Contains fixed-length data elements.
See MARC21 for descriptions of all 008 character positions. See CODES for UNBIS code values that may be used in 008 character positions.
Positions 00-17 and 35-39 are defined the same way for all formats;
Positions 18-34 are defined differently for different formats.

Fixed fields entered in 008 include the following:

Positions 00-06
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Position 00-05:
Date of record creation.
Computer generated in the pattern «yymmdd».



Position 06:
Publication status.
One-letter code indicating the type of date.
The following examples of code values entered in position 06 also show the type of corresponding information entered in positions 07-10 and 11-14 (publication dates):

e = Detailed date.
Indicates that there is a specific publication date (month, or month and day) in addition to the year. The year of publication is entered in 008/07-10 and the specific date is entered in 008/11-14, coded «MMDD». If month only, leave 2 blanks after «MM».


269 $a 20020905
008/06 e
008/07-10 2002
008/11-14 0905

269 $a 200209
008/06 e
008/07-10 2002
008/11-14 09

m = Multiple date. Indicates that the 008/07-10 and 008/11-14 contain the range of years of publication of a multi-part item. Field 008/07-10 usually contains the beginning date and 008/11-14 contains the ending date. If both dates for a multi-part item are represented by a single year, then code s is used. Code m is also used for a single-part unpublished item that has been executed over a period of time.

n= Unknown date. Indicates that the dates appropriate for 008/07-10 and 008/11-14 are unknown, or when no dates are given in 260 $c (unlikely case, since normally at least a probable date or questionable date can be supplied for UN materials).

q = Questionable date. Indicates that the exact date for a single-date item is not known but a range of years for the date can be specified (e.g. between 1999 and 2001). The earliest possible date is given in 008/07-10 and the latest possible date in 008/11-14.


260 $a New York : $b UNFPA, $c [between 1999 and 2001]
008/06 q
008/07-10 1999
008/11-14 2001

r = Reprint/reissue date. Indicates that 008/07-10 contains the date of reproduction or reissue and 008/11-14 contain the date of the original, if known. If multiple dates are available for the original publication, 008/11-14 contains the earlier date. If the earlier date of publication is unknown, and only the reprint date is known, enter «uuuu» in 008/11-14. If the date of the reprint is unknown, and only the earlier publication date is known, enter «uuuu» in 008/07-10.


260 $c 1999, reprinted 2001
269 $a 2001
008/06 r
008/07-10 2001
008/11-14 1999

500 $a Reprinted from: Información comercial espańola : revista de economía, no. 701, enero 1992.
269 $a 1994
008/06 r
008/07-10 1994
008/11-14 1992

500 $a Reprint. Originally published: London : Echelon, 1997.
269 $a 1999
008/06 r
008/07-10 1999
008/11-14 1997

500 $a Previously published in 1985.
008/06 r
008/07-10 uuuu
008/11-14 1985
[Date of reprint unknown; only the earlier publication date is known]

s = One single known date of publication or a probable date that can be represented by four digits (the single date associated with the item may be actual, approximate, or conjectural, for example, if the single date is uncertain or qualified (e.g. 260 $c [1969?]). If digits of the publication date are unknown, replace by letter « (e.g. 260 $c [199-], 008/06 = 199u) .
The date of manufacture (printing) may be used in place of an unknown date of publication.
Note that in case of a publication date in 260 $c and a different date of manufacture (printing) in 260 $g, 008/06 code s is used and only the publication date is recorded in 008/07-10.


260 $a Geneva : $b UNITAR, $c 1999 $g (2001 printing)
008/06 s
008/07-10 1999
008/11-14 [blank]

t = Actual date and copyright date. Indicates that the date of publication is present in 008/07-10 and a copyright date is present in 008/11-14 .


260 $a New York : $b UNU/WIDER, $c 1999, c1994
008/06 t
008/07-10 1999
008/11-14 1994

260 $a Geneva : $b WMO, $c 2001 printing, c1987
008/06 t
008/07-10 2001
008/11-14 1987
[In this example, the date of printing is used in place of publication date]

Positions 07-14 Back to the top

Position 07-10:
Beginning date of publication, 4 characters. Unknown portions of the date may be replaced by letter «u», e.g. «uuuu» or «199u».
Date in 008/07-10 should correspond to the publication date entered in 260 $c (or reprint date, in case of a reprint).

Position 11-14:
Ending date of publication in case of a serial publication or in case of a multi-volume work; or original date of publication in case of a reprint; or the copyright date in case of both a copyright date and a publication date; or the specific date («MMDD») when Position 06 = e (detailed date). Unknown portions of the date may be replaced by letter «u» e.g. «uuuu» or «199u».
Position 11-14 is blank if there is a single date of publication.

Positions 15-19 Back to the top

Position 15-17:
Place of publication.
In 3-letter ISO code for the country. Should correspond to the country code entered in field
049. If published in more than one country, enter the code for the first-named place.

Position 18:
For records with Leader position 07 = s (periodical series), a one-letter code is entered in 008/18 to indicate the frequency for the series.

Position 19:
For records with Leader position 07 = s (periodical series), a one-letter code is entered in 008/19 to indicate the regularity of issuance of the series.

Positions 23-39 Back to the top

Position 23:
Form of the item.
Printed documents and publications have the value r.

Position 24:
Nature of contents.
One-letter code indicating whether a significant part of the item is or contains certain types of material.

Position 35-37:
Three-letter code indicating the language of the item.
If one of the languages of issuance is English, and if the language code «eng» appears in field 041, enter «eng» in position 35-37. Otherwise, enter the language code of the version which is being indexed.

If the language of the imprint recorded in field 260 differs from the main language of the item, or if one of the languages of the multilingual item is English but the imprint appears in another language, there will be a discrepancy between the language code recorded in 008/35-37 and the language of the imprint. In that case, add local note 596 indicating the language of the imprint.


008/35-37 eng
260 $a Genčve : $b Nations Unies, $c 2005
596 $a Imprint in French.

Position 39:
One-letter code indicating the cataloguing source.
The default value is d.

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Last updated: 22 July 2010