The Security Council, expressing "profound regret at the overall slow pace" of the implementation of the Angolan peace process, this afternoon extended the mandate of the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III) for two months until 11 July. The Council last extended the mandate in February 1996 until 8 May.
By unanimously adopting resolution 1055 (1996), the Council called upon the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) to fulfil, by June 1996, its obligation "to complete the credible, uninterrupted and fully verifiable quartering of its troops" and to turn over to UNAVEM III all arms, ammunition and military equipment. The Council reiterated that the quartering and disarming of UNITA troops were fundamental to the success of the peace process and stressed that further procrastination could not be justified.
The Security Council urged the Government of Angola and UNITA to abide strictly by their obligations under the Lusaka Protocol, as well as the commitments entered into in Libreville, Gabon, on 1 March 1996, including the selection of UNITA troops for incorporation into the armed forces of Angola and the completion of the formation of the unified armed forces by June 1996. The Lusaka Protocol consists of eight annexes covering all military, legal and political issues agreed to at peace talks in the Zambian capital which preceded it, and contains a schedule that envisions completion of the process by February 1997. One of the main military issues concerns the withdrawal, quartering and demilitarization of UNITA forces.
The Council urged the Government and UNITA to take all necessary steps for a number of actions, including the formation of the Government of Unity and National Reconciliation by July 1996. It encouraged Angolan President Jose Eduardo dos Santos and UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi to meet at the earliest opportunity within Angola to resolve all outstanding issues.
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The Council also urged the international community to continue to provide the assistance necessary to facilitate the rehabilitation and reconstruction of the Angolan economy, provided that the two parties meet their obligations.
The UNAVEM III was established in February 1995 to help the Government of Angola and UNITA achieve national reconciliation and restore peace in the country.
The Secretary-General was requested to report to the Council by 1 July 1996 on progress made towards meeting the goals and timetable agreed between the two parties, and to keep the Council informed on a regular basis on developments in the situation on the ground in Angola. He was also to provide a comprehensive briefing by 17 May on whether the two parties had fulfilled the tasks specified in the Joint Commission calendar of actions to be carried out by 15 May 1996. The Joint Commission is the principal body charged with the implementation of the provisions of the Lusaka Protocol.
Higino Carneiro, Vice-Minister without Portfolio of Angola, said that for five years his Government had been trying to end a war that had devastated his country for nearly 30 years. It did not want to return to war, but believed that other options -- such as the implementation of Security Council resolution 864 (1993) -- should be considered to convince UNITA to accelerate demobilization and demilitarization. The Council should agree that if UNITA had not accomplished the targets on the conclusion of the national armed forces and the demobilization of UNITA, it would review the situation, meet with UNITA leader, Jonas Savimbi, and implement measures provided for by resolution 864.
Statements were also made by representatives of Italy, on behalf of members of the European Union (together with Bulgaria, Cyprus, Hungary, Lithuania, Malta, Romania and the Slovak Republic), Egypt, Indonesia, Botswana, Republic of Korea, United Kingdom, Honduras, Russian Federation, Guinea-Bissau, United States, Chile, France, Germany, Poland and China.
The Council meeting, which was called to order at 4:47 p.m., was adjourned at 5:49 p.m.
Security Council Work Programme
The Security Council met this afternoon to consider an extension of the mandate of the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III).
In his 30 April report on the progress of the Angola peace process (document S/1996/328), Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali recommends that the mandate of the Mission be extended for two months only, until 8 July 1996, because of the unsatisfactory state of affairs there. The current mandate runs out 8 May.
The Secretary-General states that, since his last report, progress in implementing the Lusaka Protocol has been slow and many of the tasks the parties agreed to carry out in April are unfulfilled. While the Government and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) have maintained a dialogue and the military situation remains stable, the overall achievements fall short of what the Security Council had been led to expect.
