about the intentions of UNITA as regards the peace process.
The recent summit meeting of the SADC Organ on Politics, Defence and Security, held in Luanda, had expressed deep regret over the absence of Mr. Savimbi from the meeting and had strongly appealed to UNITA to fulfil its commitments within the deadline established by the Lusaka Protocol and by Security Council resolution 864 (1993). Peace in Angola was vital to enable the people and the Government of Angola to play a role in national reconstruction and development, as well as in the search for solutions to other African conflicts. Instability in Angola hindered regional efforts aimed at creating a favourable investment climate. In order to ensure implementation of the peace accords and of resolutions of the Security Council, the Council should send a strong and clear message to UNITA urging it to comply with its commitments.
MOMPATI S. MERAFHE, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Botswana, said that UNITA's persistent obstruction of the activities of UNAVEM III cast a shadow of doubt on UNITA's will to peace. The atmosphere of trust and mutual confidence between the Government of Angola and UNITA, which had been nurtured with the help of UNAVEM III and was vital to the implementation of the peace process, was being undermined. UNITA's decision to reject the Government's offer to Mr. Savimbi of one of the posts of Vice-President was deeply regrettable.
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He encouraged the Government of Angola and UNITA to hold high-level talks aimed at resolving the outstanding issues and putting the peace process back on track. The heads of State and government of southern Africa were prepared to play a constructive role in the search for a lasting solution to the political crisis in Angola, and he hoped that Mr. Savimbi would attend the next meeting of the SADC on the situation in Angola.
He said UNAVEM's failure to discharge its mandate in Angola would have far-reaching consequences not only for Angola, but also for the whole SADC region. The international community could not afford to allow the enormous resources expended in the operation to go to waste. The Council should, therefore, be prepared to impose on UNITA the measures set out in resolution 864 (1993) and call for the vigorous and strict implementation of the measures outlined in Part B of the same resolution.
KARL F. INDERFURTH (United States) said it was time for UNITA to act boldly, to take the remaining steps towards compliance. It was also incumbent on the Government of Angola to foster the conditions for that to take place by putting aside past differences and making use of the vast resources of talent being provided by UNITA. He expressed impatience with the standstill in the process. Now, the time had come to speak more strongly, to help a friend make the best decision. The United States strongly urged UNITA to avail itself of the security of the few remaining months of UNAVEM's mission to complete rapidly its commitments.
If UNITA could make those efforts and the Government of Angola could honour its agreement to welcome UNITA's reintegration, he said, then the United States and other members of the international community would be prepared to offer continuing assistance in rebuilding Angola. In the past year, the United States had provided more than $100 million in assistance to Angola. The continued commitment of the United States to the success of the peace process was evidenced by the fact that the Secretary of State would visit Luanda next week, he said. He hoped his visit would add to the impetus already provided by the SADC Summit to reinvigorate the peace process and to the work of the Angolan people to build the new Angola.
QIN HUASUN (China) said that the Security Council should support and assist African States in their efforts to resolve regional problems. Like the SADC countries, China was deeply disturbed by the impasse in which the Angolan peace process found itself. Almost two years after the signing of the Lusaka Protocol, work in key areas remained incomplete. The UNITA had delayed participating in the formation of a government of national unity and unified armed forces. China was especially concerned at the rejection by UNITA of the Vice-Presidency of Angola offered to Mr. Savimbi in a government of national unity. China also regretted that Mr. Savimbi had chosen not to attend the SADC Summit held early this month.
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Angola was the last "hot spot" in southern Africa, he said. The UNAVEM III, the largest peace-keeping operation of the United Nations today, had made positive efforts and important contributions to monitoring the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol. Whether UNAVEM III could complete its mandate by February next year would depend on whether the two parties, especially UNITA, fully cooperated with it. China was ready to favourably consider a further extension of the UNAVEM III mandate. The parties should redouble their efforts for peace.
