The Security Council this afternoon extended the mandate of the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III) until 11 October. It urged the Government of Angola and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) to move ahead with formation of a government of unity and national reconciliation and with the seating of all elected members of Parliament.
Through its unanimous adoption of resolution 1064 (1996), the Council urged both parties to take all necessary steps to complete the formation of the national armed forces, the planned movement of UNITA troops out of quartering areas, and the orderly transition of demobilized troops to civilian life. It also urged them to move constitutional issues forward in a spirit of national reconciliation, and to incorporate UNITA personnel into the State administration, Angolan Armed Forces and national police.
While acknowledging recent progress in the peace process, the Council expressed regret that implementation was still behind schedule. It encouraged Angolan President Jose Eduardo dos Santos and UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi to meet at the earliest opportunity, within Angola, to resolve their remaining differences.
The Council welcomed the progress made by the registration of over 52,000 UNITA troops in quartering areas and called on UNITA to complete the process. It also urged UNITA to hand over to UNAVEM III all arms, particularly heavy weapons, ammunition and military equipment, without which the quartering process would not be complete.
The Angolan Government was commended for the promulgation of its Amnesty Law, for the quartering of its rapid reaction police, and for the continuing withdrawal of its Armed Forces to barracks. It was urged to take the required corrective measures regarding those withdrawals, as agreed with UNAVEM.
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The Council reminded the parties to cease the dissemination of all hostile propaganda. The Government was urged to provide facilities for establishment of independent United Nations radio, while UNITA was urged to complete the transformation of its radio station Vorgan into a non-partisan station.
By other terms of the text, the Council demanded that all concerned take steps to ensure the safety of United Nations and other international personnel and premises, and to guarantee the safety and free movement of humanitarian supplies. It also condemned the use of mercenaries.
Member States were strongly urged to provide promptly the financial resources needed for the demobilization and social reintegration of ex- combatants. The international community was urged to speedily fulfil its pledges to aid in the rehabilitation and reconstruction of Angola's economy and the resettlement of displaced persons.
The Council also asked the Secretary-General to report by 1 October on progress made by the parties in meeting their agreed timetable, and to report by the third week of August on whether they had completed formation of the government of unity and national reconciliation. It reminded the parties that UNAVEM III is expected to complete its mission by February 1997.
Statements were made by the representatives of Angola, Portugal, Algeria, Malawi, Brazil, South Africa, United Republic of Tanzania, Tunisia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Cape Verde, Germany, Egypt, Botswana, Chile, Republic of Korea, China, Italy, Guinea-Bissau, Russian Federation, United Kingdom, Honduras, Indonesia, Poland, United States and France.
At the outset of the meeting, Council President Alain Dejammet (France) expressed the Council's deep sympathy to the Government and people of China for the loss of life and property suffered during the recent floods in that country.
The meeting, which was called to order at 3:45 p.m., was adjourned at 7 p.m.
The Security Council meets this afternoon to consider the situation in Angola. It has before it a 27 June report of the Secretary-General (document S/1996/503), in which he recommends the mandate of the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III) for a further three months, until 11 October. Stating that the coming weeks will be critical, he says the Angolan parties, especially the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), must implement their commitments in good time if the peace process is to succeed. The General Assembly has appropriated funds for maintenance of the Mission at a monthly rate of $28,186,410 gross ($27,664,010 net), should the Council decide to extend its mandate.
The parties have not fulfilled the time-frame agreed upon between Angolan President Jose Eduardo dos Santos and UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi at their Libreville meeting on 1 March, the report states. If the peace process is to retain credibility, urgent corrective action is required in a number of areas. These include the continuing delays in the quartering of UNITA troops, the high number of desertions from quartering areas, the unsatisfactory quality and quantity of weapons and ammunition handed over, the failure to quarter UNITA police personnel, and the incomplete withdrawal of the Angolan Armed Forces form forward positions.
Under a timetable agreed by the Angolan Government and UNITA, the quartering of all UNITA troops was to have been completed by the end of June, the report states. As at 25 June, 51,597 of a declared total of 62,500 UNITA troops had been registered in United Nations-run quartering areas and only 26,150 personal weapons and 3,368 crew-served weapons had been handed over. More than 18,000 troops have arrived in the camps without any weapon and only a very small quantity of ammunition has been brought in.
The UNITA has also not handed over any of its heavy weapons, rocket launchers, anti-aircraft artillery, armoured personnel carriers and tanks, communications and engineering equipment, or vehicles used for military purposes, the report states. Desertion from quartering areas continue, with more than 5,628 persons having left as at 25 June. Although the Angolan Armed Forces conducted the second phase of its troop withdrawals from forward positions, 14 of the 47 redeployments were determined by UNAVEM to have been unsatisfactory. The Angolan Armed Forces is being urged to take corrective steps immediately.
The picture is no more reassuring on the political front, the Secretary-General states. The parties have yet to take a number of steps towards the formation of the government of unity and national reconciliation. in particular, it was essential that the question of the post of Vice- President to be occupied by UNITA be expeditiously resolved. "If the peace
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process is to succeed, the parties, especially UNITA, must show greater readiness to implement, in good time, the commitments they have entered into. Unless they do so, the international community is unlikely to make similar efforts that are required of it also."
Although there has still been no progress towards the establishment of an independent United Nations radio, the Government has given additional time on the national radio and television to UNAVEM III, the report states. On the positive side, the framework agreement on military matters was adopted, an amnesty law was promulgated on 8 May, the incorporation of UNITA military personnel into the Angolan Armed Forces has begun, the quartering of the Government's rapid reaction police has been completed, and the Angolan Armed Forces have conducted the second phase of the withdrawal of their troops from forward positions.