For instance, he writes, the quartering of UNITA troops has stalled even though there has been an increased flow of UNITA troops into the quartering areas in the last few days of April. However, the repeated failure of UNITA's leadership to honour its commitments has reinforced the doubts about its good faith. Such procrastination could lead to the collapse of the entire peace process and then interrupt the international aid Angola requires for reconstruction, rehabilitation and demining.
Noting delays in agreeing on the incorporation of UNITA personnel into the joint armed forces, the Secretary-General recommends that the military talks between the sides be concluded by mid-May. He states that he has instructed his Special Representative, Alioune Blondin Beye, to offer his good offices for those ends. The Government should finalize all practical arrangements to induct UNITA elements into the Angolan Armed Forces (FAA) and the national police, as well as to complete the withdrawal of its forces to barracks. The international community should contribute generously to the programmes set up to help demobilize and integrate ex-combatants socially.
Both parties should be more committed to forming a Government of National Unity and Reconciliation, which is supposed to take place by mid- July 1996, the report states. Before then, UNITA deputies must take their places in the National Assembly, and UNITA officials must join the State administration at various levels. Issues related to the post of Vice- President offered to Jonas Savimbi, the UNITA leader, must also be resolved quickly.
The Secretary-General reports some positive developments such as the withdrawal of the FAA to their nearest barracks in some provinces. But progress in the quartering of UNITA troops is extremely slow, and talks on
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important military questions not concluded. As a result, the Government announced on 23 April that it was considering suspending its participation in the Joint Commission, the main body charged with implementing the Lusaka Protocol. During a meeting with Mr. Savimbi at Andulo on 25 April, Mr. Beye received more assurances that UNITA was committed to the peace process and would accelerate its troops' quartering. The value of the assurances remains to be determined, the Secretary-General writes. In April, the military situation was calm in most of provinces, with no significant military actions by either party. Cease-fire violations had diminished, showing the effectiveness of conflict-control mechanisms operating under UNAVEM III's auspices.
Also before the Council was a draft resolution (S/1996/336), the text of which reads as follows:
"The Security Council,
"Reaffirming its resolution 696 (1991) of 30 May 1991 and all subsequent relevant resolutions,
"Having considered the report of the Secretary-General dated 30 April 1996 (S/1996/328),
"Reaffirming its commitment to preserve the unity and territorial integrity of Angola,
"Reiterating the importance it attaches to the full and timely implementation by the Government of Angola and Uniao Nacional para a Independencia Total de Angola (UNITA) of the 'Acordos de Paz' (S/22609, annex), the Lusaka Protocol (S/1994/1441, annex) and relevant Security Council resolutions,
"Recognizing that although some progress has been made towards consolidating the peace process, the overall pace has been disappointingly slow,
"Noting with concern the repeated delays in the implementation of successive timetables agreed to by the two parties, in particular the quartering of UNITA troops and the completion of talks on military issues regarding the integration of the armed forces,
"Taking note that five months have elapsed since the first UNITA troops arrived in quartering areas and expressing concern that prolonging the stay of troops in quartering areas puts strains on United Nations resources and on discipline within UNITA ranks,
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"Noting the agreement reached between the President of Angola and the Chairman of UNITA in Libreville, Gabon, on 1 March 1996 (S/1996/175, annex) on the formation of the unified armed forces by June 1996 as well as the establishment of the Government of National Unity and Reconciliation between June and July 1996,
"Recalling its resolution 976 (1995) of 8 February 1995 which stated, inter alia, the expectation that the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III) would complete its mission by February 1997,
"Emphasizing the need for adequate security for all United Nations and other international personnel and awaiting the results of the investigation of the deaths on 3 April 1996 of two UNAVEM III military observers and a humanitarian assistance official,
"Underlining the need for respect for human rights and urging the Angolan parties to give greater attention to preventing and investigating incidents of human rights abuse,
"Expressing concern at the extensive presence of landmines throughout Angola and emphasizing the need for the political will to speed up demining efforts to enable the free circulation of people and goods and to restore public confidence,