NUGROHO WISNUMURTI (Indonesia) said that the lack of progress in the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol had made the work of UNAVEM III more difficult. He was concerned over delays in the quartering of UNITA troops, the transfer of UNITA officers to the new national army, the quantities of weapons turned over by UNITA to UNAVEM III, and the positioning of armed UNITA police. The international community had invested a great deal in the promotion of peace and national reconciliation in Angola. While the cease- fire was holding, it had been broken in diamond-producing provinces.
The continuation of the practice of placing new mines -- a scourge in Angola -- was threatening the capacities and personnel of UNAVEM III, he continued. Restrictions placed on UNAVEM mine-removal operations by UNITA were unacceptable. Mines were impeding the return of displaced persons and interfering with the growing season in agricultural districts. The goal of national reconciliation in Angola would not be easy to obtain. Indonesia hoped to see serious efforts at disarming and reintegrating soldiers into national life.
Angola had been ravaged by civil war for more than two decades, he said. The parties must commit to national reconciliation. The international community should support the mediating efforts of the SADC governments. Mr. Savimbi should demonstrate his good faith by participating in the upcoming summit meeting of those States. President Dos Santos and Mr. Savimbi should meet to resolve outstanding issues, including constitutional questions. Indonesia would support extending for a short term the mandate for UNAVEM III.
FRANCESCO PAOLO FULCI (Italy) said Mr. Savimbi's non-participation in the SADC summit was very upsetting, in view of the fact that many eminent heads of State of the region were in attendance. Angola's internal crisis was having a negative impact on the security, stability and economies not only of the neighbouring countries, but also of many others in the area. Major efforts were under way, especially within the framework of the SADC to stimulate economic development in the region. Those efforts would be helped by the restoration of peace in Angola.
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Italy had never ceased to assist Angola, even when security conditions had proved hazardous for Italian non-governmental organizations, he said. The Italian Government was one of the major donors in the European Union's emergency assistance programme and, in the past five years, Italy's donations had amounted to a total of approximately $110 million. For 1996, Italy had allotted $13 million for food aid and emergency assistance activities, including demobilization. Finally, a team of Italian instructors was participating in the mine-removal activities in Angola.
He had been informed of recent initiatives by UNITA that seemed to indicate a greater willingness to respect its commitments, he said. "Whenever the UNAVEM III mandate is about to expire, assurances of goodwill are made, but afterward nothing comes of them", he said. If the parties -- first and foremost UNITA -- did not face up to their commitments to complete the military aspects of the Lusaka Protocol immediately, without further delays and procrastination, they must understand that the entire peace process, as well as the commitment of the international community, would be in danger. "Our patience is running out", he said.
ALFREDO LOPES CABRAL (Guinea-Bissau) said that, for the past three months, little progress had been made in implementing the Lusaka Protocol, particularly in the integration of UNITA elements into the Government. The war in Angola had caused hundreds of thousands of casualties. Many attempts at national reconciliation had been attempted. Those efforts had unfortunately been characterized by unfulfilled commitments. Only dialogue could lead Angola down the path of peace. The interest of the people of Angola must be paramount in the minds of the parties in the course of their negotiations. The agreed-upon timetables must be fulfilled in all their aspects.
The Angolan parties -- particularly UNITA -- must make concrete acts towards the achievement of peace, he continued. His Government deplored the slow implementation of the military aspects of the Lusaka Protocol. Quartering of troops and unification of the FAA must proceed. That effort would necessarily include the posting of UNITA generals with those forces. The international community had an essential role in the peace process. The United Nations presence in Angola represented a considerable investment. That effort could only be justified by the commitment of the parties to peace. The peace process was in a crucial phase and should be concluded as soon as possible. The UNITA should commit to national reconciliation in a resolute manner.
TONO EITEL (Germany) said that the lack of progress in implementing provisions of the Lusaka Protocol had been disappointing. Continuing delays, particularly on the part of UNITA, were no longer acceptable. UNITA should implement all aspects of the Protocol without further delay. The four remaining UNITA generals should be sent to Luanda to take up positions in the
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FAA command, the selection of UNITA soldiers for incorporation into the armed forces should be completed, and the quartering process of UNITA soldiers and the handing over of all weapons must be completed and declared to by UNITA. The flow of deserters from quartering areas must be stemmed and those who had deserted must return.