The Secretary-General says the military environment in the country has remained calm and that only minor troop movement and skirmishes were reported during the period since 30 April. However, the marked increase in violent crime is causing serious concern. The law and order situation has become particularly precarious in the areas from which UNITA troops have been withdrawn. Measures must be taken to improve security in those areas, including extension of State administration there.
The general humanitarian situation is improving gradually, the report states. Despite lingering mistrust, joint teams of government and UNITA officials, with the participation of United Nations and non-governmental organizations, are expanding humanitarian activities throughout the country. However, restrictions on the free circulation of people and goods in some areas continue to be a matter of concern. With respect to the observance of human rights, both the Government and UNITA have promised to cooperate fully with UNAVEM's investigations.
The Secretary-General says careful consideration must be given to future plans for those UNITA troops who will not be selected for service in the Angolan Armed Forces or the national police. The creation of reconstruction teams could become an important means of promoting social reintegration and overall economic rehabilitation. Noting that only $10 million of the $42 million required for the first year of demobilization and social reintegration has been received to date, the Secretary-General urges the donor community to fulfil the pledges made at the Round Table Conference in Brussels in September 1995.
The UNAVEM III has become the largest peace-keeping operation of the United Nations, the report states. As the February 1997 target for completion of the operation approaches, the Secretary-General has initiated contingency planning for the phased downsizing of its military component. That would be
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carried out as soon as the quartering process has been successfully concluded and the process of incorporating UNITA troops into the Angolan Armed Forces and forming the unified armed forces has reached an advanced stage. Specific recommendations on the matter will be submitted by the Secretary-General in a forthcoming report to the Council.
The Council also has before it the following draft resolution:
"The Security Council,
"Reaffirming its resolution 696 (1991) of 30 May 1991 and all subsequent relevant resolutions,
"Having considered the report of the Secretary-General dated 27 June 1996 (S/1996/503),
"Reaffirming its commitment to preserve the unity and territorial integrity of Angola,
"Reiterating the importance it attaches to full and timely implementation by the Government of Angola and Uniao Nacional para a IndependÍncia Total de Angola (UNITA) of the "Acordos de paz" (S/22609, annex), the Lusaka Protocol (S/1994/1441, annex) and relevant Security Council resolutions,
"Noting with approval the recent progress made towards consolidating the peace process, but reiterating that the overall pace has been slow,
"Reminding the parties that if the peace process is to succeed they must show greater readiness to implement in good time their commitments, and to act in the spirit of flexibility and compromise,
"Welcoming the successful conclusion of military talks between the two parties which paves the way for the formation of the unified armed forces,
"Noting the agreement reached between the President of Angola and the leader of UNITA on the establishment of the Government of National Unity and Reconciliation,
"Emphasizing the necessity for adequate security for all United Nations and other international personnel,
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"Underlining the need for respect for human rights and urging the Angolan parties to give greater attention to preventing and investigating incidents of human rights abuse,
"Noting with approval the progress made towards free circulation of people and goods, and emphasizing the importance of continuation of demining efforts to make that free circulation possible and to restore public confidence,
"Stressing the importance of the demilitarization of Angolan society, including disarmament of the civilian population and the demobilization and social reintegration of ex-combatants,
"Reiterating the importance of reconstruction and rehabilitation of the Angolan national economy and its vital contribution to a durable peace,
"Welcoming the efforts by Member States, in particular the three observer States to the Angolan peace process, the Organization of African Unity, and the international community as a whole to promote peace and security in Angola,
"1. Welcomes the report of the Secretary-General dated 27 June 1996;
"2. Decides to extend the mandate of the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III) until 11 October 1996;
"3. Acknowledges the recent progress in consolidation of the peace process, but expresses regret that its implementation is still behind schedule;
"4. Commends both parties for the adoption of the framework agreement on military matters, and for beginning the incorporation of UNITA military personnel into the Angolan Armed Forces (FAA) and expresses its satisfaction with the positive role of the Joint Commission and the armed conflict prevention group in support of the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol;
"5. Welcomes the efforts of both parties in lifting checkpoints and the opening major routes, emphasizes the importance of full completion of such efforts to ensure the free circulation of people and goods, stresses the importance of extending State administration throughout the country, and encourages the Government of Angola to use units of the newly integrated military forces to improve the security situation;
"6. Welcomes also the progress made so far by the registration of over 52,00 UNITA troops in quartering areas and calls upon UNITA to complete the credible and fully verifiable quartering of all its troops in accordance with
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the Joint Commission timetable, and hand over to UNAVEM III all arms, in particular heavy weapons, ammunition and military equipment, without which the quartering process will not be complete;
"7. Reiterates that quartering and disarming of UNITA troops are crucial components of the peace process which are fundamental to its success;
"8. Urges UNITA to make available for duty, as agreed by the Joint Commission, the Generals and other high-ranking military officers designated to enter the FAA, as well as the UNITA officials designated to take up posts in the State administration at the national, provincial and local levels;
"9. Commends the Government of Angola for the promulgation of the Amnesty Law, for the quartering of the rapid reaction police, and for the continuing withdrawal of FAA to barracks and urges the Government to take the required corrective measures regarding the withdrawal movements, as agreed with UNAVEM, and to reach agreement with UNAVEM on remaining withdrawal operations;
"10. Welcomes the launching of the programme for the disarmament of the civilian population by the Government of Angola and stresses the need for its full and effective implementation;