"Stressing the importance of the demilitarization of Angolan society, including the disarmament of the civilian population and the demobilization and social reintegration of ex-combatants,
"Reiterating the importance of reconstruction and rehabilitation of the Angolan national economy and its vital contribution to a durable peace,
"Welcoming the efforts by Member States, in particular the three observer States to the Angolan peace process, the Organization of African Unity, and the international community as a whole to promote peace and security in Angola,
"1. Welcome the report of the Secretary-General dated 30 April 1996;
"2. Decides to extend the mandate of UNAVEM III until 11 July 1996;
"3. Expresses profound regret at the overall slow pace of implementation of the peace process which is far behind schedule;
"4. Notes with deep concern the failure of UNITA to complete the quartering of all its troops by 8 May 1996 in accordance with resolution 1045 (1996) of 8 February 1996;
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"5. Reiterates that quartering and disarming of UNITA troops are crucial components of the peace process which are fundamental to its success and stresses that further procrastination cannot be justified and, if continued, could bring about the collapse of the whole peace process;
"6. Notes the recent progress in the quartering of UNITA troops and calls upon UNITA to fulfil by June 1996 its obligation to complete the credible, uninterrupted and fully verifiable quartering of its troops and to turn over to UNAVEM III all arms, ammunition and military equipment;
"7. Calls upon UNITA to release unconditionally and without further delay all remaining prisoners in accordance with its obligations under the Lusaka Protocol;
"8. Underlines the importance of completion of the talks on military issues regarding the integration of UNITA troops into the Angolan Armed Forces (FAA) and formation of a joint military command and urges the two parties to resolve the remaining issues by 15 May 1996, as agreed in the Joint Commission calendar of actions for May;
"9. Welcomes the proclamation by the National Assembly of Angola of amnesty arrangements, as agreed in Libreville, for offences resulting from the Angolan conflict, in order to facilitate the formation of a joint military command;
"10. Urges the Government of Angola and UNITA to abide strictly by their obligations under the Lusaka Protocol as well as the commitments entered into in Libreville, Gabon, on 1 March 1996, including the selection of UNITA troops for incorporation into the FAA and the completion of the formation of the unified armed forces by June 1996;
"11. Urges also the Government of Angola and UNITA to take all necessary steps for UNITA deputies to take their places in the National Assembly, for the beginning of the controlled movement of UNITA troops out of quartering areas in accordance with the provisions of the Lusaka Protocol, for the incorporation of UNITA personnel into the State administration, the FAA and the national police, for the orderly transition of demobilized troops to civilian life, for moving constitutional issues forward in a spirit of national reconciliation, and for the formation of the Government of Unity and National Reconciliation by July 1996;
"12. Encourages the President of Angola and the Chairman of UNITA to meet at the earliest opportunity within Angola to resolve all remaining issues;
"13. Welcomes the progress made by the Government of Angola in quartering the rapid reaction police;
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"14. Urges the Government of Angola to continue to pull back its forces from areas near UNITA quartering sites and to complete the return of the rapid reaction police to barracks under UNAVEM III monitoring in accordance with the provisions of the Lusaka Protocol;
"15. Notes the intention of the Joint Commission to study the plan for the disarmament of the civilian population and urges the parties to begin its implementation without delay;
"16. Reminds the Government of Angola and UNITA of their obligation to cease the dissemination of hostile propaganda;
"17. Calls upon the Government of Angola to provide the requisite facilities for the establishment of an independent United Nations radio;
"18. Also calls upon the Government of Angola and UNITA to signal their commitment to peace by destroying their stockpiles of landmines and to begin this process through joint public action;
"19. Reaffirms the obligation of all States to implement fully the provisions of paragraph 19 of resolution 864 (1993) of 15 September 1993 and reiterates that continuing acquisition of weapons would be contrary to paragraph 12 of resolution 976 (1995) of 8 February 1995 and undermine confidence in the peace process;
"20. Notes with concern reports that UNITA has impeded, on occasion, the work of UNAVEM III and reminds the parties, in particular UNITA, to extend full cooperation to UNAVEM III and the Joint Commission at all levels;