He hoped to see progress in efforts to determine the special status of the UNITA President, extend State administration to the whole territory of Angola, have seats reserved for the UNITA members of Parliament occupied, and build a government of national unity and reconciliation. His country was paying particular attention to the problem of land-mines in Angola. The fight against anti-personnel mines was one of his Government's political priorities. German demining experts had cleared 4,000 kilometres of roads in cooperation with the United Nations-contracted demining company.
He welcomed the draft resolution that had been prepared by observer States in consultation with SADC member States as a good basis for the work of the Council.
PARK SOO GIL (Republic of Korea) said his Government shared the frustration and disappointment over the slow progress in implementation of the Lusaka Protocol. Indeed, the Angolan peace process had stalled since the last extension of the UNAVEM III mandate three months ago. The current delay in the peace process was largely attributable to UNITA's failure to honour its commitments. He was disappointed that UNITA had not taken the necessary decisions to facilitate the settlement of outstanding issues. The subsequent failure by Mr. Savimbi to attend the SADC summit meeting on the ground of "political conditions" had only reinforced the international community's doubts about the credibility of UNITA's commitment to the peace process.
It was time to send an unequivocal message to UNITA that the Council's patience was not unlimited, and that any further procrastination by UNITA would no longer be tolerated, he said. He favoured the application of additional measures if UNITA failed to comply with its obligations within a prescribed time-frame. He called on UNITA to fulfil its obligation without delay. The speed and sincerity with which UNITA cooperated would test the credibility of UNITA's continued commitment to the peace process. The lack of mutual trust and confidence between President Dos Santos and Mr. Savimbi lay at the heart of the stall in the peace process. For that reason, he attached great importance to an early meeting between the two leaders in Angola and look forward to an expeditious settlement of all outstanding issues in the meeting, including the special status of Mr. Savimbi. The international community must make one last-ditch effort to revive the momentum of the peace process and ensure its successful completion by putting maximum pressure on the parties, as well as by assisting in the rehabilitation and reconstruction of Angola.
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SERGEY LAVROV (Russian Federation) said that as a member of the troika of observers in Angola, he was closely following events in that country. Unfortunately, many key aspects of the Lusaka Protocol had been stalled, notably the establishment of a government of national reconciliation, a single parliament and a unified armed forces. The leadership of UNITA was evading compliance with its commitments. That behaviour undermined the peace process and was unacceptable. The time had come for the Security Council to send UNITA a message. Any draft resolution to be adopted by the Council should contain a specific time-frame and should give a new impetus to the peace process. It should also warn UNITA that undermining that time-frame could lead the Security Council to reconsider sanctions.
The proposal of the Secretary-General that the UNAVEM III mandate be extended for only two months was of great interest. His Government looked forward to the Secretary-General's recommendations concerning the phased downsizing of the Mission.
JOHN WESTON (United Kingdom) said that the lack of progress made in implementation of the Lusaka Protocol had cast doubt on the willingness of UNITA to abide by its commitments to the peace process. The integration of the armed forces, the granting of a special status to Mr. Savimbi, the return of all nine UNITA generals to posts in Luanda and the return of UNITA deputies to the National Assembly should have been resolved by now. While UNITA had quartered in excess of 62,000 troops, the high level of desertions was worrying. The UNITA should ensure the immediate return of troops already registered at quartering sites. The process for selecting UNITA troops to be integrated into the Angolan armed forces should be accelerated.
The UNAVEM III must be able to count on the support of the parties to conduct its work, he said. The parties should cooperate with mine clearance. Restrictions of UNAVEM III and humanitarian de-mining operations were unacceptable. A new spirit of cooperation and mutual trust between the parties was essential for the final phase of the peace process. The United Kingdom agreed with the Secretary-General that the mandate of UNAVEM III should be extended only until 11 December.