"11. Notes the closing of eight out of the 15 UNITA quartering areas for the induction of additional troops, requests the Government of Angola to prepare a programme for phased demobilization and social reintegration of ex- combatants, and calls upon both parties and the international community to extend their full cooperation and support to that end;
"12. Urges the Government of Angola and UNITA to take all necessary steps for completion of the formation of the national armed forces, in particular the establishment of integrated headquarters, for the planned movement of UNITA troops out of quartering areas in accordance with the provisions of the Lusaka Protocol, and for the orderly transition of demobilized troops to civilian life;
"13. Urges also the Government of Angola and UNITA to take all necessary steps for all elected members of Parliament to take their seats in the National Assembly, for moving constitutional issues forward in a spirit of national reconciliation, and for the formation of the Government of Unity and National Reconciliation, and for the incorporation of UNITA personnel into the State administration, the FAA and the national police;
"14. Encourages the President of Angola and the leader of UNITA to meet at the earliest opportunity within Angola to resolve all remaining issues;
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"15. Notes the progress made in the area of demining, encourages both parties to intensify their demining efforts and stresses the need for continued commitment to peace by destroying stockpiles of land-mines;
"16. Notes the reduction in the intensity and frequency of hostile propaganda, and reminds the parties of their obligation to cease the dissemination of all hostile propaganda with a view to promoting a spirit of tolerance, coexistence and mutual trust;
"17. Urges the Government of Angola to provide the requisite facilities for the establishment of the independent United Nations radio and also urges UNITA to finalize the transformation of its radio station Vorgan into a non- partisan station;
"18. Reaffirms the obligation of all States to implement fully the provisions of paragraph 19 of resolution 864 (1993) of 15 September 1993 and notes with concern that the failure by States, in particular those neighbouring Angola, to do so is inconsistent with the peace progress and undermines economic recovery;
"19. Reiterates that continuing acquisition of weapons would be contrary to paragraph 12 of resolution 976 (1995) of 8 February 1995 and would undermine confidence in the peace process;
"20. Condemns the use of mercenaries;
"21. Demands that all parties and others concerned in Angola take all necessary measures to ensure the safety of United Nations and other international personnel and premises, and to guarantee the safety and freedom of movement of humanitarian supplies throughout the country, and reminds the parties to extend full cooperation to UNAVEM III at all levels;
"22. Strongly urges Member States to provide promptly the financial resources necessary to facilitate the demobilization and social reintegration of ex-combatants through the United Nations consolidated inter-agency appeal for Angola;
"23. Urges the international community to fulfil expeditiously its pledges to provide assistance to facilitate the rehabilitation and reconstruction of the Angolan national economy and the resettlement of displaced persons, stresses the importance of such assistance at this time in order to consolidate the gains in the peace process, and calls upon the two parties to meet their obligations under the Lusaka Protocol in order to create the necessary stability for economic recovery;
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"24. Commends the efforts of the Secretary-General, his Special Representative, and the personnel of UNAVEM III, and expresses confidence in their abilities to continue to facilitate the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol;
"25. Requests the Secretary-General to report by 1 October 1996 on the progress made towards meeting the goals and timetable agreed between the two parties, and to keep the Council fully informed on a regular basis on developments in the situation on the ground, in particular by providing a comprehensive briefing by the third week of August on whether the two parties have fulfilled the task of forming the Government of Unity and National Reconciliation;
"26. Declares that it will place special emphasis, during its future discussion of the mandate of UNAVEM III, on the progress demonstrated by the parties;
"27. Reminds the Government of Angola and UNITA of its resolution 976 (1995) of 8 February 1995 which stated, inter alia, the expectation that UNAVEM III would complete its mission by February 1997;
"28. Reiterates its readiness, in light of recommendations by the Secretary-General and the state of affairs in Angola, to consider any further measures;
"29. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter."
HIGINO CARNEIRO (Angola) said it had been hoped that in the two years since the process of implementing the lusaka Protocol began, greater progress would have been made. It had been surmised that by now, peace would have been restored and national reconciliation would be the top priority of the Government. Consequently, all his Government's efforts had been concentrated towards that goal. Nevertheless, the process had been too slow, for reasons that were known to UNAVEM and to the Council.
Following the last meeting in Libreville between the President of Angola and the leader of UNITA, significant progress had been made in implementing the Lusaka Protocol, he said, citing the effective cessation of hostilities and the strengthening of dialogue between the Government and UNITA. There had been a complete withdrawal of the Angolan Armed Forces to the closest quarters and correction of troop movements considered unreasonable by UNAVEM. The selection and induction of UNITA troops into the Angolan Armed Forces was already in progress, and the confining to quarters of the rapid
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intervention police had been concluded. The national police was now training personnel appointed by UNITA, who would provide the physical security to the leaders of that organization, and amnesty legislation had been passed. The Government had also agreed to the opening of 15 quartering areas in Lunda Sul.
Those and other achievements could have been even more significant had the Government received greater cooperation from UNITA, he said. The Government looked forward to July 15, when general officers who had left the armed forces to join UNITA would return to their units, as called for in the Protocols.
Despite those positive steps, the peace process was still hampered by obstacles that, if continued, might entail more delays and even backsliding, he said. That applied, specifically, to the quality of UNITA forces and the material sent to the quartering areas. The quality and amount of weapons and war material delivered so far were a small part of those available to UNITA's military branch. It could not be conceived that only 1,721 kilos of ammunition were available in the four areas of confinement already closed by the Joint Committee. As a result, the exercise, which was under UNAVEM's supervision, lacked credibility, bred mistrust between the two parties, and weakened the peace process.