"21. Demands that all parties and others concerned in Angola take all necessary measures to ensure the safety of United Nations and international personnel and premises and guarantee the safety and freedom of movement of humanitarian supplies throughout the country;
"22. Commends the Joint Commission and the Armed Conflict Prevention Group for the positive role they continue to play in support of the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol;
"23. Commends also the efforts of the Secretary-General, his Special Representative and the personnel of UNAVEM III to facilitate the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol;
"24. Urges Member States to provide the assistance necessary to facilitate the demobilization and social reintegration of ex-combatants;
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"25. Urges also the international community to continue to provide the assistance necessary to facilitate the rehabilitation and reconstruction of the Angolan national economy, provided that the two parties meet their obligations under the Lusaka Protocol;
"26. Requests the Secretary-General to report by 1 July 1996 on the progress made towards meeting the goals and timetable agreed between the two parties, and to keep the Council fully informed on a regular basis on developments in the situation on the ground, in particular by providing a comprehensive briefing by 17 May 1996 on whether the two parties have fulfilled the tasks they have specified in the Joint Commission calendar of actions for May to be carried out by 15 May 1996;
"27. Declares that it will place special emphasis, during its future discussion of the mandate of UNAVEM III, on the progress demonstrated by the parties;
"28. Reiterates its readiness, in light of recommendations by the Secretary-General and the state of affairs in Angola, to consider any further measures;
"29. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter."
HIGINO CARNEIRO (Angola) said that for five years his Government had been trying to end a war that had devastated his country for nearly 30 years. Angola was hoping for the international community to facilitate the end of the war, and the reconstruction of the country.
Angola's Government supported UNAVEM III and the Lusaka Protocol, as well as understandings reached in Libreville between Angola's President and Dr. Jonas Savimbi, the leader of UNITA. Expectations for the peace process had not yet become a reality. His Government had been convinced that it would by now be able to announce the completion of the quartering and disarming of the troops of UNITA. His Government urged the Security Council to call for diplomatic measures to persuade UNITA to honour its commitments to peace, democracy and the well-being of Angolans.
The Government of Angola had fulfilled monthly tasks established by the Joint Commission. It had also withdrawn military personnel from areas close to UNITA quartering areas. It was completing the quartering of its rapid intervention force. It had suspended the acquisition of weapons. It had released all prisoners of war. It had rescinded all contracts with, and repatriated the personnel of, Executive Outcomes, and it had undertaken with UNITA a revised text of the Amnesty Law.
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Angola's Government also continued to provide logistic and material support to UNAVEM III; it was ready to integrate UNITA troops into the national army -- the FAA -- including its generals; it had undertaken joint military missions with UNAVEM and with UNITA; it had resolved concerns expressed by UNITA related to its presence in the Lundas, Angola's diamond region, and had reiterated its invitation to Dr. Savimbi to join the Government as a Vice-President. Angola's Government had supported the international initiative to ban the use of land-mines.
His Government did not want to return to war, but believed other options -- such as the implementation of Security Council resolution 864 (1993) -- to convince UNITA to accelerate demobilization and demilitarization. The Security Council should agree that if UNITA had not accomplished the targets on the conclusion of the national armed forces and the demobilization of UNITA, it would review the situation, meet with Dr. Savimbi, and implement measures provided for by resolution 864.
LORENZO FERRARIN (Italy), speaking for the European Union, as well as Bulgaria, Cyprus, Hungary, Lithuania, Malta, Romania and the Slovak Republic, said the Union was deeply concerned by the slow pace in the quartering of the UNITA troops, which had only accelerated in the past few days, on the eve of the expiration of the UNAVEM III mandate. A crucial problem, in that context, was the fact that so many of the troops being quartered either lacked arms or had handed in weapons of poor quality.
The Council should send a clear message that, at this crucial stage in the peace process, no hesitation or delaying tactics would be tolerated or remain without consequences. The Government of Angola should fully comply with its own obligations, under the Lusaka Protocol, by continuing the withdrawal of its forces to the nearest barracks and by completing the quartering of the rapid reaction police under UNAVEM monitoring.