NABIL A. ELARABY (Egypt) said he was disappointed by the lack of implementation of the Lusaka Protocol, which was due to UNITA's procrastination. Full implementation was the linchpin for any accord. The commitments of the two parties of Angola were clear and unambiguous. The Angolan Government was honouring its commitments, but the established commitments of UNITA were not being fulfilled. Egypt welcomed the numerous positive steps taken by the Angolan Government. He urged it to continue along that path and to encourage the other party to emulate it.
The States of southern Africa had proven their ability to adopt a unified position, he said. That was an example to be followed all over the
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world. Similar attempts were being made in western and central Africa. The phenomena of the various States tackling regional problems deserved the Council's support. In particular, he called on the Council to support and encourage the efforts of the SADC and to adopt their draft resolution.
The UNITA must transform itself into a political party and refrain from all practices that would delay the peace process in Angola, he said. It was time for Africa to prove that its causes were not lost opportunities.
ALAIN DEJAMMET (France) said that the United Nations had played a crucial role in the positive changes seen in the southern African region over the past decade. He hoped that Angola was on the way to joining those States that had "turned a page" in their history. All hopes today were pinned on complete implementation of the Lusaka Protocol. The United Nations had deployed the largest peace-keeping mission currently under way in support of that effort. The Government of Angola had made praiseworthy efforts to implement the peace accords, but that attitude had not been embraced by UNITA. He called on UNITA to comply with the military obligations to which they had committed.
He hoped that President Dos Santos and Mr. Savimbi would agree to meet soon. His Government favoured the renewal -- for two months -- of the mandate of UNAVEM III, a Mission crucial to the maintenance of peace and security in Angola. The Security Council should also caution UNITA and carefully consider the suggestions made to it by the SADC governments regarding the possible reimposition of sanctions on UNITA. He would endorse any draft resolution on which the SADC governments were in agreement.
JUAN LARRAIN (Chile) said his Government was concerned by the rejection of the UNITA leader of one of two vice-presidential posts offered by President Dos Santos. In addition, UNITA's lack of response to proposals contained in the Document of Mediation reflected a contempt for the efforts of the Secretary-General and observer States. That document offered an opportunity to overcome obstacles to the peace process.
He said the Council must ensure that UNITA attended the SADC Summit meetings as well as meet with President Dos Santos. The process of demobilization required additional financing, and if new contributions were not received, the process would be paralysed. The international community must call for a demonstration of political will to the implementation of the peace process in Angola. The economic and social challenges in Angola required the efforts of all its people.
ZBIGNIEW M. WLOSOWICZ (Poland), said his Government was not satisfied with the situation in Angola. UNITA's record of reneging on its own commitments and blocking the process of national reconciliation indeed deserved disapproval. The stop and go tactics chosen by the UNITA leadership
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had to be clearly and unambiguously rejected. UNITA's action, apart from exposing the country to enormous risks, might also lead the international community to revise its involvement and its investments in the peace process in Angola.
Although the Council had made it clear that its patience was not inexhaustible, UNITA had largely ignored those signal. Nevertheless, there were circumstances which made further decisive progress in the Angolan peace process still possible, in particular, the parties' willingness to follow the political path of resolving the conflict and their intention to continue negotiations, although in UNITA's case those intentions were still to be finally materialized.
He said the activities of the SADC countries and their involvement in the Angolan peace process were a positive indication of regional engagement in promoting peace and national reconciliation in countries seized by internal conflicts, he added. In about 24 hours the Security Council would take up the issue of the extension of the UNAVEM III mandate. He supported the proposal to extend the operation's mandate by another two months on the assumption that the UNITA leadership would demonstrate its sincerity by fulfilling the long overdue obligations concerning the military aspects of the Lusaka Protocol.
GERARDO MARTINEZ BLANCO (Honduras) said that despite the efforts of the United Nations, the three observer States and the member States of the SADC to accelerate compliance with the terms of the Lusaka Protocol, there remained delays on the part of one of the parties. He was concerned over delays in the quartering and disarming of UNITA forces, their integration into the Angolan armed forces and the re-establishment of State administration throughout the country.