The lack of transparency was also reflected by the large number of deserters and the quality of the men sent to the quartering areas, he said. According to UNAVEM, of the 52,850 men confined to quarters by 10 July, more than 6,000 had already deserted, thousands are children and more than 18,000 had not surrendered any weapons.
It was incumbent upon the Council and UNAVEM to help improve the performance which UNAVEM itself considered unacceptable, thereby ensuring the peace process would become irreversible, he said. In keeping with the Lusaka Agreements, the effective and full confinement of the UNITA forces, including the laying down of arms and technical means of war, was a precondition for the smooth unification of the Angolan Armed Forces and for implementation of the political aspects of national reconciliation. The Government was also concerned with proliferation, in the areas already vacated by UNITA forces, of armed elements under UNITA command who were performing alleged law-enforcement roles. That was a flagrant violation of the Lusaka Protocol.
The basic foundations for a democratic, united and prosperous society in Angola now existed, he said. By 30 July, the induction of UNITA forces into the Angolan Armed forces should have been concluded, followed by the re- establishment of Government control over the areas currently occupied by UNITA and the free and unimpeded circulation of goods and persons throughout the country. At that point, UNITA would have regained its political status as a
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legal political party, its members would occupy seats in the National Assembly, and it would participate in the Government of National Unity and Reconciliation.
The accomplishment of those tasks required further strengthening of the climate of trust between the parties, he said. At the present crucial stage of the peace process, it was also essential for Angola's neighbours to suspend any negative actions that might hinder its chances of success, he said. The constant violations of Angolan territory by illegal aliens as well as foreign enterprises must be considered by the Sanctions Committee. He appealed to the Security Council to act.
The social integration of thousands of soldiers to be demobilized starting this month was essential to the political and economic stability of Angola, he said. The Government was not in a position to rise up to the challenge on its own. He therefore appealed for assistance from the international community including assistance for demining programmes. He also called upon the Security Council to send a special mission to Angola as soon as possible. The mission should make an assessment of the peace process, and recommend measures fitting the reality before declaring the Lusaka Protocol fully implemented.
PEDRO CATARINO (Portugal) drew attention to recent positive developments in Angola, including the relatively calm military situation. Those were positive signs of the consolidation of the peace process. Nevertheless, the pace of implementation was still too slow. The parties themselves held the main responsibility for the success of the peace process. He appealed to them to take the necessary steps to resolve their differences.
He stressed the importance of continuing the process of demining. Angolan roads, free of mines and other blockages, would contribute to the effective flow of humanitarian assistance, as well as the free flow of goods and people. That, in turn, contributed to peace and stability.
He stressed the importance of an early meeting in Angola between the President of Angola and leader of the UNITA. Their political dialogue should be pursued by all parties at all levels. Citing a decrease in hostile propaganda, he said he looked forward to seeing a Government of national unity and a fully functional parliament. The incorporation of UNITA personnel into all levels of society was vital to national reconciliation.
He also stressed the importance of an effective rehabilitation of the country's infrastructure and economy. By fulfilling the Lusaka Protocol, the parties would show the international community and the donors that they were worthy of the assistance needed to rebuild their country.
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RAMTANE LAMAMRA (Algeria) said the developments of recent years in Angola had created conditions for the establishment of lasting peace. The international community had backed efforts towards that end, and progress on the ground showed that the peace process was now irreversible.
He stressed the contribution made by the Angolan Government. Further progress would have been made had the other party, UNITA, fulfilled its commitments. The Security Council must send UNITA a clear message to abide by the agreed timetable. Countries which had influence over UNITA should also urge it to abide by its commitments.
He said the situation in Angola was a challenge to the international community. The demobilization, demining, road construction and reconstruction of the economy were all essential for achieving peace. The international community should help in those efforts. On behalf of the African Group at the United Nations, which he chaired this month, he expressed support for the recommendations of the Secretary-General.
DAVID RUBADIRI (Malawi) said his Government was deeply concerned with the pace with which some of the agreed measures had been and continued to be implemented. Sporadic skirmishes had been reported in some provinces. There were reports of delay in quartering, desertions, and reluctance by UNITA to hand over its better quality weapons and military equipment. A wholesome peace could not be achieved in Angola and the region if no corrective measures were not taken to address the concerns outlined in the Secretary-General's report. He urged all the parties, particularly UNITA to continue abiding by the Lusaka Protocol.
The peace process in Angola had reached a critical stage, he said. It required concerted efforts and the continued support of the international community. He appealed for donor support for the demobilization and reintegration efforts, and to alleviate the socio-economic hardships in the country.
HENRIQUE VALLE (Brazil) said the quartering of UNITA troops -- one of the key elements of the Lusaka Protocol -- remained subject to delays. It was noteworthy that UNITAS's leader had promised to hand over weapons of "better quality". However, that had not been done.
On the political level, he continued, the prospects were still not reassuring. Up to now, Mr. Savimbi had not formally accepted the post of Vice-President. Most of the UNITA members of Parliament had not taken their seats in the National Assembly. Officials from UNITA had not yet joined the State administration a the national, provincial and local levels. Therefore,
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the coming meeting of Angolan President Jose Eduardo dos Santos and Mr. Savimbi should indeed provide for an opportunity to reach agreement on those critical questions.
Brazil, he stated, remained fully committed to the peace process in Angola. Its very substantial participation in UNAVEM III reflected a long- term involvement with Angola and its people, based on common cultural and historical roots, as well as on shared aspirations to social and economic development. It firmly believed that all Angolans were now tired of war and ready for reconciliation.
The suggestion for a renewal of a short duration of the UNAVEM III mandate reflected the sense of the international community that further procrastination within the peace process was unjustifiable, he declared.