The European Union appealed to both parties to undertake without delay the disarmament of the civilian population and to show better cooperation with the civilian police component of UNAVEM III. The Joint Commission calendar of the tasks to be accomplished in May by the parties, either jointly or individually, and by UNAVEM III should be promptly and thoroughly implemented. The commitments provided for in that document, freely undertaken by the parties, were indispensable to creating the conditions for the next two fundamental steps in the peace process: the incorporation of UNITA personnel in the joint armed forces, and the formation of the Government of National Unity and Reconciliation.
The slow progress in demining activities was also of great concern. The parties should cooperate fully, in the first place, by destroying their stockpiles of land-mines, by allowing UNAVEM III and the demining companies to operate unhindered, and by transmitting all the information available on the
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location of minefields. The graduates of the demining courses run by the United Nations should promptly be employed in operations in the field. The parties should renew their commitment to guarantee the security of personnel of the United Nations and other international officials working on behalf of the entire country. The European Union welcomed the decision of the Secretary-General to instruct his Special Representative to give priority to human rights issues.
He said the European Union believed that compliance with the commitments undertaken in the Lusaka Protocol would be ensured only by constant international pressure. It fully backed all the diplomatic efforts aimed at preserving the spirit of Lusaka, and was itself directly committed to the objective of a long-lasting peace in Angola.
Action on Draft
SOLIMAN AWAAD (Egypt), speaking before the vote, said that his Government was very concerned over the lack of progress regarding the quartering of UNITA troops, the integration of UNITA forces into the national army, the provision of leadership posts of leaders of the UNITA army into the new national army, the participation of UNITA in sessions of the Angolan Parliament as a political party, and the placement of UNITA officials into posts as Vice-Presidents of the Government.
Egypt had been concerned to read of delays in the demining process in the report of the Secretary-General. His Government agreed with the Secretary-General that both parties should cooperate with international efforts in that respect. The Government of Angola deserved recognition for taking constructive actions such as the quartering of its rapid reaction forces. The Angolan parties should not waste the opportunities for peace afforded by the United Nations' largest peace-keeping mission. There were other problems in Africa, and the United Nations as a whole faced financial crisis. The Angolan parties should provide incentive to the international community to assist them with national reconstruction. Egypt supported a two- month extension for the UNAVEM III in hopes that it would encourage the peace process.
NUGROHO WISNUMURTI (Indonesia) expressed regret at the pace with which the peace process was progressing, despite the efforts of the international community in laying the groundwork for political settlement. He was particularly concerned that the quartering and disarming of UNITA troops had not been completed as scheduled. He said that much needed to be done in Angola, including turning over arms, ammunition and military equipment to UNAVEM III; disarming the civilian population; unconditionally releasing of all prisoners; destroying the land- mines; demobilizing the troops; and integrating UNITA troops into the unified armed forces.
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Any further delay in the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol and the calendar of actions agreed to by the Joint Commission could bring about the collapse of the peace process, thus hindering the formation of the Government of National Unity and Reconciliation, he continued. The revitalization of the Angolan economy and the creation of employment was as important as the resolution of the military aspects of the conflict.
LEGWAILA J. LEGWAILA (Botswana) said the peace process in Angola remained fragile and reversible. It required the commitment of the Government of Angola and UNITA not only to stay the course, but to hurry the pace of implementation. He commended the Government of Angola for the efforts it had made to fulfil its obligations under the Lusaka Protocol, and encouraged it to continue its exemplary work by completing the withdrawal of the armed forces to the barracks, the integration of UNITA soldiers into the Armed Forces of Angola and commence the disarmament of the civilian population.
The grudging pace at which UNITA had been quartering its troops represented the greatest obstacle to the peace process, he said. It was alarming that more than 2,000 UNITA soldiers had deserted the quartering areas. UNITA's dissemination of negative information about conditions in the quartering areas was also unhelpful. He called upon UNITA to emulate the good example of their compatriots, the Government of Angola, to have courage and the necessary political will to move the peace process forward.