The situation in Angola remained discouraging, he continued. Until the parties, particularly UNITA, implemented the Lusaka Protocol and the resolutions of the Security Council, there would be no resolution of the crisis in that country. The parties should speedily comply with their obligations. The desire of the Government of Angola to reconcile outstanding problems through dialogue was commendable. The parties should meet soon to settle outstanding problems. The reconstruction of Angolan institutions, the rehabilitation of the economy and the re-integration of some 100,000 former combatants were essential prerequisites to a permanent resolution of the crisis in Angola. In that connection, UNAVEM III played an essential role. His Government would endorse an extension of that mandate.
The President suspended the meeting a 1:36 p.m.
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When the meeting resumed at 3:26 p.m., JOSE LAMEGO, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs of Portugal, said his Government was concerned by the absence of significant progress in the implementation of the peace process, due to the constant delays and unfulfilled promises. He urged UNITA to integrate into the national armed forces the last remaining group of its generals, as well as to increase the number of UNITA soldiers incorporated into the armed forces. Those steps must be followed by the completion of other tasks, as enumerated in the "mediation document". The UNITA must now demonstrated that it did not merely take measures on the eve of Security Council resolutions, but would fulfil their commitments at a steady pace.
He expressed concern over the increasing number of desertions in the quartering areas and reports that such desertions were not spontaneous, but occurred in an organized manner. He also urged UNITA to proceed with the return to the National Assembly of all elected deputies before the end of October. He underlined the importance and the legitimacy of the normal functioning of the bodies following the 1992 elections, until conditions were met for holding new elections in Angola. Until those conditions were met, the international community must continue to assist Angola. At the same time, the Angolan parties, ultimately responsible for the successful implementation of the peace process, must show clear signs that they were worthy of such assistance.
He said Portugal would continue to work closely with the partners in the troika of observer countries to make the Angolan peace process a reality, but the Government of Angola and UNITA bore ultimate responsibility for the success of the peace process. It was time for them, and especially UNITA, to show that they were willing to implement fully the peace accords and the Lusaka Protocol. At such a crucial stage, the Council should, in the absence of substantial progress in the remaining military and political issues to be resolved, be prepared to consider the imposition of measures. The implementation of such measures, however, should only be decided upon after a further evaluation of the situation by the Council following the next report of the Secretary-General.
IBRAHIM A. GAMBARI (Nigeria) said that for 20 years the civil war in Angola had caused thousands of deaths and sapped the energy from social and economic development. While Angola was one of the most well-endowed countries in the world, it was also one of its least developed. While the "peace dividends" of the end of the cold war had reached Namibia, Mozambique and South Africa, they had yet to be realized in Angola. While Angola did have a framework with which to peacefully resolve the crisis -- the Lusaka Protocol -- its implementation had been delayed by the intransigence of UNITA.
He said the Government of Angola had continued to "bend over backwards" to fulfil its side of the bargain. The UNITA, however, had failed to hand over its heavy weapons to UNAVEM III, had procrastinated on incorporating its
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troops into a unified armed forces of Angola, had obstructed the extension of State administration throughout the country, and had restricted UNAVEM III activities, including demining. He shared the disappointment of the SADC Organ on Politics, Defence and Security over the absence of Mr. Savimbi from its 2 October meeting. Further pressure should be brought to bear on UNITA to deliver on its commitments. Failure on the part of UNITA to respond would lead Nigeria to support the new and additional measures proposed by the SADC, including the implementation of the measures contained in section B of resolution 864 (1993). PETER L. KASANDA (Zambia) said his delegation shared the grave concerns over the critical situation in Angola. The international community, through the Security Council, should unequivocally urge the UNITA leadership to be more resolute in the implementation of the commitments made in the Lusaka Protocol. There must be a clear signal that failure by UNITA to honour those commitments would be considered a threat to the peace and security of Angola that could also undermine the work of UNAVEM III. The Council must enforce the measures contained in part B of resolution 864 (1993) to secure UNITA compliance in the Angolan peace process.