The "mild improvement" in the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol should not distract the international community from the fact that the coming weeks would be critical, he said. The Security Council should concentrate efforts in assuring that the concrete steps required for the consolidation of the peace process were taken without further delay.
K.J. JELE (South Africa) said there were positive developments in the implementation of some aspects of the Lusaka Protocol, particularly the promulgation of the Amnesty Law on 8 May 1996, the completion of the quartering of the rapid reaction police and the beginning of the process of incorporating UNITA troops into the Angola armed forces. However, the arrival of 18,000 troops in the camps without weapons, and the failure of UNITA to surrender all of its arsenal and military equipment, was of great concern.
At a recent meeting with South Africa's Deputy President, Mr. Savimbi had reiterated UNITA's commitment to the peace process, he recalled. South Africa's Deputy President emphasized the urgent need for UNITA to translate that commitment into meaningful and tangible actions. It was essential that Angolan President dos Santos and Mr. Savimbi meet again, as a matter of urgency, to address problem areas. They should focus on the establishment of the Government of Unity and National Reconciliation, which was crucial to promoting reconciliation.
He appealed to the donor community to respond generously to needs created by demobilization and reintegration. South Africa had already contributed 28 million rand to UNAVEM III for the quartering of troops prior to demobilization. The Angolan people wanted and deserved peace, and both parties were called upon to fulfil their dream. The international community could no longer accept further delays in the full implementation of the peace process.
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DAUDI N. MWAKAWAGO (United Republic of Tanzania) said progress on the ground must be predicated primarily on the imperative that the Angolans themselves must first and foremost commit themselves fully to efforts aimed at restoring peace and stability in their country. The role of the international community must be no more than complementing demonstrable political will of all the parties to the conflict, in particular the Government of Angola and UNITA, to bury the hatchet and give peace a chance.
Despite the many hurdles surrounding the painfully slow peace process, he continued, it was an undeniable fact that the presence of UNAVEM III in Angola had contributed enormously towards the return of relative calm in that country. It was also through UNAVEM III that the concerns of the international community continued to be articulated, daily goading the Government and UNITA to expedite the peace process by fully honouring their undertakings to implement all provisions of the Lusaka Protocol.
The current report of the Secretary-General pointed to some positive achievements on the ground, and they should provide more room for energizing and consolidating the peace efforts of the Angolan people backed by UNAVEM III, he stated. Besides Government responsibilities to fully deliver on its obligations on the peace process, UNITA clearly owed it to itself to do a lot to better the pace of its current performance. It must cooperate more with the Government and UNAVEM III in expediting the process of incorporating its troops into the National Army by the agreed deadline of end of July, and facilitating the return of its generals to Luanda. At the same time, UNITA must complete the quartering of its remaining troops in a transparent manner. It must also hand in heavy weapons and related materiel to complete the quartering process.
Delayed action for whatever pretext or hidden agenda would not be tolerated by the international community, especially when the Secretary- General was calling for additional resources to assist the incorporation process and help Angola to recover from decades of war, he said.
Time was running out, he declared. The agony and the suffering of the Angolan people continued. The United Republic of Tanzania strongly appealed to UNITA to give peace a chance.
SLAHEDDINE ABDELLAH (Tunisia) said the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol had reached a crucial stage. There had been progress, and the cease- fire was holding, but there had also been delays in the quartering of troops, which prolonged the people's suffering. That process must be speeded up to gain the trust of the parties. Such efforts, as the framework agreement on military matters, the promulgation of the amnesty law, and quartering of the
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rapid reaction police, were positive signs. Those measures should inspire UNITA to cooperate fully with the agreements reached. The demobilization and social re-integration of combatants depended on those efforts.
The presence of UNAVEM III was vital to the peace process, he said. The reconstruction and improvement of living standards were essential to the peace process. He said the Angolan Government's efforts at reform should be supported, and he appealed for sustained investment by donors.
MACHIVENYIKA T. MAPURANGA (Zimbabwe) expresses concern at the pace at which the overall peace process in Angola had been evolving. In view of the people's readiness to return to peace, the current and prolonged situation of "no war no peace" was disturbing. The international community should no longer content itself with toasting the proclamation of promissory peace frameworks and commitments, whether written or otherwise. It must insist on their speedy implementation. The international community and the three observer Sates, in particular, should use their good office to hasten the peace process in Angola. Zimbabwe agreed with the Secretary-General's view that the demobilization and socio-economic integration of former combatants was an essential pre-condition for lasting peace and looked forward to his recommendations on the issue.
CARLOS DOS SANTOS (Mozambique) welcomed the positive developments in the peace process in Angola, particularly the promulgation of the Amnesty Law, the completion of the quartering of the rapid reaction police, the partial withdrawal of the Angolan Armed Forces to barracks, some progress in the quartering of UNITA troops, and a small beginning of the incorporation of UNITA military personnel into the Armed Forces. Those were significant steps towards the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol. However, it was a matter of concern that the steps towards formation of a government of unity and national reconciliation were not being taken. Also of concern were the delays in the quartering of UNITA troops and its significantly decreased hand-over of real military equipment to UNAVEM III.
The signing of the Lusaka Protocol represented the culmination of a long and delicate process of negotiations, he said. It aimed at addressing the war situation in Angola and at contributing to peace and stability in that country and throughout the southern African region. There was no real reason for peace in Angola to be delayed any longer. No one should be allowed to hold the Angolan people hostage to motives alien to their desire for peace and prosperity.