He said the prospects for peace in Angola were very much dependent on what could be achieved in the specific tasks outlined in the draft. What was really needed in abundance was political will on the part of the Government of Angola and UNITA at the highest level to remove any and all obstacles in the implementation of what was, in a very real sense, the last hope for peace in Angola -- the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol.
PARK SOO GIL (Republic of Korea) said the overall progress to date in the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol had fallen far short of expectations, although some positive developments had taken place since the extension of UNAVEM III mandate on 8 February. On the crucial front of quartering, progress had been slow and uneven. Although the accelerated quartering of UNITA troops in the past several days was a welcome development, he regretted UNITA's failure to complete the process by today, in compliance with resolution 1045.
He said progress was also long overdue in the negotiations on the integration of UNITA troops into the FAA. Inasmuch as the conclusion of the negotiations was crucial in making the peace process irreversible, it was a testing ground for the political will and commitment of the Angolan parties to the peace process. Progress in that area was essential to the establishment of the Government of National Unity and Reconciliation. It would also provide strong incentives to the quartering process. He called on both sides to rise
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above their narrow parochial interests and work out necessary arrangements for the formation of unified armed forces by next week, as agreed in the Joint Commission's calendar of actions for May.
He said UNAVEM III deserved commendation and encouragement for its excellent job in road rehabilitation and demining.
He said the Angolan peace process stood at a critical juncture and that, in the coming days and weeks, the political will and commitment of the Angolan parties to carry that process forward would be rigorously tested. Given the commitment of the United Nations as symbolized by the level of resources it had devoted to Angola, the Council could not afford to let the process to stall. His Government supported the extension of the UNAVEM III mandate until 11 July 1996 and would, accordingly, vote in favour of the draft resolution.
Sir JOHN WESTON (United Kingdom) said his delegation would vote in favour of the draft. A mandate of only two months for UNAVEM III, which was now the largest United Nations peace-keeping operation, was exceptional and presented obvious administrative difficulties for the United Nations. "But we are taking this unusual step because we believe the peace process has reached a critical stage, and it is necessary to put pressure on both parties to accelerate progress in the peace process." The extension gave both parties the opportunity to demonstrate the political will to implement their often voiced commitments to the peace process.
The United Kingdom looked to both parties to carry out their individual tasks and to stick to the deadlines they had agreed. To achieve those tasks, both parties would have to demonstrate the necessary political will. The United Kingdom attached importance, therefore, to Angolan President Dos Santos and Dr. Savimbi remaining in contact, in addition to the work undertaken in the Joint Commission. His delegation hoped to see real progress on the ground in Angola by the time the Council held an open debate on the situation there in four or five weeks' time.
GERARDO MARTINEZ BLANCO (Honduras) expressed regret that the Angolan parties had not completed many of the tasks that they had agreed to undertake by the present date. The Government of Angola deserved credit for withdrawing forward troops near UNITA quartering areas and for quartering its rapid reaction forces. There had been clear delays in meeting the timetable, particularly as regarded the quartering of UNITA troops and their integration into a joint military command. The UNITA must speed the pace of that effort in accordance with the provisions of Council resolution 1045 (1996).
The parties should conclude military talks this month in line with the timetable established by the Joint Commission, he said. They should speed implementation of the Lusaka Protocol, fulfil resolutions of the Security Council, comply with agreements entered into in Gabon, and form a unified
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government by July. The parties should also disarm civilians and destroy stockpiles of land-mines. They must put an end to hostile propaganda. The UNAVEM III should continue studying the proposed United Nations radio as a confidence-building tool.
The UNAVEM III played an important political role, but it also was crucial to the implementation of humanitarian projects and mine clearance, he continued. Its presence was essential, and Honduras would vote in favour of a two-month extension of the Mission. Recognizing that many tasks remain unfulfilled, Honduras would have preferred a longer extension.