He said the issues that needed to be resolved to facilitate the Angolan peace process were not insurmountable, if the unreserved cooperation of UNITA could be secured. Despite the absence of Mr. Savimbi at the SADC summit, the leaders of southern Africa would continue their efforts to secure a durable peace in Angola. He hoped that Mr. Savimbi would not fail to attend future summits. Moreover, a meeting between President dos Santos and Mr. Savimbi was essential to reinvigorating the peace process under the terms of the Lusaka Protocol. Such a meeting would also go a long way in reinforcing order and stability in the country. He emphasized, in closing, that the UNITA leadership must take urgent measures to consolidate the peace process.
SLAHEDDINE ABDELLAH (Tunisia) said that the July 1996 meeting of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) in Cameroon had made clear the interest of African governments in a speedy resolution of the crisis in Angola. Unfortunately, implementation of the Lusaka Protocol had been delayed. The UNITA troops had not finished their quartering, and quartered soldiers had recently deserted. The prolongation of the quartering period was not conducive to the peace process.
The political will of the Angolan parties was a fundamental element of the peace process, he continued. He welcomed the efforts of the SADC countries in attempting to arrange for Mr. Savimbi and President dos Santos to participate in their summit. He regretted that Mr. Savimbi had decided not to take part. The UNITA must urgently demonstrate a sincere willingness to fulfil its commitments by dispatching its generals and troops to join the unified national army. A new meeting of Mr. Savimbi and President dos Santos could only restore the Lusaka Protocol process. The Council should take measures to ensure that the parties adhere to their obligations.
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JOHN H.F. CAMPBELL (Ireland), speaking on behalf of the member States of the European Union and associated States, said that the Lusaka Protocol and the establishment of UNAVEM III had given the Angolan people an opportunity to reclaim a society free from war. All provisions of the Lusaka Protocol and Security Council resolutions should be honoured. The European Union reminded UNITA that the quartering of troops, their demobilization and disarmament, and the formation of a unified Angolan armed forces were crucial components of the peace process and must be adhered to in full.
No effort should be spared to ensure the early formation of a government of national unity and reconciliation, he said. The UNITA and its leadership must respond to the demands of the Angolan people and of the international community to fulfil the terms of agreements into which they had freely entered. The European Union was deeply concerned about the continuing widespread presence of anti-personnel land-mines in Angola, and about the obstacles that UNITA had placed in the way of their clearance.
PRAKASH SHAH (India) said that dialogue between the parties in Angola was the best way to sort out the remaining political and military issues in the Angolan peace process. He regretted the non-participation by UNITA in the SADC summit and shared the Secretary-General's hope that a meeting between President dos Santos and Mr. Savimbi could be held in the near future. Angola not only required peace and stability, but also the support of the international community for its long-term socio-economic development. The financial commitment of $70 million by the Government of Angola needed to be supported by the donor community. The pledges made at the Brussels Round Table Conference in 1995 should be fulfilled.
He said India's commitment to peace and stability in Angola was demonstrated by its contribution of more than 1,100 troops to UNAVEM III. They had assisted in all aspects of implementation of the mandate. In addition, Indian troops had voluntarily shared their regular rations with the people of the areas where they had been stationed. The Council should convey the message that the international community's commitment to restore peace in Angola was firm. However, such a commitment required at least an equal response from the parties concerned. There must be a clear signal that the international community expected UNITA to fulfil all the commitments into which it had voluntarily entered. The Council must also take into account the proposals made by the SADC summit before arriving at any final decision.
ABDULLAH AHMAD (Malaysia) said that his Government called upon UNITA to move forward with the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol. The establishment of a government of national unity and reconciliation should remain the primary objective of the parties. Peace and normalcy could only return to Angola if the parties committed themselves to work towards national reconciliation. They should avoid mistrust and hostile propaganda, and work together to restore peace and security to their country. Since 1991, Malaysia
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had contributed military and civilian police personnel to the United Nations peace-keeping missions in Angola, he added.