The United Nations and the international community were duty-bound to extend their hand of solidarity to the people of Angola and their legitimate Government in the quest for peace and stability, he said. In doing so, the principles of the United Nations Charter, including the principles of
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sovereignty, non-intervention and non-interference in internal affairs of Angola, must be observed.
JOSE LUIS BARBOSA LEAO MONTEIRO (Cape Verde) said there had been some notable progress towards peace in Angola during the past two months. The military situation was relatively calm and the political dialogue between the parties was moving towards peace. A settlement in Angola would be a jewel in the crown of the United Nations. Nevertheless, delays in the implementation of agreements between the parties could contribute to an erosion of trust.
Some of the failings mentioned in the Secretary-General's report had given rise to questions which must be answered, he said. If there was indeed a light at the end of the tunnel in Angola, the international community could help accelerate the process. Time was of the essence. He added that donor support would serve as a catalyst to the peace process.
Action on Draft Resolution
Speaking prior to the action on the draft resolution, GERHARD WALTER HENZE (Germany) said his country would vote for the extension of UNAVEM III's mandate. Action by the Council would demonstrate its determination to see the peace process succeed. Progress had been made, and the parties were encouraged to continue along that path. The road ahead was not easy. The UNITA must proceed with the quartering of its troops, incorporation of its troops in the national army and the handing over of its heavy weapons. Those actions should be completed as soon as possible.
On the political front, he called for the formation of a government of unity and national reconciliation and the occupation of the post of Vice- President by UNITA. The international community should not fail to support the country. The UNITA should comply with its commitments, and the parties must work to consolidate the peace process.
He said Germany intended to continue helping Angola by keeping its demining personnel there. That assistance was part of an overall aid effort which, combined with that delivered through the European Union, had amounted to $100 million over the past five years.
NABIL A. ELARABY (Egypt) said there had been extremely positive developments in Angola during the past two months, despite the distrust which remained following its devastating civil war. UNITA must conclude the quartering of its troops and hand over all its weapons. The reintegration of over 90,000 armed combatants from the Government and UNITA into civilian life would be extremely difficult. Failure to implement the Lusaka Protocol in the
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agreed time-frame would erode the peace process and hinder the achievement of sustainable economic development. Efforts by the Government, including the disarmament of its rapid reaction police, would help generate trust.
The eyes of the world were on Angola, he said. Stressing the need for the leader of UNITA to take bold steps, he expressed confidence that he would put the needs of his people over every other consideration. The negative ramifications of civil war, including an unemployment rate of 50 per cent and an extreme debt burden, were well known.
The forthcoming meeting in August between the Angolan President and the UNITA leader would help solve outstanding problems, he said. UNITA's participation in all aspects of civilian and administrative life would transform it into a legitimate political party. Angola needed international support to deal with its terrible social problems, including the highest rate of land mines in the world and its enormous number of displaced persons and refugees.
LEGWAILA J. LEGWAILA (Botswana) said the Angolan Government and UNITA had an historic opportunity to end the civil war. Botswana was satisfied with the Government's implementation of its commitments. It should continue to take decisive steps to implement the Lusaka Protocol. UNITA must implement its own commitments speedily and in full. He called on it to quarter its remaining troops and hand over to UNAVEM III all arms, ammunitions, and heavy military equipment without further delay. The recent successful conclusion of military talks should make it easier for UNITA to exercise greater flexibility with respect to resolution of the remaining issues.
He said the next few weeks would be crucial for consolidation of the peace process. While the international community continued to pressure the Government and UNITA to meet their obligations, it was necessary to provide financial resources to sustain the peace process. The reconstruction and rehabilitation of Angola's economy was a key element. Assistance was urgently under way.
JUAN SOMAVIA (Chile) said the news in the Secretary-General's report was encouraging and progress had been made in the quartering of troops. However, that was taking place against the background of delays. The Council, and the United Nations as a whole, should insist on the implementation of the agreed timetable. UNITA must demonstrate its compliance, and its heavy weapons must be handed over.
He stresses the importance of forming a government of unity and national reconciliation and of seating the elected parliamentarians. The demining programme must also be moved forward.
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Citing the country's economic and social challenges, he said a good political climate was an indispensable precondition for international economic assistance. The Angolan Government, and especially UNITA, must step up their efforts to consolidate the peace and to ensure international support.
PARK SOO GIL (Republic of Korea) said there had been encouraging developments in the Angolan peace process since the extension of UNAVEM III's mandate two months ago. That included impressive progress in the quartering of UNITA troops, the completion of the quartering of the rapid reaction police, the adoption of the framework agreement on military matters and the promulgation of the Amnesty Law. Also gratifying was the start of talks between the Angolan Government and UNITA on constitutional amendments needed for the formation of the government of national unity and reconciliation.
Nevertheless, while there was cause for optimism, the slow pace of the peace process had been disappointing, he said. The unsatisfactory quantity and quality of UNITA weapons handed over to UNAVEM III remained a concern. The three key tasks of the Lusaka Protocol -- the quartering of UNITA troops, the formation of the unified armed forces, and the establishment of the government of unity and national reconciliation -- should be completed in the coming days and week.
To overcome the remaining obstacles in the peace process, there could be no substitute for the political will of the parties themselves, he said. There must be a clear understanding between the two leaders on their respective roles and the nature of posts to be allocated to UNITA leaders in the Government. Such problems could be best resolved in a personal meeting between the two leaders.
The presence of a large number of demobilized ex-combatants in an economically precarious country like Angola was likely to generate additional social tension, he said. That could hinder the consolidation of the hard-won peace. There was thus an urgent need for professional training and for the creation of employment opportunities. Such elements went hand-in-hand with economic reconstruction and development.