YURIY FEDOTOV (Russian Federation) said that his Government was extremely concerned over the state of the peace process in Angola. The report of the Secretary-General had made clear the slow pace of implementing the Lusaka Protocol, particularly provisions concerning the quartering of UNITA troops. Clearly, UNITA was not quartering its best units, nor was it seriously turning in weapons. There had also been little progress regarding the integration of UNITA forces into a unified national army. The UNITA seemed to be taking a dishonest position that threatened the peace process. Any linkage between quartering and disarmament and other questions was unacceptable.
The parties should complete their negotiations on the entire complex of military questions before them, he said. The culmination of those talks would be the formation of a government of national unity and a unified national army. The decision by the Government to grant a general amnesty, to withdraw troops from areas close to UNITA quartering sites, to quarter rapid reaction forces and to destroy some stockpiled mines had been welcomed. The UNITA should respond with similarly positive steps.
The draft resolution before the Council was concrete and well-targeted, he continued. It presented the parties with practical tasks that must be completed within the next two months and contained a stern warning regarding the inadmissibility of any delays in the process. Adoption of the resolution would help make the peace process irreversible.
ADELINO MANO QUETA (Guinea-Bissau) said that the situation in Angola was still characterized by slow progress in implementing the Lusaka Protocol. The UNITA should proceed immediately to quarter its troops and hand over its weapons to UNAVEM III. It should also unconditionally release all prisoners. His Government appreciated the decision of Angola to quarter its rapid reaction forces and to withdraw some troops from forward positions near the quartering areas of UNITA. Both parties should take public steps to destroy land-mines; they should also desist from hostile propaganda.
The Council then adopted the resolution by a vote of 15 in favour to none against, with no abstentions, as Security Council resolution 1055 (1996).
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KARL F. INDERFURTH (United States) said that his Government had steadfastly condemned all violations of the Lusaka Protocol, insisting that both sides honour their commitments in a comprehensive and transparent fashion. In that spirit, he wished to criticize the delays in quartering of UNITA troops, while recognizing recent progress in that regard. As of 6 May, more than 30,000 UNITA soldiers had officially registered, with the total expected to rise to 35,000 by the end of this week. That would represent more than half of UNITA's declared troop levels. It was essential that UNITA continue that process without delay. Unless real soldiers bearing real weapons were quartered, the peace process would not move forward.
Both parties should work together to finalize military integration, he said, including arrangements for the 18 generals who were to be a part of the joint military command. The deadline for the completion of those processes was now 15 May -- far beyond the date initially forecast for the conclusion of the military talks.
During the next two months, the United States expected to see the two parties take decisive steps regarding land-mines, he continued. The United Nations had estimated that there were between 9 million and 15 million mines in the country and that 8 million Angolans lived in mine-infested areas. Some 70,000 persons were believed to have been killed by mines, with another 70,000 turned into amputees.
JUAN LARRAIN (Chile) said that his Government was very concerned over delays in implementation of the Lusaka Protocol, particularly as regarded the quartering of military personnel. He deplored the death of two peace- keepers -- from Zimbabwe and from Jordan -- as well as of a British humanitarian worker from OXFAM International.
The parties had diminished their credibility by not agreeing to unify their armed forces or to provide for the inclusion of UNITA generals into the national army, he said. Leaders of the parties had not demonstrated sufficient political will regarding the peace process. A concrete demonstration of change would be the establishment of a United Nation radio programme in Angola, as called for by the Council.
HERVÉ LADSOUS (FRANCE) said his delegation had voted in favour of the resolution. There had been some satisfactory developments in Angola. The cease-fire had been holding; the leaders of the parties had met in Gabon.
The situation was moving in the right direction, although not speedily enough, he said. The peace process seemed stalled in certain basic areas. The Angolan parties should show a desire to implement demining fully. His delegation understood the distrust of the parties after 20 years of war. UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi should fulfil his obligations regarding quartering of UNITA troops. France welcomed the recent quartering of UNITA forces which
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should be speeded up. For its part, the Government should restore confidence in demilitarization and security in the country.