ABDALLAH BAALI (Algeria) said that his Government supported the efforts of the SADC countries to bring their proposals to the Security Council. The positive developments of recent years had allowed for the signing of the Lusaka Protocol -- an agreement that offered a realistic hope for peace in Angola. Unfortunately, that accord was being jeopardized by uncertain political prospects.
The challenges facing the peace process now centred on the unwillingness of UNITA to adhere to their obligations under the Protocol and the resolutions of the Security Council, he said. He regretted that there was reluctance to keep the momentum of the peace process going. The United Nations had made substantial efforts to restore stability to the country. Tribute should be paid to UNAVEM III, in which his country had participated. The Lusaka Protocol had marked the end of a long process towards peace in Angola, and the Council should act with diligence and determination to restore that process.
CELSO AMORIM (Brazil) said his Government remained fully committed to the peace process in Angola. Its participation at the ministerial level at the signing of the Lusaka Protocol and as the largest troop contributor in UNAVEM III reflected a long-term commitment to Angola and its people. That commitment was based on common cultural and historical roots, as well as a desire to help end a conflict that had killed or maimed thousands of innocent people.
He said Brazil shared the frustration of the international community over the systematic procrastinations of one of the parties. The Council should consider seriously the SADC proposal that the Council adopt measures, "within the framework of resolution 864 (1993), which shall oblige UNITA to fully and urgently respect the deadlines established by the Security Council". The international community could not allow one party to persistently defy its appeals and the Council's own resolutions. Unless serious progress was made in several key areas in the short term, UNAVEM III would not be able to fulfil all the tasks assigned to it. The Council must adopt the appropriate steps to induce the reluctant party to listen to the voice of reason and to set the peace process back on track.
JOSE LUIS BARBOSA LEAO MONTEIRO (Cape Verde) said that, unfortunately, progress in the Angolan peace process had been slow, insufficient and fleeting. The parties must make up for the delays. Trust must be strengthened and allowed to flourish between the parties.
He compared the obvious delinquency of UNITA to the positive moves of the Government and said he hoped that an upcoming meeting between the two leaders of the parties would produce the decisions needed to implement the
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Lusaka Protocol. The international community must, however, be prepared for the worst. Demobilization and reintegration must be dealt with in a timely fashion. The return of refugees and displaced persons must also be addressed. Despite pledges of international support, the reality had been otherwise.
RODRIGO CARRERAS (Costa Rica) said that over the last decade Central America had suffered from anxieties brought on by age-old social and economic conflicts which had been exacerbated by the cold war. Central Americans had resorted to Esquipulas II, an accord designed to restore stability to the region. Angola, together with friendly neighbours and the United Nations, had similarly turned to a diplomatic resolution of its crisis. His country understood well the importance of the Angolan peace accords to that country's neighbours.
His Government was disappointed at the attitude of UNITA, as demonstrated by the failure of Mr. Savimbi to participate in the summit of the SADC governments. International pressure -- of friendly governments, the United Nations and the media -- was essential. That had been the experience in Central America. He urged UNITA to act decisively to fully implement the Lusaka Protocol.
DAVID RUBADIRI (Malawi) said he was disturbed by the gloomy picture emerging from Angola. The reluctance of Mr. Savimbi and UNITA to implement the Lusaka Protocol was disheartening to all in the region. Malawi subscribed fully to the communiqué issued at the conclusion of the SADC Summit. He regretted that Mr. Savimbi had failed to attend the Summit. He hoped the Council would take due account of the voices of concern and commitment to peace expressed in the communiqué. The Council needed to send a strong and clear message to UNITA that the international community would not tolerate any further intransigence. He repeated his Government's appeal to Mr. Savimbi to comply fully with the speedy implementation of the Lusaka Protocol. He urged the Council to remember the good work of the United Nations and all the humanitarian workers and to not allow Angola to recede in violence and despair. Angola was a jewel in the region of the SADC, a region that now was working hard to stand as an African example of peace, good governance and stability for development. Lasting peace in Angola would enable the region to realize its dream for peace and development as it approached the next century.