WANG XUEXIAN (China) said that during the past two months, the parties in Angola had taken some concrete actions to accelerate the process of national reconciliation resulting in some progress in the peace process. The Angolan Government's enactment of an amnesty law and the complete quartering of its rapid reaction police force were welcome developments. However, China was deeply concerned over the failure to achieve the objectives of the Lusaka Protocol and the agreements between the two parties. He called on them, and particularly UNITA, to demonstrate greater political will and a sense of national responsibility, and to refrain from further delaying implementation of the Protocol and the agreed timetable. They should complete the quartering
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of forces and take part in real earnest in establishing a government of national unity and reconciliation and a joint national armed force.
The Angolan peace process was at a critical historical juncture, he said. If the parties could truly remove past grievances, bury the hatchet, build mutual trust and firmly advance the peace process, Angola's future was bound to improve, enabling its people to embark on the road of national rejuvenation and development. However, continued stagnation in the peace process, or even retrogression would land the Angolan nation in further chaos and misery.
He said China had always been very concerned about the destiny of the African people, and it sympathized with the cause of peace in Africa. Most African countries were now moving towards political stability and entering a period of seeking peace, stability and development. The question of Angola had become the last hot spot in southern Africa. China favoured continued strong support for the Angolan peace process by the international community, so as to bring peace and tranquillity to southern Africa as a whole.
LORENZO FERRARIN (Italy) said the Lusaka Protocol was now being implemented and a particularly important framework agreement on military matters had been concluded. The quartering of the UNITA troops, though not complete, was under way, and the process of their incorporation in the Angolan Armed Forces had begun. Over the past few days, new information had reached the Council on an acceleration of the quartering process for the remaining UNITA contingents. It was Italy's hope that, after far too many unwarranted delays, UNITA's leadership would make good on its commitment under the Lusaka Protocol.
The progress so far achieved was still very fragile, he said. On the political level, much remained to be done. It was high time for a coalition government to be formed and for the UNITA members of Parliament to take their seats in the National Assembly. That would not only mark a turning point in the crisis, but would allow the country to focus its depleted energies on the crucial emergency of looming economic disaster. International assistance to Angola, though insufficient, had already been mobilized, and all relevant United Nations bodies were active in the country. For the period 1990-1995, Italy had provided assistance in various forms, totalling $109 million. For 1996, additional funds totalling some $12.5 million had been allotted. Italy was also participating with a team of instructors in ongoing demining activities.
He said progress had been reported in mine clearance and roads rehabilitation, as a result of the good work carried out by UNAVEM III and non-governmental organizations. After extensive delays, UNITA was also showing greater cooperation in the demining activities.
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To maximize the impact of assistance and to allow a resumption of economic activity, the situation in Luanda must be handled more effectively, he said. There must be an extension of State administration throughout the country. The post-conflict, peace-building phase which Angola was now entering would require a determined effort by all, inside and outside the country, to enable the population to benefit from Angola's rich natural resources. Though the peace process now seemed to be well established, the enduring commitment of the parties remained critical. Both parties, and particularly UNITA, should show an even stronger determination to fully implement the Lusaka Protocol.
ADELINO MANO QUETA (Guinea-Bissau) said that since May, when the Council last met on Angola, the peace process had improved in an encouraging way. Adoption of the framework agreement on military questions and the start of the process of incorporating UNITA troops into the Angolan Armed Forces were positive signs. Equally positive were agreements on the formulation of a national unity government and progress on the demining programme. The quartering and disarmament of all UNITA forces and other essential elements of the peace process were also important. The Angolan Government's commitment to peace, as evidenced by its promulgation of the Amnesty Law, the quartering of its rapid reaction police, and disarmament of the civilian population was a source of satisfaction.
Despite the delays, the steps taken were in the right direction, he said. The President of Angola and the leader of UNITA were encouraged to meet in Angola as soon as possible to resolve all outstanding issues. Measures should also be taken to guarantee the safety of United Nations personnel and those of other international organizations, and also their premises. Guinea- Bissau encouraged the international community to continue its assistance to Angola, certain that the parties would abide by the Lusaka Protocol.
SERGEY V. LAVROV (Russian Federation) said resolving the long Angolan conflict would be a major success story for the United Nations and the international community. Recent positive developments had included withdrawal of the Government's rapid reaction police, the disarming of civilians, progress in demining, and a drop in hostile propaganda. However, there had also been some delay in implementing certain agreements.
The primary responsibility for peace lay with the Angolan parties, he said. The UNITA had not fully implemented its agreements. It must quarter all of its troops, surrender all its weapons to UNAVEM III, and quarter its so-called police forces, which were in defiance of the Lusaka Protocol.
The coming weeks would be decisive for the peace process, he said. There should be no slackening in the international community's pressure on the Angolan parties. That pressure should be combined with a carefully planned
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reintegration of combatants into civilian life. His Government placed great hope in the upcoming meeting between Angola's President and the leader of UNITA. Both should show good faith in meeting their obligations under the agreements.
Sir JOHN WESTON (United Kingdom) said today's draft resolution correctly identified the steps needed for a lasting peace in Angola. A three- month mandate, though short, was necessary to keep pressure on the parties at the current crucial stage in the peace process. He urged both parties to ensure that progress towards peace was not set back by a failure to follow through on the remaining Lusaka commitments.
It was important that the extension of UNAVEM III's mandate be used constructively, he said. The UNITA must complete the quartering of its troops and hand over its arms, heavy weapons, ammunition and other equipment. Its personnel must be incorporated into the Angolan Armed Forces, the State administration, and the national police. The broader process of demobilization and reintegration must be stepped up, and both parties must agree soon on the formation of a government of unity and national reconciliation. The President of Angola and the leader of UNITA should meet as soon as possible to discuss outstanding issues.