He hoped Angola now was close to its goal of peace, he said. His delegation was pleased about the amnesty offered by the Government. France had taken note of the new timetable drawn up by the Joint Commission and hoped the tasks assigned to the parties would be implemented.
He hoped also that by 11 July the Council would not have to revisit the problems raised in the resolution, and that institutions would have been put in place to move the country towards democracy and development.
GERHARD HENZE (Germany) said that by extending the mandate of UNAVEM III by two months, the international community had underlined its readiness to promote the peace process. But both parties in Angola had to be reminded that their lack of progress had given rise to serious doubts as to their will for peace. All means should be deployed to make clear to the parties the consequences of further stagnation in the peace process. There would be no United Nations peace-keeping operation in Angola after February 1997.
Germany recognized the efforts made by the Angolan Government to fulfil its obligations arising from the Lusaka Protocol. It particularly welcomed the withdrawal of government forces from advanced positions and the quartering of its rapid reaction police. The UNITA should renew efforts to meet its obligations as well. Germany deplored the fact that the quartering of UNITA's troops had come to a virtual standstill. That could threaten the entire peace process. The UNITA must increase the quartering of fighting units -- not just under-aged youths.
While welcoming the dialogue between President dos Santos and the Chairman of UNITA, Dr. Savimbi, he said he thought a government of national unity and reconciliation should be formed as scheduled, that ongoing military talks should be completed, and that UNITA personnel should be integrated into the administrative structures in the spirit of power-sharing. Germany deplored that the efforts of UNAVEM to free the country from land-mines were still meeting resistance.
ZBIGNIEW MATUSZEWSKI (Poland) said his delegation was encouraged by the parties' willingness to maintain political dialogue, including contacts at the highest level, although those had to become more frequent.
Poland was anxious about the degree of UNITA compliance with the obligation to quarter its troops and to disarm them by the end of June. The large number of desertions from the quartering camps, as well as the quantity and quality of equipment handed over to UNAVEM, raised serIous doubts as to the actual intentions of that party to fulfil its commitments. Another disquieting factor was the lack of final agreement between the parties on the
Security Council - 15 - Press Release SC/6218 3662nd Meeting (PM) 8 May 1996
formation of the Angolan Armed Forces. The same seemed to be true of the formation of the Government of National Unity and Reconciliation which should be completed by July.
Poland welcomed the progress already made in demining, and called for its acceleration, he said. Any restrictions imposed by UNITA to hinder that process were totally unacceptable.
His delegation had voted for the resolution, he continued. The UNAVEM III was still an indispensable element for securing favourable conditions for the peaceful development in Angola, and the parties should take full advantage of it.
Council President QIN HUASUN (China), speaking in his capacity as the Permanent Representative of his country, said that to achieve national reconciliation and peace in Angola represented not only the strong desire of the Angolan people, but also the common aspiration of the international community. China was pleased to note that there had been some improvement in Angola's political atmosphere since the meeting between Angolan President Jose Eduardo dos Santos and UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi in early March in Libreville, Gabon. It encouraged any move that would help create a favourable atmosphere for Angola's peace process. A final settlement of the Angolan question would, in the final analysis, rely on the political decision to be made by the parties in Angola out of the fundamental interests of the Angolan people.
China was deeply worried about the repeated delay in the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol, he said. He urged UNITA to fulfil its commitment as soon as possible by quartering its forces within the fixed timetable. The Chinese delegation called on the parties concerned in Angola to earnestly ensure the safety of UNAVEM III personnel and hoped that the parties would closely cooperate and work together with it to bring peace to Angola. China favoured continued vigorous support for the Angolan peace process by the international community and had consequently supported the resolution.
He said the Chinese Government and people had always been concerned about the destiny of the African people and supported the cause of peace of the African countries. It was a cornerstone of China's foreign policy to attach importance to developing friendly relations and cooperation with African countries. Chinese President Jiang Zemin was starting a visit to six African countries today, showing again that the traditional friendship between China and the African continent was being further consolidated and strengthened.
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