ALVARO SEVILLA SIERO (Nicaragua) said that his Government identified with the plight of the Angolan people. Just a few years ago, Nicaragua had been afflicted by serious political and military confrontation. A fratricidal war had destroyed the national economy and the Government had developed a large national army, the financing of which had a detrimental affect on other areas of government. National reconciliation had seemed a utopian dream. Nicaraguans had promoted national reconciliation with support from the region and from the international community.
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The people of Angola should likewise have faith in the peaceful resolution of disputes in that country, he said. His Government shared the scepticism of others regarding the extension of the UNAVEM III mandate, which was being brought about by the non-compliance with commitments freely entered into. But, the people of Angola were suffering the most and the sole option for Angola was peace and democracy.
NSANZE TERENCE (Burundi) said that despite the crisis in Burundi, his Government had closely followed the development of the situation in Angola. He praised the efforts of the Angolan President to alleviate the suffering of the Angolan people. His Government, which was also subject to armed rebellion, was disturbed by the delays and ambiguities of UNITA. Its actions might seriously jeopardize any chance of peace.
He disapproved of Mr. Savimbi's rejection of the post of vice-president. The UNITA should rapidly and scrupulously do its utmost to safeguard the process of peace and national reconciliation. The Council must compel all the signatories of the Lusaka Protocol to abide by their commitments. It must be more vigilant and put the peace process back on track.
He said Burundi drew inspiration from the people of Angola, as it had also been confronted with a civil war. It was essential to restore peace, and Burundi was making strides to meet with all factions. He had communicated to the United Nations that Burundi had completed implementation of the conditions necessary to lift the sanctions against it. The economic blockade was causing abominable suffering to the most vulnerable people in the country. Burundi was being penalized by a set of sanctions that were being imposed in the interests of a hidden agenda subscribed to by those interested in maintaining the status quo.
BRUNO RODRIGUEZ PARRILLA (Cuba) said that the position of the SADC Ministerial Group had been described by the Non-Aligned Movement countries yesterday. Cuba shared the concerns of Africa and of the international community over the situation in Angola. It had been unfortunate that Mr. Savimbi had not demonstrated the political will to address the situation in Angola within the context of the Lusaka Accord. The efforts of the Government of Angola to comply with the Protocol deserved recognition. The Government of Angola could not be put on an equal footing with UNITA.
The UNAVEM III was the largest peace-keeping operation in the world today, he said. The UNITA was jeopardizing its role and the peace process as a whole by refusing to comply with commitments freely entered into. The Security Council should objectively review the mandate of UNAVEM III. That mandate should not be continually extended if UNITA refused to contribute to its work. Cuba shared the concerns of the Secretary-General, particularly his recommendation regarding the extension of the mandate. Any delay or omission on the part of the Security Council would call into question its cohesiveness.
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MOCTAR OUANE (Mali) said that the peace process in Angola had been hindered by a certain lethargy. But a peace accord had seen signed and the cease-fire was holding. Angola was no longer suffering 1,000 deaths per day. Still, peace was more than the absence of war. The signatories to the Lusaka Protocol should deliver on their promises and comply in good faith with their obligations.
PERCY M. MANGOAELA (Lesotho) said the slow progress and apparent stalemate in the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol was of concern to his Government. The Council was the only international custodian of peace and security. Any initiative by the regional or continental organizations should not be construed as relieving the Council of its global responsibility. His Government had recently cautioned against regional selectivity in the attention the Council paid to international crises situations.
He urged the conflicting parties in Angola to comply with the provisions of the Lusaka Protocol and appealed to the international community to provide UNAVEM III with the necessary human, material and financial resources to carry out its mandate effectively. He also appealed to the donor community to provide the required support for demobilization and reintegration of ex-combatants and to fulfil pledges made at the 1995 Brussels Conference on Angola.
He said that, as UNAVEM III's mandate came to an end and considering UNITA's intransigence, the Council must adopt, as a matter of urgency, measures within the framework of resolution 864 (1993) to oblige UNITA to fully and urgently respect the deadlines established by the Council.
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