He expressed concern at recent reports that the integration of UNITA into the Angolan Armed Forces may have been suspended. The Government should clarify the situation, so the process may be resumed without delay.
GERARDO MARTINEZ BLANCO (Honduras) said there had been positive developments in the peace process in Angola, but fundamental elements remained to be implemented. The cantonment of troops had not been completed, nor had all of UNITA's arms and heavy weapons been turned over to UNAVEM III. Prompt steps were needed to establish a government of national unity and reconciliation. Neither was the political and military situation very positive. The parties, especially UNITA, must promptly carry out their agreed obligations, so as not to jeopardize the peace process.
Citing the terrible social problems facing Angola, he appealed to the international community and donor countries for continued support of the demobilization and reintegration of armed forces into civilian life. The UNAVEM III had continued its tasks of observing and verification and of assisting humanitarian convoys. Those activities were essential to the peace process.
MAKARIM WIBISONO (Indonesia) said substantial progress had been made towards the establishment of lasting peace in Angola. In accordance with the Lusaka Protocol, steps being taken included the promulgation of the Amnesty Law, completion of the quartering of the rapid reaction police, and the
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partial withdrawal of the Angolan Armed Forces to barracks. The agreement reached between the President of Angola and the leader of UNITA on establishment of a government of national unity and reconciliation would capitalize the positive achievements made previously. Throughout the process, the presence of UNAVEM III had contributed significantly towards restoring peace to Angola.
He said Indonesia was seriously concerned at the alow pace of implementation of some aspects of the Lusaka Protocol, which had already fallen behind schedule. The quartering and disarming of UNITA troops were critical for the success of the peace process. The parties were urged to capitalize on the positive momentum of the peace process. They should accelerate the pace of disarmament of the civilian population, the incorporation of UNITA forces into the Angolan Armed Forces and complete the withdrawal of the Armed Forces from forward positions. It was also essential that the quality of weapons handed over by UNITA be improved, particularly the heavy weapons, and that a solution be found to address the high desertion rate. He said it was imperative that the Lusaka Protocol be implemented in full and in a timely manner and urged the international community to continue responding positively to Angola's rehabilitation needs. He stressed that genuine peace could only be attained if the parties themselves showed greater readiness to fulfil their commitments and to act in a spirit of flexibility and compromise. The meeting between the President of Angola and the leader of UNITA would provide an opportunity for them to resolve all the remaining issues and to promote confidence-building between the parties. ZBIGNIEW M. WLOSOWICZ (Poland) said it was encouraging to note such positive elements in Angola as the promulgation of the Amnesty Law, completion of the quartering of the rapid reaction police, some progress in the quartering of UNITA troops, and the beginning of the incorporation of UNITA military personnel into the Angolan Armed Forces. At the same time, it was disappointing to note such negative elements as the high number of desertions from the quartering areas, the unsatisfactory quality and quantity of weapons handed over, the failure to quarter UNITA's police personnel, the incomplete withdrawal of the government troops from forward positions, and the delays in the quartering of all UNITA troops. Such factors made it impossible to say that the peace process had reached the point from which there could be a return to a state of war.
Stressing that good will and the full engagement of all parties concerned were now needed more than ever, he called upon both the Government and UNITA to ensure that all their declarations and commitments were put into effect, and that the schedules adopted were fulfilled in a timely fashion. The international community had made a concerted effort to help Angola in the best way it could, and that was embodied in UNAVEM. However, it should be made
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clear that UNAVEM's presence in Angola could be justified only if there was visible progress in the process of national reconciliation.
The draft resolution was adopted unanimously as Security Council resolution 1064 (1996).
KARL F. INDERFURTH (United States) said his Government was strongly committed to the Angolan peace process. Regrettably its implementation was still behind schedule. Rapid progress was essential, including in such vital areas as demobilization, reintegration and demining. There had been real progress since last May, through such measures as promulgation of the Amnesty Law, the agreement on military integration, and the registration of over 50,000 UNITA troops. Although action in some areas had been incomplete, there had been substantial movement in the right direction.
One key phase of the peace process was demobilization, he said. Quartering of UNITA troops must be completed this month and a rapid and orderly demobilization begun, in order to sustain confidence in the peace process. The Angolan authorities and the international community must ensure that the talents of the demobilized soldiers were properly developed and channelled.
International support for the peace process was essential as was the demining effort, he said. The parties must make greater efforts in all phases of the process of demobilization and reconstruction. The United States was distressed at news of delays in the selection of UNITA officers for the Angolan Armed Forces. It was hoped that both sides would demonstrate the commitment, political will and necessary flexibility to get the process back on track.
ALAIN DEJAMMET (France) said real progress had been made in Angola over the past two months. For the first time, the prospect of peace was becoming credible. He congratulated the Government for the quartering of its rapid reaction police, and UNITA for the quartering of its troops. However, much remained to be done. The cantonment of UNITA troops should continue and would only be credible if completed as agreed. The reintegration of demobilized forces into civilian life must be carried out promptly. A government of unity and national reconciliation should be formed.
The question of the vice-presidency for the leader of UNITA was the keystone to all the negotiations, he said. It was hoped the meeting in August between the Angolan President and the UNITA leader would bear fruit. The parties must understand that the United Nations would not be in Angola forever and that UNAVEM would begin to withdraw in February 1997 as planned. The former belligerents must reach agreement as soon as possible, so as to enable the international community to go ahead with its economic support.
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